Coal Diver Everything you wanted to know about coal, but were afraid to ask.

This is a text-only version of the document "Eastern Powder River Basin - Final Environmental Impact Statement - Vol 2 of 5 - 1973". To see the original version of the document click here.
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CONTENTS This is Volume analysis. II. It contains Chapters V through XI of Part I, the regioIJ-,g.l

SUHl'fARYTABLE OF CONTENTS This environmental Part statement is presented in six parts as follows:

I:

Regional Analysis - A consideration of the Eastern Powder River Coal Basin, its environment, and projected development through 1990. Chapters I - IV. Introduction, Potential Development, Development and Distribution Models, and Description of the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapters V - XI. Probable Impacts, Mitigating lleasures, Unavoidable Adverse Effects, Alternatives, Relationships Between Short and Long Term Uses, Irreversible Commitments and Coordination . . . . . .

Vol.

I

. ,

Vol.

II

Part

II:

Proposed railroad construction by Burlington Northern Inc. and the Chicago and North Western Transportation Company . . .. . Proposed Company Proposed Company

Vol.

III

Part III:

.. .

mining

and reclamation

by Atlantic

..

.

Richfield

.

Vol.

III

Part

IV:

mining

and reclamation

.

.

by Carter

.

Oil Vol. Coal Vol. Resource Vol. Vol. IV V IV IV

Part

V:

Proposed mining Corporation

.

and reclamation

.

,

.

by Kerr-HcGee

..

. .

I

Part

VI:

Proposed mining and reclamation Development Corp. Appendices.

by Wyodak

Comments received at public hearings and by mail, and responses . . . . . . . . . . . • . . .

Vol.

VI

A detailed

table of contents

of this volume

begins

on the following

page.

T-3

VOLUME II REGIONAL ANALYSIS Chapter
V.

PROBABLE C1~ruLATIVE REGIONAL IMPACTS. Climate . . Air Quality Topography Soils . . . Mineral Resources Water Resources . Vegetation. . • . . . . • . Archeological and Paleontological Values. Historical Values . Aesthetics. . . . Wildlife and Fish Recreation. . . . Agriculture . . . Transportation Networks Land Tenure . . . . . . Socia-Economic Conditions SIGNIFICANT MITIGATING MEASURES Air Quality . . . . . . . Water Quality and Supply ... Resource Disturbance Archeological Preservation. Historical Values . . . . Recreation . . . . . . . Land Use Planning, Zoning and Controls Railroad Construction . . PROBABLE ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS WHICH Climate .. Air Quality Topography Soils ... Mineral Resources Water Resources . . Vegetation Archeological and Paleontogical Values. Historical Values Aesthetics Wildlife and Fish Recreation Agriculture . . • Transportation Networks Socia-Economic Conditions CANNOT BE AVOIDED

1-459 1-460b 1-461 1-469 1-475 1-479 1-485 1-504 1-508 1-511 1-514 1-518 1-537 1-542 1-549 1-553 1-554 1-612 1-613 1-617 1-619 1-637 1-640 1-641 1-642 1-645 1-647 1-647 1-647a 1-650 1-651 1-652 1-653 1-655 1-656 1-657 1-658 1-659 1-661 1-662 1-663 1-664

VI.

VII.

T-4

Chapter VIII. ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION No New Development Restrict Development . . . . Complete Exportation . . . . Alternate Extraction Methods Alternate Reclamation Objectives Alternate Mode of Distributions . Alternate to Private Development Alternate Utilization Methods . . . Alternate Sources of Energy . . . Production from the Outer Continental Shelf Onshore Production Oil Imports . . . . . Natural Gas Imports Coal (Nationwide) Nuclear Power . . . Geothermal Energy . . Hydroelectric Power . Tar Sands . . . . . Energy Conservation . Other Energy Sources Combinations of Alternatives IX. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOCAL SHORT-TERM USES OF MAN'S ENVIRONMENT AND THE MAINTENANCE AND ENHANCEMENT OF LONG-TERM PRODUCTIVITY Agriculture Soil Wildlife Recreation Socio-Economic Conditions IRREVERSIBLE AND IRRETRIEVABLE COMMITMENTS OF RESOURCES Water Resources . . Cultural Resources Aesthetics Lost Production . Loss of Power and Materials Used for Development Loss of Life CONSULTATION AND COORDINATION

1-669 1-669 1-672 1-678 1-679 1-687 1-695 1-702 1-703 1-707 1-708 1-743 1-781 1-793 1-799 1-806 1-817 1-822 1-826 1-829 1-843 1-854

1-859 1-861 1-862 1-863 1-864 1-865 1-867 1-868 1-869 1-870 1-871 1-872 1-873 1-875

X.

XI.

T-5

CHAPTER V PROBABLE CUMULATIVE REGIONAL IMPACTS
The analysis developed in this environmental environmental impact statement is

based on 1990 projections.

The cumulative

impact is quantified, The

to the extent possible with existing probability the pattern at modest is recognized of resource

data, only to this time period.

that, based on current leaseholds and growth will continue

and investments, after 1990, though

development

rates.

Cumulative

environmental

impacts will also increase but will and criteria for

be of variable analysis. decreasing

quantity

as indicated

in the assumptions and predictions

While further projections levels of confidence,

are possible

with ever

the time frame and geographic

area parameters

(Chapter I) were established

at the outset of the analysis.

If differences

occur over time, the impacts analyzed through use of the assumption provide

in this section can be scaled up or down guidelines situation. impact on certain environmental Those most likely to be vegetation, wildlife (Chapter II). This will

and analysis

a better picture of the developing If the magnitude

is scaled upwards,

components affected

would probably

be more than on others. soils, water resources,

are:

air quality,

and fish and agriculture. In the impact chapters it must be strongly whether singular emphasized of the regional and site specific analyses,

that the full impact on the environment, is quantified or qualified to the fullest that would to the that

or cumulative, without

extent assessib1e mitigate, proposed

imposing

any management

constraints

minimize, action(s).

negate or divert these effects as they pertain Such an evaluation is made with the recognition

certain results will not occur since they are precluded management responsibility. The full report,

by agency resource contains

in other chapters,

1-459

the required are approved

and probable

mitigating

measures

to be applied if the proposals

along with impacts which cannot be feasibly avoided. development to the year 1990 within 296 million the study area will tons of coal by

Projected consist of:

ten mines with plans to produce to 12 mines, 858 million

1980, increasing 1,543 million air-cooled

tons by 1985 and 14 mines and and operation of a 330-megawatt

tons by 1990; construction

power plant, and a 250-million air-cooled

cubic feet per day gasification and a 500-megawatt water-cooled

plant by 1980, a 450-megawatt

power plant as well as a second 250 cubic feet per day gasification plant by 1985 and another construction 500-megawatt water-cooled power plant by 1990; 30 miles of coal

of 16 miles of road, 44 miles of powerline,

slurry pipeline, of powerline, of powerline various

140 miles of rail line by 1980, 20 miles of road, 164 miles

145 miles of rail line by 1985, and 24 miles of road, 225 miles and 150 miles of rail line by 1990, all of which will cause on the environment construction and its individual and permanent, of: components. from these develop-

impacts

Employment,

resulting

ments will cause population

increases

27,000 by 1980, 42,000 by 1985 and in population will require

47,000 by 1990 in the study area. associated increased facilities

These increases sanitary

such as schools,

land fills, sewage plants, environmental impacts. Popu-

social services,

all having additional six-county

lation in the surrounding ately:

area is projected

to increase

only moder(

10,000 by 1980, 11,000 by 1985, and 13,000 by 1990.
It is acknowledged

that not all environmental

impacts associated

with this development exported Indiana,

are confined

to the State of Wyoming •. If coa L-d.s Colorado, Illinois,

from the study area to such places as Arkansas, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Nebraska, Oklahoma

and Texas, impacts

1-460

from energy impacts

conversion

will occur

in those areas.

The exact nature

of these

is not reasonably

foreseeable

due to the inability

to fully antici-

pate how and under what conditions It should be noted in electric impacts that the impacts outside

the coal and energy will be utilized. resulting from consumption of coal to the the in

power plants

of the study area may be similar power generation to the degree

of consumption

of coal for electric with respect

within

study area, varying relation impact

essentially

of impact

to environmental

conditions

existing developed

in those areas.

Environmental

of the use of coal and energy at the time other major

in the study area will be are required or as necessary

analyzed

federal

actions

in these states to meet

their environmental

quality

act requirements.

1-460a

Climate Development plants, and disturbance significant changes of a number of coal mines, power plants and gasification of significantly large areas of land surface may cause affect weather and climate. areas do affect climates; and

that could detrimentally

Recent precipitation. therefore, knowledge

studies indicate However

that large urban-industrial

studies have not been conducted

in semi-arid

potential concerning

effects are inferred precipitation

from theoretical

relationships

mechanisms

and studies of climate modifica-

tion in other areas. Two potential may lead to significant climate. in natural major consequences inadvertent of large scale energy development of the regional weather and

modification

These are increases

in atmospheric

particulate

loading and changes mechanism. loading

land surface characteristics Some evidence indicates

which affect the precipitation

that changes of atmospheric

particulate

and alteration

of the earth-atmospheric

energy balance may contribute

to creation

of drought conditions 1972; Mitchell

in semi-arid climates 1973).

(Charlson and Pilat 1969; Bryson Reduction in precipitation could and

1971; Huff, Changnon on agricultural the region.

have severe affects

productivity,

mined land reclamation

water supplies within

1-460b

Air Quality Complex source air pollution Development disturbances pollutants. of numerous coal mines, power plants, residential areas and air

of large areas of land will create multiple Since air pollutants originate

sources of various effective

from many sources,

control

would be more difficult Development particulate hydrogen oxidants,

than if a single pollution

source were involved. dust and other suspended such as

actions as outlined

could generate

matter from physical

activities

and chemical pollutants

sulfide,

sulfur oxides, nitrogen trace elements

oXides, carbon monoxide,

photochemical operations.

hydrocarbons,

and radionuclides

from processing

These pollutants conditions

from complex sources may have an adverse impact on existing air to the study area. Impacts could increase rapidly

in and adjacent

during the period of 1974 to 1980 (seven new mines, a new 330-MW power plant, a gasification pipelines, plant, 27,000 increased powerlines, population, 230 miles of new rail line, roads, and 1980~1985 (two new mines, 129 more and

with 8,900 acres disturbed)

two new power plants, one new gasification miles of roads, rail line, powerlines possibly

plant, 15,000 more people,

and 10,900 more acres disturbed)

level off during the 1985 to 1990 time period

(two more mines, one more

power plant and 5,000 more people,

and 9,200 more acres disturbed).

Plant stack emissions Potentially, possible the most serious cumulative impact on air quality, with is from stack gases plants.

adverse impact on humans,

animals and vegetation,

emitted by four new coal-fired Emissions hydrogen

power plants and two coal gasification oxides, carbon monoxide, and particulates.

include sulfur oxides, nitrogen sulfide, photochemical Projected development oxidants

hydrocarbons,

during the period of 1974 to 1980 shows con(MW) power plant at Wyodak and retirement of

struction

of a new 330-megawatt

1-461

units

1, 3 and 4 of the Neil Simpson Unit

Station.

Assuming

the new plant

and Neil

Simpson annual

5 (20-MW) meet New Source at Wyodak could be:

Performance 1,600

Standards

(NSPS), projected (P), 15,700 (NO )' x

emissions

tons of particulates oxides

tons of sulfur

dioxide

(S02)' and 12,400

tons of nitrogen

During plant to produce

this same time period about 250-million power plant)

construction

of a coal gasification This plant 23,800 tons of

cubic

feet per day is expected. to produce 39,500 yearly,

(with 325-MW sulfur

companion 11,400

is expected oXides,

dioxide,

tons of nitrogen

tons of hydrocarbons with NSPS and Wyoming

(He),
Air

and 2,100 Quality

tons of particulates. Standards.)

(Assuming

compliance

Emission

By 1985 projected and a 450-MW of 4,400 nitrogen power plant

development which

will

include

a new 500-MW

power

plant, emission

at Wyodak

could produce

an estimated

yearly

tons of particulates, oxides. Also a second

40,400

tons of sulfur

dioxide,

and 30,600

tons of

coal gasification

plant

is projected

by this time.

This plant will

have a type and amount

of emissions

similar

to the plant projected and Wyoming Air

for the 1974 to 1980 time period. Quality Emission Another 1990. 21,400 This plant Standards.) 500-MW coal-fired

(Assuming

compliance

with NSPS

power

plant

is expected

to be in operation

by

is expected

to have emissions and 16,100

of 2,300 tons of particulates, oxides. (Assuming

tons of sulfur dioxide, with

tons of nitrogen Emission

compliance

NSPS and Wyoming

Air Quality cumulative

Standards.) during the period 1980 to

Some projected 1990 are shown plants in Table

potential 1.

emissions

Quantities

are based

on the assumption

of new power gasifi-

(other than at Wyodak) and emissions

of 500-~fW size, meeting maximums

250 million permitted

cubic feet/day

cation plants, Performance Standards.

under New Source Air Quality Emission

Standards

for Steam Generators,

and Wyoming

1-462

Based on expected power plants

siting

of new plants, plant)

the areas near Gillette (one gasification

(two

and one gasification affected

and Douglas

plant)

could be adversely northwest

by cumulative

stack emissions.

With a prevailing by

wind direction

(upper level),

other

towns that could be impacted Guernsey, Torrington,

such emissions Wheatland, However, where

include }loorcroft, Lusk, Newcastle, Wyoming; likely Custer,

and Sundance,

South Dakota;

and Scottsbluff,

Nebraska. sites,

most

impacts would

occur within

10 to 20 miles

of the plant

pollutant

concentrations

are usually

highest,

and this would make Gillette

and Douglas

most vulnerable.

Vehicle

and equipment

emissions of the study area and attendant 47,000 by 1990) will Engine emissions population increase

Industrialization

(27,000 by 1980, 42,000 by 1985, combustion engines of all types. hydrocarbons, These

increase result oxides

use of internal in the addition and sulfur oxides

will

of carbon monoxide, to the basin residents, air.

particulates,

nitrogen

emissions

are potentially

harmful

to the health and equipment

of basin emissions

vegetation

and animal

life.

}luch of the vehicle Table 2 gives

will be contributed cumulative

by railroad emissions

locomotives.

some estimated

locomotive

for 1980, 1985, and 1990.

Dust and similar

particulate

matter dust and similar from described particulate matter (coal dust, The

Increases fly ash dust, increased

in airborne

etc.) will result

development will

activities.

possibility

of coal fires and wildfires

increase

the possibility Pollutants

of additional resulting

toxic pollutants

in the air, especially

from coal fires.

from coal fires will be similar Airborne particulate matter

to those from a coal-fired

power plant. cause

could reduce visibility and periods

and possibly

traffic

accidents

during periods

of inversions

of high winds.

1-463

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1-465

High winds are frequent but inversions 15 times per year. Particulate matter

over two-day periods may occur as many as could also contribute with potentially to human allergies harmful chemicals. the

and similar irritations

and coat vegetation

Based on the prevailing impact from the increased and towns of Gillette, and Wheatland, Summary Identification possible Wyoming; airborne

upper level wind direction particulate Douglas,

(northwest),

matter could affect the comrrlunities Guernsey, Torrington

Moorcroft,

Lusk, Newcastle,

and Scottsbluff,

Nebraska.

and quantification

of impacts with precision and a quantitative

is not performed.

until each system has been designed

analysis

Prior to construction ducted. However,

of each of the facilities,

such an analysis will be concertain

based on assumed rate and type of development for the study area.

qualitative

impacts can be predicted Industrialization

and development

of the study area will result in

a decline

in ambient air quality.

A general decline will occur from 1974 to The rate of

1980, with a more serious decline during the 1980 to 1985 period. decline is expected development

to level off after 1985, since by this time the major will have leveled off with only minor increases proposed

projected

for the 1985 to 1990 time period. constant

The decline of air quality will remain fairly (1985-1990). soil and coal dust in areas to the

for the rest of the time period Increased

plant stack plumes and haze from disturbed within the basin and possibly

will result in poorer visibility east and southeast Emissions a long time period. reported vegetation of the basin.

could cause localized Damage to ponderosa

damage to vegetation pine after exposure

and animals over to S02 has been Similar and

(HEW, Air Quality Criteria

for Sulfur Oxides, January 1969).

is found in the Black Hills National Forest around Newcastle

1-466

Sundance,

Hyoming and Custer,

South Dakota;

the northeast

portion of the Thunder

Basin Grassland Ponderosa experience plants

in the vicinity

of Upton and Osage, and in the Rochelle Hills area. The Upton and Osage areas already originating from betonite

pine is prevalent a reduction

in these areas.

in air quality due to emissions Addition of emission

in the vicinity.

from the study area may compound on vegetation and animals are to determine

the impact in that vicinity. not well understood possible

Effects

of emissions

at this time, and research

efforts are underway

adverse effects. Trace elements, including radionuclides, contained in coal burned by Such and

power plants in the study area may be released with stack emissions. emissions could have a detrimental little scientific effect upon soil, vegetation,

animals,

man although environment.

information

exists as to their effects on the

An increase precipitation Bormann

in atmospheric

sulfur is believed

to have resulted

in acid

in the northeastern Emission

United

States as reported by Likens and (S02) by power plants and gasifiin the

(1974).

of sulfur dioxide

cation plants proposed

for the study area could cause a similar problem including

study area and have an adverse effect on the environment, fish, and metal structures is not considered likely. oxidants (as reported

plants, this

by Likens and Bormann).

However,

Photochemical emissions

(smog) may be formed when nitrogen

oxide from power

from power plants combine with certain hydrocarbon plants and sunlight. plant emissions. could have injurious This pollutant

emissions

gasification

may form from proposed

and gasification

Emissions

and toxic effects on humans working plants in case of accidents the basin there

or or

living in the vicinity

of power and gasification inversions. occurring

during periods of severe or repeated is a probability

Throughout

of a two-day inversion

15 times per year, and a

1-467

five-day inversion persistent winter

occurring inversions

four times a year. -- Hearings statement

(Observations 6-26-74.)

by Marwitz

indicate

Impacts on health

could result from long or repeated during inversion Present episodes.

exposures

to any severe air contamination

ambient air quality

in the study area is good, but it will sources as industrialization

decline with the development takes place.

of complex pollution

1-468

Topography The removal of coal during mining operations of the land surface to varying will decrease altitude

degrees and thereby locally create sharper reNew landforms will emerge from coal of spoil materials and to

lief or flatten the slope of the land. removal owing to placement

and type of reclamation

erosion and redeposition

of spoils.

Surface mining will increase

soil move-

ment, change drainage patterns features.

and size, shape, and position

of topographic

Spoil ridges from mine cuts will be subject locally within pits. and require

to erosion, and erosion

may increase

Both water and wind are active agents of some form of control in the vicinity of

erosion and deposition mining operations.

Mining of coal, 296 million 1.5 billion

tons by 1980, 858 million

tons by 1985 and shape of the an

tons by 1990, will significantly this coal.

impact the topographic

area mined to recover estimated

By 1990 surface mining will have impacted

14,000 acres.

Each year the slow pace of mining

thick coal, even at of the

a high annual rate of 118 million area that will be disturbed. coalbeds

tons, alters only a small fraction large mining operations

For example,

which remove

about 60 feet thick to produce

17 1/2 million

tons of coal annually

would disturb dependent

only about 165 acres per year.

At any period about 445 acres, necessitates and excluding operation.

upon the amount of overburden would be disturbed

prestripping

roads and facilities, Such a situation mined,

by each mining-reclamation

could comprise

100 acres being prestripped, and reseeded.

165 acres being production

and 165 acres being smoothed

With an estimated

of 118 million annually period,

tons of coal per year, an average of seven operating mines could

disturb as much as 3,000 acres in a single year, but over a IS-year probably not more than an average of 1,200 acres. The surface would also be altered, but to a lesser degree, by

construction

of 24 miles of new roads and 150 miles of new rail lines by

1-469

1990.

Disturbances

from this type of activity will involve about 3,600 Some alteration of land surface will also result from conMining and

acres by that year.

struction of gasification removal of clinker, activities

plants, power plants, and reservoirs.

sand, and gravel to meet construction

needs of these Acreage impacted

will also cause minor changes to the land surface. is indeterminate at this time.

by this construction

The removal of coalbeds, ranging

in thickness from 20 feet to 120 feet,

will result in an overall lowering of the land surface on which this removal takes place. The average overburden thickness which covers the coal ranges the overburden is broken up and

from a few feet to 200 feet. turned over which increases however,

During mining,

its volume by 20 percent.

This increase in volume,

is not enough to compensate

for the removal of thick coalbeds. in altitude which could result from averages 149 feet and the The 100 feet of

Figure 1 gives an example of the decrease coal removal.

In Part A of Figure 1 the overburden

coal seam averages coal is removed. average altitude

100 feet for a total thickness of 249 feet. The overburden is increased

20 percent in volume or from an decrease in (100 feet)

thickness of 149 feet to 179 feet.

The corresponding between

of the land surface is the difference (30 feet) or 70 feet. tolerances

coal thickness

and the increased volume spoils because of mining

Some coal remains with the of coal); thus,

(90 to 95 percent recovery produces a maximum

this example of 100 percent coal recovery A reduction coal is mined.

depression.

in altitude of the land surface can occur wherever changes in the coal mining area from

Some average altitude

north to south in the study area are about 54 feet at the North Rawhide mine (see Part IV), about 68 feet at the Wyodak mine (see Part VI), about

36 feet at the Black Thunder mine

(see Part III), about 38 feet at the

1-470

A
200-foot ...---overburden line

A
E Ievati on above sea level 149 feet 100 feet coo I - average

Overburden

_ average

wyodak-Anderson

1_4--Clinker zane _--, Present land surface

4100 4000 3900

Average Final

drop in - 65 feet

---------_- ----------- I--t
elevation
..•...

mining

ct. u

•... --..•...

_---

\

..•.

---_/

//

/

//

"''/

'

'

2
Coal

B
200-faot overburden line

B'
Elevation abo ve sea level 117 feet
avera e

o verbu

rden - avera ge
erson coo

50 feet

o a ~ n

Clinker

--i-zone

4500 4400 4300 4200

Average Final mining cut elevation

drop in - 21 feet

Present

land surface

-1---------------' 2
o

o

1000

2000
[

3000
I

4000
I

5000
I

Feet

Horizontal

scale 5X

Verti cal exaggeration l-Conditions 2-Conditions cut-by-cut smoothly slopes. before mining

after mining; overburden is replaced on a basis (assuming 200-foot wide cuts) and graded; remaining walls are graded to 3:1

Figure 1 Diagrammatic Sections Showing Potential Changes in Topography Resulting From Surface Mining

1-471

Jacobs Ranch mine mine.

(see Part V), and about 28 feet at the proposed Rochelle operation illustrated in Figure 2 shows

A typical mining-reclamation

the surface before mining,

the placement

of spoils, and the change in altitude

of the land surface after mining coal in the southern part of the coal mining district. The reduction Here a similar undulating surface may remain after mining.

of the highwall

covers the coal but leaves a small lake in a

residual depression. In some areas where the coalbed is very thick, such as the Wyodak bed around Gillette, not be available and the overburden is thin, sufficient overburden may

to fill the final mining pit.

This partially

filled final depressions

pit will result in the formation throughout the thick coal area.

of lakes or partly waterfilled

East of Gillette, Donkey Creek may be caused by coal mining

partly ponded or trapped in this broad depression as indicated by pre- and post-mining altitudes

along the creek (see Part VI). appearance of the area may the result

Besides a general lowering be changed. Assuming no reshaping

of topography,

of spoil but only smoothing,

will be a broad lowering of the land surface that ends in a long narrow trough at one end of the mine. This is the final pit and highwall. cliff-life Terrain

remains rolling but subdued because scape cannot be recreated. ing undisturbed

or abrupt breaks in the land-

The final landform may be similar to the surroundsmoothed and ravines

area unless the spoils are drastically from ridges

filled by material

(see North Rawhide mine, Part IV) channels and considered terrain This

Mining causes changes in drainage patterns by altering surface slope or gradient. Truck and shovel operation, produces a smoother, presently

by most of the mining companies, that is locally more favorable

lower-gradient erosion.

to revegetation

and decreased

type of mining operation affects a smaller area per year, results

in closer

1-472

Gi
LL

"
o o
Ll)

o ...•.

o

o o (Y)

o o

'"

o o

o

I II I s s I
<0 U

I I

I

I

II.-:-.d

1-473

control of the final surface altitude mining. existing storms. The smooth terrain decreases channels, Although and minimizes

and allows optimum recontouring channeling and headward

after

erosion of from thunder-

the effect of sheetwash decreases

resulting

truck and shovel operation unprotected

the size of the miningan

reclamation available

operation,

broken sandstone

in spoil piles produces

source of fine sand particles.

At wind velocities

above 20 miles per

hour, saltation becomes an effective

means of transport

and removal of the sand. road material, bare

Wind can easily erode loose dust from broken playa material, spoil piles, and soil stockpiles protected by water or grass. if these temporarily material exposed

surfaces are not

Windblown

could form small local dunes,

such as the high level sand dunes near Glenrock, which would add a new dimension and shape to the landscape. Construction the rights-of-way. if a maximum of roads and rail lines will alter topography along

This change in surface is especially is maintained.

true of rail lines

grade of one percent

This causes deep cuts in

the landscape, right-of-way.

ranging from 40 to 102 feet deep on the proposed mainline Roads will require cuts, but they will be of less magnitude

than caused by the railroad.

1-474

Soils Development a significant major impact of coal resources on soils within and attendant facilities will cause

the area disturbed operations

by mining. to remove

The

impact will

result

from actual mining

296 million tons by 1990.

tons of coal by 1980, 858 million This will 14,000 result in disturbance

tons by 1985 and 1,543 million of the topsoil

and mixing

on approximately microover a

acres by 1990.

Disturbance

will alter which

soil characteristics, have been established

organisms

and soil climate time span. period. rate.

relationships The current Impact

long geologic

level of soil productivity increases

will be lost to the acceler-

for an indefinite increased mining

on topsoil

in proportion period

The topsoil

disturbance

per five-year to 5,000

ates from 2,700 acres

in the 1974 to 1980 period Some properties

from 1980 to 1985 will be destroyed 0.3 percent by of

and 6,300 from 1985 to 1990. mining on 14,000

of topsoil

acres by 1990.

Thiu represents Further mining

approximately extend

the surface that level.

in the study area.

would

the impact beyond

Mining coalbeds. horizons,

involves

removal

of large volumes will result

of overburden

to reach of soil in bringgrowth.

Removal

of overburden

in complete

alteration

parent material

and soil characteristics. such as boron, which

It could result may be toxic

ing to the surface At completion from what

elements,

to plant

of mining

operations,

soil structure

will be completely Table

different some for

it was prior

to start of mining will be disturbed

operations.

3 presents

idea of the volume coal.

which

over the 14,000

acres mined

1-475

Table 3 Cumulative Year 1980 1985 1990 Volume of Overburden Disturbed Cubic Yards

Million

266.4 772.2 1388.7

In addition mining,

to the area of soil which will be disturbed will also result from construction lines, mine facilities, pipelines

by actual

soil disturbance

of railroads, gasifica-

access roads, transmission tion plants,

power plants,

coal slurry pipeline,

and new housing

facilities. soil

Much of this disturbance surface.

will result in permanent and permanently

loss of productive

Soil surface disturbed

removed by these activities

is shown in Table 4.

The impact of permanent

soil surface loss is greatest con-

in the 1974 to 1980 time period when 4,800 acres are lost to facility struction. Table 4 Cumulative Soil Surface Acres Disturbed and Permanently Removed from Production Cause of Disturbance Facilities
&

Year 1980 1985 1990

Rights-of-Way 3,100 6,000 7,500

Housing 3,100 6,100 7,500

Total 6,200 12,100 15,000

Permanently Removed 4,800 (77%) 7,900 (65%) 9,500 (63%)

Without knowing basis, it is difficult

the precise

location of the disturbance

on a yearly

to determine

which soil associations

may be impacted.

Since locations are known with a fair degree of accuracy for 1980, disturbed

1-476

acreage

by soil associations is based

were calculated.

The data shown for the subseTable 5 includes acreages

quent years disturbed

on a simple proration

formula.

by all types of activities permanently removed

from 1980 to 1990.

The table also inwith the data

cludes acreage available

which

cannot be separated

at this time

(April 1974). will result in fine grained soil and parent perme-

All of these disturbances material ability being exposed

to wind and water

actions.

Soil productivity, runoff,

and infiltration

rates will be reduced, which is almost

increasing constant

soil erosion area,

and sedimentation. will

vlind action,

over the entire

cause fine soil, silt and clay particles air quality and adding resulting to soil loss.

to be lifted Prior

into the atmosphere of exposed fine

reducing soils,

to revegetation

soil erosion

from high intensity of gullies. accelerate

storms will remove Alteration

materials channels

and can result and increased

in formation will

of stream and

velocity

erosion

of stream banks

cause headcutting

of the streams. population

This will

add to soil loss and sedimentation. (27,000 by 1980, 42,000 to soil values. Greater soil on

Increased

within

the study area

by 1985, and 47,000 by 1990) will cause other losses recreation losses. soils. Even though reduced place Basin, on 0.6 percent
!

use, originating

from more population, vehicle

will

cause additional serious impact

Any increase

in off-road

use could

cause

land is reclaimed,

soil will be lost and productivity As this loss will Powder take Coal

of the study area by 1990.

in probably

the most productive

area of the Eastern

River

the loss could be significant.

1-477

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1-486

rl

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it:

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~'V3A ~3d .l.33.::l 3~::>'V.::l0 SON'VSnOH.l. S.l.N3W3~ln03~ ~3.l.'VMON'V .l.N3Wd013A30 ~3.l.'VM 1'VI.l.N3.l.0d

1-487

0::

«

For Entire Structural

Powder River Basin

>0:: ~ ~ 200
~I-

IJJ 300

;:EW WW 0::1.L 100 -I =>W 00:: W 0 u 0:::«
O:::I.L
ICO
(l)

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3=0

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For Eastern River Coal Basin Powder

«
~ 200 0

:I:
I-

100

0
0
CO 0'> 1O CO

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0'> 0'>

Figure 4

Projected

Increase in Water Requirements

1-488

Planned supplies

coal developments

require

larger

and more dependable In order

water

than are presently additional

developed ground

in the study area. water

to fulfill

this requirement, existing water

and surface or water

supplies

may be developed,

uses may be changed, water sources

may be imported from current

from other basins. unused and unappro-

Table 9 lists possible priated supplies.

available

Table Potential

9 Sources Acre-feet per year

Water

Surface water Tongue River Powder River Cheyenne River North Platte River Ground water Use equal to annual recharge Use greater than annual recharge Imported water Green River Shoshone River Yellowstone River Wind/Bighorn Rivers

96,400 65,000 15,000 85,000

150,000
Unknown

120,000 40,000 350,000 300,000

Water River

sources

are available

to meet

the needs

of the Eastern

Powder

Coal Basin, but competition developments as well outside

for these sources will Also, the quality

occur from energyof the various of their develop-

related sources

the area.

as the economic

and environmental

feasibility

ment must be considered The potential time is equal to annual

by the individual for ground water recharge

companies. development for an infinitely recharge long

to the aquifers.

Annual

(estimated

1-489

at 150,000 crease study

acre-feet

per year)

is more

than enough

to satisfy

the total inthe

in demand area.

for water

(50,000 acre-feet

per year by 1990) within

If desired, acre-feet recharge capable More

ground water

development ground water

could greatly from storage

exceed

150,000 of annual are

per year by withdrawing (mining of water).

in excess

As described

previously,

several

formations

of yielding

100 to 1,000 gpm of water could be obtained

to properly

constructed wells

wells. that are

than 3,000 gpm possibly

from individual

open to all the aquifers of the Madison Madison 12,000 ranges Limestone froTI about

from the top of the Fort Union in the study area. 8,000 The depth

formation

to the base

to the b8se of the County to about in

feet in east central County.

Campbell

feet in southeastern of each 40-acre average

Campbell tract

With a spacing

of one well wells)

the center

(a distance

of 1,320 feet between

and an assumed yield more

yield

of 2,000 gpm per well, of water per year. supply

each square mile would This type of development

than 52,000

acre-feet

in a little more

than two square miles would (118,000 acre-feet operations,

the total requirements depleting the

for the study area to 1990 ground water dispersed, supply.

per year) without

In actual

the wells

could be more widely and the pumping

due to the dispersal

of coal development

activities,

lifts would be less. Several slurry have Other pipeline) companies, and Panhandle such as Energy Eastern Transportation Co. Systems (coal plant),

Pipeline

(gasification

indicated companies

an interest

in the use of ground water the shallower aquifers.

from the }1adison Limestone.

are exploring

At this time, ground water sources

the proportion

of water

that will

be obtained

from

and from surface water

sources

has not been determined.

1-490

Each company be searching

is responsible

for developing

its own water

supply,

and each will supply within

for and developing of water

the most economical rights. surface water

and dependable

the legal constraints Changes

in the present effects acres

use of northeastern Industrial

Wyoming have already the

could have significant purchased water over 12,000 changed

on agriculture.

companies

of irrigated

lands with

the intent of having uses. Additional

rights

from irrigation

to industrial attempt

purchases for

are currently

taking place operations. impact

as industries Changes

to secure water agricultural

supplies uses of

their particular this water would

in the existing

agriculture

as well

as wildlife

populations. for some uses, without desalting.

}1uch of the water such as municipal, Water quality domestic,

in the study area is not suitable and boiler feed-water supplies,

requirements clearly

for other uses in the coal development All the water

industries

have not been would

specified.

in the study area probably pipelines, but disposal solids

be acceptable

for cooling water

and for use in slurry serious

of the residual are concentrated

cooling

presents

problems.

Dissolved

in the cooling water water is introduced

since part of the water into the system, eventually becomes

is evaporated. of

Even though makeup dissolved solids

the concentration

in the cooling water

so high all the water

in the cooling

system

at that time must be discarded. for disposal of the cooling waste water ponds, or injection are into

Possible use for oil field deep aquifers still present

alternatives flooding,

evaporation

from holding

containing a problem

highly

saline water. disposal

Use of evaporation

ponds would

of solid waste

of the salt residue.

1-491

The salts could possibly salts generally is poor.

be refined Otherwise,

and marketed,

but the market have

for such

the salts would

to be transported

to the ocean or other Disposal present a similar

suitable

site for disposal. from the increased treated effluent population could

of sewage problem.

effluent However,

probably

will be used above.

as a cooling water

supply with

the same disposal

problems

as described

Aquifers Impacts during mining Mining will 1990, this disruption and reclamation interrupt some alluvial and/or bedrock aquifers. By

could occur on 14,000 acres or approximately of the total study area. Backfilling

three-

tenths of one percent restore analogy the aquifer to predict

will not The best be land-

even though

some of the fill becomes characteristic

saturated.

the water-bearing

of the fill would

slide deposits, These deposits deposits

common

in the northwestern

part of the Powder

River Basin. the Where

often have small springs sorted

and seeps at their base, but as sites for wells.

are too poorly of overburden will remain

to be considered

the volume

is small compared

to the volume

of coal removed, a reservoir or lake. of the plant

a depression

that may fill with water, water

forming

During mining, mines. Water

levels will be lowered

in the vicinity for incidental

levels would or pumping supplies

also be lowered by pumping

requirements

of large quantities

of ground water

for either primary plants, or

or supplemental

for stearn generators,

coal gasification

slurry pipelines. The areal extent geometry, occurs. aquifer of water level lowering will be dependent on aquifer

properties, geometry

rate of pumping,

and the length of time pumping factor determing the amount

The aquifer

may be the dominant

1-492

that water

levels are lowered when an aquifer of interbedded

is intersected

by mining.

Because

of the presence perched,

shale, water in many of the aquifers will be and not the bottom of the mine level gradient adjusts.

and therefore,

the base of the aquifer

will be the discharge The effects depending

point to which of pumping

the new water

from the Wasatch

and Fort Union would differ, to

on rate and time of pumping, but otherwise would be analogous from the well field in the Town of Gillette. well within to pumping IV).

the effects of pumping level in an observation

The water

a mile of the well field showed no decline of the field from the late 1940s to the In the last two or three years, however, to increased pumping from the

that could be attributed late 1960s

(Figure 20, Chapter

there has been a decline which can be related well field. Effects of pumping

from the Fox Hills Sandstone,

Lance Formation, of the mines such as the

and the lower part of the Fort Union Formation where

in the vicinity

they occur at great depth, and from even deeper aquifers Limestone, will take many years to be transmitted and stock wells. distances

Madison

to the outcrop pos-

areas and shallow domestic sible assumed drawdown

Figure 5 shows the maximum time periods.

at different

and different

It was 0.0001,

that the coefficient

of storage of the aquifers for a sandstone

ranges between

which is a reasonable a sandstone directly

estimate

100 feet thick, and 0.001 for is 1,000 gpm. Drawdown is

1,000 feet thick, and that discharge to discharge,

proportional

so the drawdown

at other pumping

rates

can be estimated

from the graph. to lowering of water levels in wells, interruption and

In addition dewatering of aquifers

could affect water levels in wells, discharge of mines.

of springs

and seeps, and flow of streams in the vicinity

1-493

10,000

Pumping Rote f\ \

• 1000 !I.p.m. •• 001

Storage Coefficient

W IJ..

w

.\

\

~ ~ z
3:
0  :::i:
X ,

\

\

\

\

\

:::i:
10 100

~\
1,000 10,000

\\ \
100,000

\
I,

\
1,000,000

RADIAL DISTANCE IN FEET

10,000

flU lU IJ.. Z

'\

Pumping Rate = 1000 g.p.m. Storage Coefficient •• 0001 \
\ I

\

I

\

\

I
I

\
1,000

\\
\
r\

z 3: o
3:
 (J CI>

Weeds

or

forbs

...

50

o, 40
30
Shrubs and semi - shrubs

20
10

4

5

6

7

8

9

14

19

24

Years

of

Abandonment

Source: Lee Lang," Succession (Masters Thesis,

Some Vegetative University

Changes During Natural Wyoming

on Abandoned Farm Land in Eastern of Wyoming

194U, p.30.

Figure

6

Per Cent of the Total Density in the Vegetative Groups on Abandoned Farm Lands Subject to Natural Succession in Converse County» Wyoming in 1940.

1-506

reclamation The major

may differ component

drastically

from that present

in the area now. community

which

will be missing

in the reestablished

will be sagebrush. Industrial roads, railroad fumes and dust from exposed of coal, and loading to transportation coal, coal processing, will be deposited operations. especially and damaged and wildlife damaging

hauling

operations

on vegetation

adjacent

routes

and mining

This could effect when deposits

plant vigor

and may be damaging

to leaves,

are moistened

by dew and light rain. and possibly sulfur

Dust-covered

vegetation Plant effect

may be less palatable especially Damage

toxic to livestock

stack emissions, on ponderosa

oxides,

have a potentially

pine.

from this type of pollutant research from stack plants. is required emissions

has been

observed determine

but not proven. the impact generating

Additional

to adequately from

on vegetation

resulting

coal-fired extensive a result

and gasification beyond

This impact

could damage by and as

areas or vegetation of coal development Changes

that physically

disturbed

operations. will occur depending changes upon the type of including airflow change

in microclimate used. will

reclamation

measures

For example,

in landform

in slope and aspect

alter solar radiation snow accumulation, patterns. Changes Change

intensities,

patterns,

soil and air temperatures, water bodies, and drainage change

evapotranspiration, in surface

humidity,

color and ground type, for inair in

texture will stance brush temperatures, microclimate vegetation

soil temperatures. change

in vegetation

to grass, will soil moisture

soil temperature, windflow,

snow accumulation, and shade. Changes

relationships, effect

may have a detrimental following mining.

on satisfactorily

reestablishing

1-507

Archeological Two archeological archeological-historical National brought Register

and Paleontological

Values Jumps, and two

sites, Glenrock

and Vore Buffalo

sites, Fort Phil Kearny

and Fort Reno,

listed on the population any

of Historic

Places may be impacted developments.

by increased

on by coal and related

These sites will not receive

direct impacts

from coal development. lack of knowledge concerning archeological area,

Since there is a distinct and paleontological analysis values of impacts

values which may be located within is difficult. There is reason

the development

to believe

that these for significant

do exist in the region

to some degree,

and the potential

impacts does exist. Construction of all facilities surface discussed in the introduction of

this section will require disturbed strippable facilities area will coal.

disturbance

and earth movement.

Estimated

total 29,000 acres by 1990 within

the region of economically by

Part of this acreage assessment

(9,500 acres) will be occupied or examination

thereby preventing

of the overlain

archeological

and paleontological to impacts

values. from surface coal mining disturbances, operations. huge volumes An estimated of 7.2 of

In addition

earth will be dug and moved million

during

cubic yards of material tons. About

will be excavated

for 1976 coal production material

8 million

1,543.9 million Movement

cubic yards of subsurface

will be excavated

by 1990.

of this material

will destroy

archeological

sites which may be buried within. Increased population and the attendant impacts increase of recreational

use will also cause potential not as yet been discovered

on archeological Recreational

sites which have use, particularly

or inventoried.

1-508

off-road would

vehicle

use, will create

additional

surface

disturbances and arrowhead sites.

which hunters

affect

these values.

Rockhounds,

pot hunters, archeological regionally,

could all cause an impact on potential The most paleontological displacement that will threatening impact,

to archeological

and

resources

is the permanent

installation

of facilities, of vandalism man

of data bearing prevent

soil, and the increased

incidence

forever

identification

and knowledge

of prehistoric

and geologic

history. companies have described with their efforts to survey others

All the applicant archeological through values,

some by contract archeologists

the State Archeologist, amateurs.

nonresident

or local

No known will be impacted ment. However,

National

Register

sites or potentially

eligible facility

sites develop-

by the direct because area,

action of coal and related for unknown values

the potential

exists within

soils of the study eligible

it is not possible The overall

to predict regional

that no potentially of mining and

sites will be found. surface disturbance

impact

its related

of 29,000 acres by 1990 on archeologicalinsignificant acres). in relation to the total

paleontological

values

may appear

size of the study area disturbance of 1,543.9

(4.9 million million

However,

the deep surface valuable (from

cubic yards

of potentially

an archeological

viewpoint)

material

may be very archeological

significant.

Because values

of this and the fact that potential at this depth the potential and near of being

and paleontological impacts have

the level of the coal are unknown, very significant.

1-509

Some positive supervised coal digging

impacts

could accrue

from coal development. scientific otherwise

A well

system could uncover valuable

data about because

life forms on tIle plains of the cost involved

that might never be discovered to these depths.

in exploring

1-510

Historical No significant economically strippable

Values within the area of presently route. The

sites have been identified coal reserves

or the proposed

railroad

Sawyer Wagon Train Fight site (SE~, sec. 12, T47N, R72W) and some abandoned homesteads determine on the Kerr-McGee their significance. mine property require further evaluation to

These two sites are in areas of potential If these areas are mined, the

mining within

the 1980 to 1990 time span.

sites will be destroyed. Although major population are expected a secondary no known significant sites exist in areas to be disturbed,

increases

(estimated 60,000 above current levels by 1990) area. This increase could have drive

to occur within an eight-county impact on all historic

sites located within a half-day Douglas,

or less from major population S~~ridan, Newcastle,
I

centers of Gillette, Increased

Casper, Buffalo,

and Lusk.

population

will place pressures and

,pn,,~l.ilil" .~q~~ region s historic pot hunting, modified especially

sites in the form of increased vandalism sites.

at remote, unprotected according

This impact will be of the site, in terms

in each instance,

to the sensitivity

of current physical

conditions. demand for sand and gravel, pipelines and

Much of the projected right-of-way occupied

access roads may place added impact upon natural corridors national historic trails such as the Oregon, Mormon,

by potential

and Bozeman Trails. Impacts on historical Interpretive Services values were developed specifically in a study (Western

1974) prepared

for this environmental sites will be

impact statement. susceptible

According

to this study, the following and pot hunters:

to damage of vandalism Catonment Reno Fort Reno Hoe Ranch

Portuguese Houses Powder River Crossing Red Cloud Agency impact is the road improvement population. required sites

A second possible negative

to meet demands of a larger, more dispersed

The following

1-511

are located within close proximity physical impact resulting

to existing roads and are susceptible or realignment:

to

from road widening

Antelope Springs Minor Bozeman Trail Sites Crazy Woman Crossing A third potential industrial negative

Seventeen Mile State Station Suggs

impact will derive from community

and

service facilities

expansion.

In order to meet increased water lines will be routed

and power requirements,

new pipelines

and transmission

into the area along natural

corridors from Casper to Sheridan and from Douglas A majority of historic

to Sheridan along the base of the Bighorn Mountains. sites identified

in this study are located within proximity or visually impacted by pipeline

to these corridors line segments

and may be physically placement.

or transmission restricted

High impact will occur within

topographically

of the corridor. A positive at developed historic result of increased population is increased visitation of

sites which will tend to foster greater appreciation values as well as increasing The following the input of tourist to enjoy

cultural and educational

dollars into local economy. greater visitation

sites are expected

as a secondary

impact of increased

population:

Devils Tower Fort Caspar Site Group Fort Fetterman Fort Phil Kearny The remaining study area inventory

Fort Laramie Oregon Trail Ruts Register Cliff

number of historic

sites identified

in the regional corridors

are located at points remote from existing centers and are not expected or by coal development

or projected population

to be affected by inin the Eastern Powder

creases in regional population River Coal Basin.

1-512

A professional has reviewed

historian

(Bob Murray

of Western

Interpretive

Services)

the list of existing and potentially

eligible National

Register that no

sites with the Wyoming Historic Preservation

Officer and determined

impact will be made by the direct action of the proposed mines or railroad. Consultations and research will be continued on the Kerr-McGee by applicant lease. to determine Information and approving the importance on the historagencies have of

abandoned homesteads

ical surveys conducted been forwarded

companies

to the National Advisory

Council on Historic Preservation. may have a positive impact

The overall effect of coal development on historical values.

This would result from the inventory sites and the awareness

and recognition that a potential

of the private and public historical impact exists from expansion

of coal development

and related activities.

1-513

Aesthetics Coal development on the aesthetics area boundaries. two gasification and its associated facilities will create impacts study

of the study area and, to a lesser degree, areas outside Development by 1990 of 11 new mines, of 1.5 billion

four power plants and in popula-

plants, mining

tons of coal; increase

tion of 60,000 in the Powder River Basin; and construction 225 miles of powerline, 30 miles of coal slurry pipeline,

of 24 miles of road, and 150 miles of rail intrusions)

line will impact the elements which collectively

(texture, lines, color, landforms, termed aesthetics. construction Texture mainly

make up the visual resource railroad,

Powerline,

road, and pipeline

and mining consists

of of

coal will affect the texture of the study area. a particular and removal vegetative vegetative of vegetation texture. pattern.

Fills and deep cuts created by the railroad

over large areas or along a linear path create a new texture is also created by reclamation The area is reclaimed of the type

A different

areas disturbed of vegetation types.

by these activities.

to a different vegetative

with a height generally

lower than the surrounding

Then, too, some of the area may resist revegetation

and remain barren,

adding to the impact on texture. Linear impacts are caused by rail lines, roads, powerlines, These facilities create unnatural and canals

and other water diversions. landscape.

lines on the

In some cases, such as powerlines, lines of hills,

the lines created are perpendic-

ular to the natural

cliffs, and rivers. of the present material. County, landscape

The predominant

soft grays, greens, and browns

will be impacted by use of red clinker for road surfacing red clinker hills exist in northern sections of Campbell

Although

the color of

the rail line and ballast will contrast with the predominant nature. All revegetated areas will contrast colorwise

color scheme of vegetative

with surrounding

1-514

and land color.

Species to be planted in reclaimed

areas will be mostly

grass~ so the end result will be vast areas or long strips of colors contrasting with the surrounding mixture of grasses~ shrubs~ and brush. Powerline

towers painted silver will provide a stark contrast with the soft greens and browns of present vegetation. Probably the most significant impact

on the existing color scheme will be caused by construction of multi-hued buildings~

and location

homes and mobile homes throughout the region. to construct roads and railroads change

Cuts and fills necessary existing landforms. Maintaining

a one percent grade on railroads will cuts and fills deeper than those required

have a greater effect by requiring for roads.

These cuts and fills alter landform in a linear fashion along so the impact or the magnitude of the impact

a fairly narrow corridor~ is restricted. are buried. Pipelines

impact landform to a lesser degree~ since they

The major impact on landform is caused by mining and removal of coal (1.5 billion tons by 1990). Mining results in

of large volumes

lowering the altitude

of the land~ creating a more rounded and gently sloping abrupt changes in angles such as cliffs and sharp in more detail under topography.

landform and destroying breaks.

Impacts on landform are discussed Every man-made

or caused facility will be an intrusion and~ therefore~ Major intrusions will be those which Buildings~ homes~ plant

an impact on the present landscape.

protrude above the general plane of the landscape. facilities~ loading silos~ powerline

support towers~ and pumping stations character of the study area. Holding

will all alter the existing aesthetic ponds and reservoirs~

creating bodies of water where none existed before~ impacts.

are also intrusions but will not create significant

I-SIS

Elements to viewpoints.

which

make up aesthetics the landscape

have been discussed

without

regard

People

view

from many different

points,

on the path to is

ground and from the air. different. In an area

The view from each place (4.9 million

along any traveled

this large

acres)

it is not possible

list or describe on viewing

the various

scene changes in a broad

or the impacts

on them, so impacts

will be discussed Scenic views

fashion. Indicators of this change will be and communities, outside roadside cities

will be changed. disposal signs,

unregulated billboards,

solid waste bars, neon

and litter near plants tracts

and scattered Views

of new homes

and around Keyhole interrupted new vertical

Reservoir.

of distant

mountains

and hills will be Because formations of will

by industrial, intrusions

residential,

and service many natural

facilities. geologic near

on the skyline, of interest.

no longer be distant will capture

sights

Silos at mines transmission

these highways

the view. especially

In most cases, power during windy

lines and reduced will obscure the

air quality,

or inversions 25.

periods,

view of the Laramie and Rochelle and Sheridan, Bighorn

Range

from Interstate

Also, views

of the Black Hills feeding Buffalo

Hills will be modified. some impacts

With new service

facilities

will be felt upon major

highways

and views

of the

Mountains. The aesthetic quality of the area may be reduced than the existing in one's mind for some. Others Aesthetic aesthetic of new

may enjoy quality

the view

of the changes more blending

landscape.

is a subjective What

together

of the various of thousands with

elements. people will

can be said is that the cumulative of all of the facilities

impact

and development

associated Powder

coal development Coal Basin.

cause a change

in the aesthetics

of the Eastern

River

1-516

The overall quiet, rural busy with fulness evident. 1980-1990 is reached

impact will be one of gradual setting,

change from what represents uninhabited solitude

the

wide open spaces, basically The quiet

to a basin peace-

industry change

and human activity.

and natural

will

as the area is developed.

Signs of this change are already 1980. During the

The rate of change will quicken decade the rate of change will fairly

from now until accelerate

until peak development

and then remain

stable beyond

1990.

1-517

Wildlife Coal development

and Fish of the Eastern Powder River hab-

and industrialization

Coal Basin will result in a significant itat and conversely of 11 new mines, cumulative wildlife on wildlife

impact on the fish and wildlife quantity and quality.

population

Development of a destroy

two gasification

plants, four power plants and mining tons of coal by 1990 will physically

amount of 1.5 billion

and its habitat,

and reduce overall populations.

The change of the

area from a quiet, rural setting to one of bustling lation increases by 1990 of 47,000 within to the study area, will indirectly in a change in species composition able by many. By 1990 it is estimated nently destroyed, long-term

human activity, with popu-

the study area and 13,000 adjacent and its habitat, resulting undesir-

affect wildlife and numbers

that would be considered

that 9,500 acres of habitat will be permareduced on 19,500 acres and 116,000 In addition, there will be an

productivity

acres impaired by increased estimated reduction

human utilization.

annual loss of 200 deer and antelope in base population

in fences which will be constructed, (850 deer), reduction of

of deer by five percent

base population

of antelope by nine percent inhabiting

(2,700 head), potential (particularly

loss of the 90 elk in the These Undeter-

300 head of elk currently

the study area,

Rochelle Hills), and an approximate

loss of 940 to 1,250 sage grouse.

losses are the ones which can be quantified with any degree of accuracy. mined losses of other animals will also occur. There is a direct cause-effect on fish and wildlife relationship

involved with impacts Direct mortality to flee. is

as a result of coal development.

rare on big game and other types which have the ability action of coal development itat then translates destroys or impairs habitat.

The direct

This impact on hab-

itself into an impact on fish and animal residents,

1-518

resulting

in loss.

Therefore

the impact analysis

starts with examining and direct wildlife

the cause and the first effect--destruction mortality. secondary Then the analysis proceeds effects,

of habitat

to translate

this impact into its

those on the animal itself.

Habitat destruction

and direct wildlife of development

mortality related actions will cause impacts

A wide variety on wildlife,

and some of these such as loss of streams, ponds, lakes, springs, vegetative types, are not covered by quantitative II. Where such projections densities, or crucial

wells, and particular impact projections and quantitative habitat elements is possible. the cumulative

made earlier in Chapter information concerning

animal numbers,

are unavailable,

only qualitative

analysis of impacts to

Each wildlife

species in the study area will be subject categories

effects of several of the different These include: of animals. of habitat.

of impacts

caused by coal development. --Direct

destruction

--Permanent

destruction

--Initial destruction of habitat recovery in habitat value. --Impairment or reduction or activities. --Increased introduction

followed,

in time, by some degree of

in value of habitat near human development

of hazards

into the wildlife

environment. dis-

--Offsite and secondary impacts caused by displaced animals, rupted food chains, changed land and water uses, etc. --Improvement of habitat. of the probable

A more detailed discussion ment on the various

impacts of coal developsupport-

animal communities is presented

of the study area and evidence C.

ing these conclusions

in Appendix

1-519

Direct destruction

of animals operations will directly destroy wild animals, Those actions which cause excavate, bury, overturn, habitat. clear,

A number of development ranging from individuals the greatest

to entire populations.

losses are those which initially undisturbed

or grade large areas of previously machinery

terrestrial

The large those

will bury, crush and suffocate many small animals, primarily

which are not capable to burrows

of moving fast enough to escape and those which retreat Any operations, including well drilling, blasting

for protection. and municipal

or industrial

use of water, which cause dewatering

of aquatic and amphibians During

habitats will result in death to fishes, aquatic invertebrates, in certain stages of life. This type of destruction

occurs over time.

the 1974 to 1980 time period surface disturbance direct mortality will accelerate estimated will occur over an estimated

which could result in This impact

8,900 acres.

during the 1980 to 1985 time period when an additional Since projected coal development covers only an

10,900 acres will be disturbed.

levels off after 1985, the impact of surface disturbances additional 9,200 acres from 1985 to 1990.

Habitat

losses The variety of animals in the basin is too great to permit detailed and rehabilitation impacts on each species. to important In

description

of development

Table 11, representative requirements, habits,

species are grouped according

habitat

or life forms.

Species in each group will be similarly These species groups are in wildlife forms

affected by development used to illustrate

action and rehabilitation.

differences

in impacts due to differences

1-520

and to illustrate habitat

trends in habitat values based on comparisions

of existing

types with those expected efforts. habitat

to develop as a result of vegetative

rehabilitation

Permanent of plants,

loss will result from actions such as construction airports, etc. Greatest types

distribution

systems, communities, in the sagebrush

losses can be expected

and grassland vegetative

since they are predominant, be lost. habitat

but aquatic and terrestrial

habitat will also

Almost all animal species will be subjected losses. Total permanently

to some permanent

lost acreage, based on projections,

will approximate by 1990.

4,800 acres by 1980, 7,900 acres by 1985, and 9,500 acres

The animals of Groups I, II, and III in Table 11 can be expected Where aquatic habitats are destroyed, animals in Group

to suffer most.

VIII will be impacted most severely. Permanent habitat loss will be most significant during the 1980

to 1985 time period when an estimated of the total estimated habitat

loss of 3,100 acres, or 33 percent

to be lost by 1990, occurs. habitat will have been potential for recovery. rehabil-

By 1990, about 19,500 acres of wildlife disturbed which will have some, mostly It is projected long-term,

that about 11,800 acres of this will have undergone a perennial

itation efforts aimed at establishing type.

grassland vegetative and grassland

Most of the habitat disturbed will be in the sagebrush types, but significant and pine-juniper disturbance

vegetative riparian,

will also occur in aquatic,

habitats.

After the initial loss, revegetation or natural processes will begin Following initial the majority

of disturbed

areas by either man-induced

to restore wildlife habitat in one form or another. attempts to rehabilitate disturbed areas to perennial

grasslands,

1-521

Table 11 Animal Species Representative of the Study Area, Listed According Similarities in Habitat Requirements, Habits, or Life Form
Grow I
Pronghorn Antelope fAul. White-tailed neee SaRehrush Vole neer }louse Least Chipmunk White-tailed Prairie Do(l White-U.l1ed Jack Rabbit Black-tailed Jack Rabbit J>fountain Cottontail Desert Cottontail Sage Grouse Sharpta11 Grouse Sa,:!,e Sparrow Dickcissel Group VI

to

n•••.

Imertebrates, including a wide variety of insect families and spiders such ast SpringtaUa Long-horned GraslIIhopperlJ Shot t-horned Graoshopperu Barkl1ce Thrips Plant Buge Lace Bugs Seed Bu~a Leafhopper. Aphida Ground Beetles Carrion Beetles Ilet-mes t Ld Beetle. Darkling Beetles Snout Beetles J40ths I'ldR.· Jdosquitoes Wasps

10 the ••tudy area. thene animals are heavily dependant upon sapebrush for food or ~ or nesting gites or eoe.blnation thereof and/or other upland shrub. such .fiI ,reDsewood -~ and rabbltbrush. especially for

!!!U!!. ll!i.

L&rk Sparrow Brewer' 8 Sparrow
Safte 'l1\rasher Lazuli Bunting Green-tailed Towhee flycatcher. epp , Sal.brush Lizard

The ComP08!tion of insect and spider populations and the relative abundance of different taxonomic p;roupa vary with Beason, veg e t acdve type and stsfte of succession. There is generally a gr ee cer variety of species and aareater abundance of individuals 1n the intermediate ecegee of f(rassland succession tihau 1n elther the: early or climax stapes. Invertebratea are one of the three twII..1or (lroupl!il of 1I" •• l.njr

._lB.

An"
G1

0

>

0' '(jj 0
G)

c:

•...
o c:

Present Habitat Values
Ql

:t:
:>

0 0'

=.:

>
c:
Ql

0 O' cJ> 0

9<
e

e(1) (/l

\

•...

~


U G)

0

Total

Loss 5 10 15 20

Time

in Years

Figure

1

Expected Habitat Value Trends for Particular Animal Groups Following Attempts to Rehabilitate Severely Disturbed Lands to Perennial Grasslands.

1-524

of recovery, cumulative

this habitat

disturbance

will most

likely have a long-term and could result in

impact

on fish and wildlife

populations

losses which

cannot be presently

quantified.

Habitat

impaired

or reduced

in value increase in population expected by 1990 will study area.

The almost foster tremendous

three-fold

increases

in human

activity

over the immediate in wildlife intrusion

Humans will be living, working, before subject

and recreating

habitat

never only

to this level of intrusion. any wild

Human

is tolerated

to a certain widely

point by almost species.

animal.

The degree

of tolerance insects,

varies for

between

As long as their habitat indifferent to human

is intact,

example, of most

are relatively

activity.

Conversely, close

habitat to areas Newcastle,

of the larger mammals activity,

and predators Gillette,

will be abandoned Douglas, Buffalo,

of intense

i.e., around Habitat

Sheridan,

and National heavy, with

Grasslands. human human

may be used only occasionally

in areas near reduced effects on

intermittent

concentration activity.

or use may be only lightly certain

low-intensity

It appears

that the combined production

of impaired

wildlife acreage

habitats

will result

in reduced wildlife larger

an additional acres

three to five times

than the projected

29,000 Nearly i.e.,

to be lost or reduced will suffer,

by 1990 through

actual habitat of greatest

destruction. to man,

all species

but those species

interest

mule deer, antelope, The major with population cent areas. tinues

sage grouse, initial

will probably

suffer most.

impact will

occur in the 1974 to 1980 time period the study area and 9,300 in adjacon-

increases

of 27,000 within

This impact will build and recreation

from that point onward The impact will

as population

to expand

use increases. pursuits

of this expanding impair

population

searching

for recreational

significantly

1-525

habitat. million effect

Recreation

use within visitor

the area is projected days by 1990.

to increase

from 1.4 the

to 2.1 million

This use will values.

increase

of coal development

on fish and wildlife

Hazards

introduced Based

into the environment registrations Counties per 1.000 persons. in 1990 may ground

on the 1970 rate of vehicle for Campbell

registered exceed vehicle increase animals.

vehicles

and Converse

combined

30,400 or a 43 percent traffic throughout

increase

over 1970.

Such increased

the study area will of deer.

result

in a proportionate and numerous other

in the level

of road kills

antelope.

By 1990. and near

150 miles

of rail line are planned hazards to various

for construction birds,

in

the study area.

Collision

small mammals.

and big game species An estimated rehabilitated

(deer and antelope) 500 to 1,000 miles

are certain

to increase. around

of fence will be constructed and secondary

sites along highway, Several annually hundred by 1990.

railroad, additional

road rights-of-way can be expected especially established

and other areas. to die in fences during grasses

deer and antelope

Impacts will be compounded, qualities of newly

spring months,

due to the attractive on revegetated

and forbs common Increasing

areas. off-road vehicle use, of presently human population will

penetration,

including

remote means

or lightly that greater through

traveled pressure

areas will

take place. bobcat,

A tripled

upon coyote,

and fox populations and trapping

develop Trapping as well.

predator

calling,

sport hunting, skunk,

activities. birds

takes many badger, Indiscriminate

raccoon,

other mammals, and birds

and occasional

shooting

of animals

along and near road\vays

1-526

will experience and furbearers

an upward trend even though certain species such as eagles are protected or managed by federal and state laws. of an estimated 225 miles

Power demands will require of powerlines Powerlines raptors. by 1990. Certain

construction

"in-flight"

hazards

to birds could occur. potential to large

represent

an increase

in the electrocution

Off site and secondary Development on wildlife various

impacts of the study area will cause numerous of food chains, behavior secondary patterns, effects and

through the disruption

activities

of species playing key roles in the ecosystem. from the 29,000 acres of disturbed of habitat "disturbed"

Animals, habitat by

especially

big game, displaced

1990 and the much greater acreages will compete with resident lations will ultimately serious long-term areas.

by human activity While popu-

animals for forage on adjacent ranges.

be lost through natural mortality, in carrying

there will be in some of

reduction

capacity of critical habitat causing buildups

Predator-prey

interaction

will be disturbed,

predators

such as coyote in certain areas and switches in major prey species. can lead in time to increases in coyote predation on liveblack-

Such disturbances

stock and game species favored by man. footed ferret can be adversely

Species such as the endangered

affected by losses of prairie dog colonies. the area to be disturbed, but an inof

Prairie dog colonies are known within ventory

of all coloni~s is not available. to quantify possible

Further adding to the problem

an inability

impact on the black-footed

ferret is the

fact that a survey of the prairie dog towns to determine black-footed

if they contain statement

ferrets has not beel1,CJ.c,c,Olhplished. only positive The

of impact that can be made is that reduction

of prairie dog towns reduces

1-527

the ferret's

food supply,

and this in turn would

reduce

the possibility

of

ferrets maintaining Impacts

themselves. upon terrestial and aquatic habitat outside the study in the Eastern "onsite." is that uses.

area must also be anticipated. Powder River

Industrial beyond

water

requirements

Coal Basin may increase perhaps water posing the most

that which

is available on habitat

The proposal

significant lands

effects

of transferring Much

use from agricultural

to purely habitat

industrial

of this water irrigation Concern

maintains ditches,

a fish and wildlife streams,

base on irrigated

meadows,

and reservoirs. fish and wildlife of industry water reductions use proposals cannot be

for possible habitat

off site long-term as the result

or changes

through

impacts

cannot be overemphasized. determined information, at this time. including

The extent

and types of faunal would depend

effects

The prediction

upon presently

unavailable

location

and size of projects.

Improvement

of habitat scale development habitat forthcoming and benefited in the study area will mean wildlife if we keep in mind

The broad some potential

for improved means

that this usually

trade-offs. of large land areas is expected to result in vegetative

The disturbance changes favoring increases

in population

of some rodent raptors)

species.

Certain

predators creases.

(coyotes, These

red fox, and various conditions

will benefit

from these inon any partic-

improved

are expected

to be temporary

ular area of disturbed

land.

1-528

Specific

group and species impacts The impacts described previously add up to important of the study area. cumulative Significantly, of many

adverse

impacts on various mentioned

fish and wildlife

the magnitude private

does not totally quantify potential

development

and state coal lands, coal development in the basin related attempts

after 1990, or developments of uranium, oil and gas,

already expanding and others.

to production

The following

to summarize

the total impacts from federal

coal lease development that information

on specific wildlife

species and groups to the extent

is available

and impacts can be quantified.

Threatened

species Ten species (black-footed ferret, spotted bat, prairie swift fox, ferrunginous long-billed falcon,

American

peregrine

falcon, northern

hawk, prairie burrowing

pigeon hawk, mountain

plover, northern

curlew, western

owl) having threatened--including status are known or believed An additional western four species

endangered--or

undetermined

population

to occur in the Eastern Powder River Coal Basin. (shovelnose sturgeon, goldeye and sturgeon by the Wyoming chub, Game

smooth green snake) that have been identified as being rare or endangered within

and Fish Department

the State of Wyoming

may occur in the study area. Inventories as to the exact occurrence and dependency of these

species on the area to be developed Therefore,

and/or disturbed have not been accomplished. Habitat which is certain species

precise impacts cannot be analyzed at this time.

suitable for use of these species is found in the area. inhabit the area to be disturbed, impact would be a reduction their continued requirements, existence. where direct mortality

Unless

could occur, the major

of the range of habitat which is suitable for Without adequate knowledge of ranges and habitat consequences.

any reduction

in range may have serious long-term

1-529

Big game Deer. Nearly 17,000 deer directly Key deer habitat or indirectly depend on the study acres, occur courses. (Map 10, in

area for survival. in moderately

types, about 1,300,000

timbered areas, rough breaks,

and along drainage over 4,500,000

Total deer habitat Appendix A).

in the study area includes

acres

Deer, which are presently

at or near maximum

populations

balance with available

habitat, will be displaced lands.

from parts of these areas Deer numbers are deterof food near

and forced to compete with deer on adjacent mined by numerous factors which include cover.

the availability

suitable protective coal development deer.

The removal of existing browse plants through local reductions of

activities will result in significant

No satisfactory

evidence

is presently

available which would suggest with plant communi-

that strip mined areas can be satisfactorily ties that will satisfy the needs of deer.

revegetated Therefore

50 percent of the total

area disturbed by 1990 (14,500 acres) will be lost as deer habitat. Human population growth and more intensive associated activities

will further shrink the amount of favorable effects of new human access to relatively stress and competition increased hunting,

deer habitat.

The combined increased hazards (roads,

undisturbed

habitat,

for space (homes, service facilities), and other habitat

fences, railroads),

loss may be expected

to result in an estimated deer population by 1990.

five percent reduction

(or 850 deer) in the base

Antelope.

Habitat

(seasonal and year-long) Over 8,000 are harvested

is currently annually

provided

for about 30,300 antelope. hunting

through sport IV).

in and near the study area (Table 28 and Figure 63, Chapter of which about 68 percent

About 29,000 acres of antelope habitat,

(19,700

1-530

acres) is winter and failure

range, will be physically rehabilitate

lost from permanent

disturbance

to properly

by 1990. for deer mainly apply to pronghorns damaging to antelope, reclamation

Impacts described as well. especially Hazards

previously

such as fencing are particularly of stress. In addition, vegetation

during periods

successful

efforts which result in simple grassland for antelope. Federal mated reduction base antelope Elk. habitat coal development

will not be sufficient

in the study area will result in an esti(2,700 or more antelope) of the

in excess of nine percent

herd by 1990. Coal development will deny elk a higher percentage This is due to their greater of their inability cover.

than other big game species.

to tolerate noise, activity, This fact alone will probably

and human presence

in areas of marginal disappearance

lead to the virtual

of over 300

head of elk from the study area as population

expands.

Fish When mining modification will result. habitat marginal or related operations involve the elimination or drastic loss

of existing

streams, ponds or reservoirs, to project specifically

direct habitat

It is not possible

how much "total"

loss will occur.

Much of the fish habitat unpredictable,

in the study area is already

due to intermittent,

or very low flows and high water

temperatures. Annual and low flow of streams will sometimes water. be increased by the products,

release of production detergents, decrease functions

Such "waste water" may include petroleum if allowed to discharge

and solvents which,

into streams, will

the quality of downstream of fish populations.

water and interfere with or halt vital

1-531

The amount areas of development result areas, through runoff

and concentration will increase

of dissolved

solids

in streams

below

during mining areas

and reclamation.

This will denuded will tolerable

from disturbed stream

such as spoil piles, and water

and channelized sediment.

courses.

Both wind

erosion exceed

introduce levels,

Where

resulting

turbidity will

and siltation

lowered Hater

biological requirements

productivity

result. and gasification and slurry reservoirs quality is signifipipeare

for power plants through 1990.

lines will constructed, adequate.

increase

steadily

vfuen large storage if water

new fishery Stocking

possibilities

will be present management

and other concerted

efforts may provide

cant fish habitat

at such sites.

Upland

game birds Sage grouse. Destruction and impairment of habitat, and in particular per square of

sagebrush mile

grassland,

will result

in the loss of five to eight birds

of habitat.

An estimated population

three to four percent

(940 to 1,250 birds)

the base

sage grouse by 1990. Sharp-tailed

in the study area will be lost due to coal

development

grouse.

Good quality behavioral

grassland tendencies,

and brushy

cover requirethis and

ments,

coupled

with nonmigratory removal

characterize

species. permanent

Habitat

or severe

disturbance

will result numbers

in a direct

loss of sharp-tails.

Total population

are unknown

so actual

loss cannot be quantified. Hungarian By further lation reducing and chukar partridge. available habitat, Populations are low in the study area. will occur. Popuat

population

declines

inventories

are unavailable.

Therefore

impact

cannot be determined

this time.

1-532

Merriam's area.

turkey.

Turkeys

represent

a peripheral

species in the study characterized Overall by

Their habitats

of mountain

forests

and broken woodlands,

ponderosa

pine, fall generally

outside of potential are expected

impact areas.

impacts to turkey populations Mourning to a wide variety to fully analyze dove.

to be slight. dove is highly adaptable is presently investigations available in the

The seed eating and migratory Insufficient information Preliminary

of habitats.

impacts upon the species. the mourning

study area indicate depends heavily population

dove to be a common species which seasonally Dove experienced

on grasslands

and open ground for foraging.

increases

in 1972 and 1974, declines between

1978 and 1970, reasonby 1974. These

ably static levels until 1972 and finally preliminary northeastern results

sharply increases

are based on three routes run in the general

study area of

Wyoming.

Waterfowl The change or elimination create an adverse of ponds, streams, and reservoirs especially ducks. Although will dependent

impact upon waterfowl,

upon surface waters, habitat

the range of waterfowl

extends beyond aquatic

and riparian

located in the study area.

Forced to move to other areas, waterfowl Where such resources are

will be required already utilized,

to compete for suitable habitat. overall waterfowl populations and permanent

will be reduced.

It is known stream

that thousands

of small reservoirs ducks.

ponds in intermittent

sections produce estimated

Brood production

will be lost in those areas at an dislosses

rate of two to four ducks per surfac.e acre of aquatic habitat Based only upon known aquatic habitat areas where

turbed or destroyed. appear likely, However,

an estimated

annual loss of 400 to 800 ducks can be expected. of mining, where overburden is not sufficient to

at the completion reclaim

completely

the final pit, new water bodies may be created which would impact on waterfowl.

have a beneficial

Other birds All raptorial prairie falcons, species, but particularly of human activity the eagles and peregrine and habitat disturbance. and Dis-

are intolerant

placement

of raptors will create territorial

competition

for adjacent

habitat.

1-533

Human caused mortalities, increase.

such as shooting and collisions with autos, will

Shore and song birds will be displaced areas. habitat, Since population levels are determined

and forced to seek new habitat of suitable

by the availability

some will succumb to natural mortality.

Other mammals Predators and furbearers. The availability and abundance of suitable populations.

prey species generally With destruction

control the condition

and level of predator

of insect, rodent, small mammal, will also suffer. such as coyotes, bobcats, impacts because

and aquatic life, most

predator populations Predators immediate population feeding habits. habitat

and foxes will realize

less

of their wide ranging nature and flexible to relocate and adapt to shrinking closely tied to

The badger has low ability

conditions.

Species such as the skunk and raccoon,

stream courses and riparian habitat, will experience habitat damage or removal. Furbearers, susceptible to habitat including mink, beaver, disturbance.

population

decline with

and muskrat,

will be extremely in association these

The loss of aquatic habitat

with riparian vegetation animals. Rabbits grasses,

will drastically

reduce, if not eliminate,

and hares.

This group consumes material.

considerable

amounts of

shrubs, and other herbaceous

Forced removal from home

territories

will result in intraspecific and jackrabbit and jackrabbit densities population

(among their own kind) competition. indicated in limited studies, by

Using cottontail 1990 cottontail

of about 148 and 101 per square (estimated 7,000 rabbits)

mile, respectively,

will be lost on 28 square miles

1-534

and lost with approximately

only slight

recovery

on 19 more

square miles which

would

involve

4,700 rabbits. bats, and shrews. in areas Substantial cleared likely losses of small mammals equipment to adjacent will

Rodents, occur during areas, where would etc.

mine operations The existing

for stripping, or move

work areas then

fauna will

succumb might

temporary, increase

abnormally

high densities densities

result.

Mortality

rates

until population generally

were

again

stabilized. rates which lands. Habitat removal will will likely

Rodents allow

exhibit

high reproductive reclaimed

rapid recolonization Bats and shrews

of successfully are largely

insectivorous.

eliminate themselves.

shrews while

bats would impacts

possibly

be able to effectively bat populations

relocate

The potential

to existing

are not clear.

Invertebrates Existing positions Permanent will populations are diverse, numerous, and important for their

in food chains. loss of vegetation in direct

The majority through

of species

present

are herbivores. of facilities inverteof insectof one

mining

and construction

result

loss of invertebrates. habitat

The role of different as a result

brates plant

in a reclamation

may either be favorable or undesirable

or insect-other-animal species becoming

interactions, on vegetation followed

as a result areas.

or more

pests damage

in reclaimed

Environmental reduced invertebrate

by reclamation species

efforts

will result

in

populations

and changed

compositions.

Population

densities success

and diversities

will be dependent

upon the degree ranges

of reclamation by "new habitat"

and the range

of variation

or tolerance

offered

produced.

1-535

Reptiles

and amphibians Available information is not sufficient to allow a complete analysis

of impacts. Species known or suspected which to occur in the study area fall roughly tied to surface water Most reptiles the tolerance and those do

into two categories--those whose needs are chiefly migrate

are intimately in nature. areas. While

terrestrial

and amphibians range

not readily

from disturbed

of reptiles

and amphibians water

is quite wide, habitat

elimination will result

or drastic in direct

modification

of surface

or terrestrial

population

losses.

1-536

Recreation Major impacts on recreation use will result from loss of land base

(8,900 acres by 1980, 19,800 acres by 1985, and 29,000 acres by 1990); increased population within the region (37,000 by 1980, 53,000 by 1985, and 60,000 industrial and municipal con-

by 1990; and change in water use and increased sumption acre-feet of water in the study area

(27,600 acre-feet

per year by 1980, 43,100 The

per year by 1985, and 49,600 acre-feet

per year by 1990).

impact will begin prior to opening during the 1980 to 1985 interval,

of new mines and will become and level off thereafter. and Converse Counties

significant

The total area of Campbell 5.7 million

is approximately

acres of which 700,000 acres are federal Most of the federal Grasslands

land and 460,000 acres tracts;

are state land. however,

and state land is in scattered visitor

the National

with 31,600 recreation

days in 1973 land.

(344,000 acres) is the largest area of fairly well blocked The remaining tracts. Therefore, not significant in comparison any reduction in the recreation federal land (385,000 acres) is scattered

federal

as small isolated

land base, although significant

when compared

to total land base, may be extremely for this type of use.

to the area available

The major recreation of approximately

use in the study area today is hunting.

Loss

29,000 acres of land by 1990 will reduce game populations Hunting restrictions such as smaller hunt recreation

(850 deer and 2,700 antelope).

areas and shorter seasons will increase opportunity yet maintain resident maximum

in order to provide maximum big game herds.

producing

Because of populaby 65,800

tion increase, (66 percent) Projected

hunting

demand is expected

to increase

hunter days for antelope resident hunting

and deer over present

levels by 1990.

increased

demands are shown in Table 12.

1-537

Table Projected Increased

12 Hunting Demand

Resident

Animal Deer Antelope

1980 22,500 17,600

Hunter Days* 1985 32,800 25,500

1990 37,000 28,800

Total

Increase

40,100

58,300

65,800

*Includes

inside

and adjacent

to study area.

Industry acreage. increased

with

its attendant

population

increase

will require lands, alter

additional and

Development recreational land.

of material

sites,

replacement vehicle

agriculture use, will

use, such as off-road in other

additional and recre-

recreational ational

As experienced increase,

states, when population available

use levels

more private further

land normally reducing

for this land base. and rapid, of land-

type of use is closed Residents rather owners

and posted,

the recreation

have been very reluctant

to pay hunting

fees to landownders in the attitudes

significant, and hunters

changes will have if sufficient

to take place

harvests

are to be obtained.

The loss resulting loss of

from this type of action land base to coal mining

could be more

significant permanent

than the physical facilities.

and its required

In all probability in the River

by 1985 the hunter will adjacent mountains

leave the study area to pursue Hunting quality within

his recreation the Eastern

and plains.

Powder

Coal Basin development impact

is not expected of the basin's

to return

to its present

level as commitment

to

coal energy mineral and habitat.

resources

will have a long-term

on wildlife

populations

1-538

Though

limited

in the basic

study area, water-oriented analyzed.

recreation and associated quality. uses,

use does occur outside activities Wyoming with will consume

the region

being

Coal development water

large amounts for a change

of water of water

and decrease right

statutes

provide

to higher,

preferred water

industry

use rated higher base on irrigated

than agriculture. meadows, ditches,

Agricultural fishing

maintains

a recreation which provide

streams,

and reservoirs sightthe

for an indeterminate and general water outdoor

amount user.

of recreation

use by fisherman, of water involving losses will

seer, hiker, major result mountain

If commitments to industry,

courses

are made

these water and use. which

in reduced

water-based

recreation

opportunities

This water is presently ninety the facil-

loss problem being

is clearly

illustrated

by Keyhole

Reservoir

administered

for recreation

as a state park, yet approximately If this water were

percent

of the water

is sold to South Dakota.

used,

state park would ities

be destroyed

and one of the major water-base be lost. resulting from overutilization facilities

recreation

in the study area would Reduced water

quality

of sewage

plants

and solid waste plants), mining uses.

from mine

and conversion

(gasification

and power and gravel recreational the Rivers

increased

sedimentation will affect

as a result

of accelerated and other

erosion, associated

in streams This

fishing,

swimming,

impact will be most noticeable along the Belle

offsite

and downstream and North

from

area of development and reservoirs

Fourche,

Powder,

Platte

such as Keyhole

and Glendo. demand for sand, gravel, and clinker from stream material courses, This

Much of the projected (excess alluvial will of 1.5 million mountain scenic

cubic yards by 1990) may be mined or limestone lands, outcrops within

slopes,

the study area.

impact

recreation

either

directly

(streambeds)

or indirectly

(sightseeing). The anticipated population growth will generate increased demand recreation facilities. Based on average per capita rates, the estimated

on

1-539

future recreation

demand for such pursuits

as hiking, picnicking,

camping, is C.

etc., are shown in Table 13. illustrated

Demand upon urban recreation

facilities

in future projections

as shown in Tables 35 and 35a, Appendix Table 13

Recreation

Visitor

Days by Type Percent Increase 64% 69% 67% 28% 84% 54% (

1970 Hiking Picnicking Camping Fishing Boating Total 167,649 383,751 253,809 503,663 63,264 1,372,136

1990 275,565 647,069 424,789 646,632 116,262 2,110,317

Recreation Powder River Wildlife Keyhole, Gillette Guernsey,

facilities

such as Little Thunder Reservoir Grasslands

and Little

Area in the National

and Devils Tower, centers demand of

and Glendo State Parks near the population (35-60 miles) will experience

and Douglas

the greatest

and be subjected

to greater impacts. physical access, some additional federal land use.

With increased in the National

Grasslands

may become accessible

for recreational

This would offset some of the other losses in the recreation but also put additional Development railroads, sightseeing. viewing pressure on wildlife

land base recreation. plants,

needed for regional

of coal mines, power plants, gasification

and access roads will have a positive These facilities will provide provided

impact on recreational and educational are furnished. and industrializa-

interesting

for the visitor, Reduction

interpretive

facilities

in air quality

from coal development sightseer.

tion will impact the recreational

During inversion periods

1-540

and high winds, visibility of the area and reducing

will be reduced, obscuring the visitor's enjoyment.

the scenic views powerlines

Additional

will also impact the sightseer Recreation uncluttered, change.

and reduce his enjoyment

of the view. The open,

quality is a subjective value judgment. characteristics

sparsely inhabited

of the study area will a loss.

To those who value solitude,

this change will represent

To those more gregarious, will be a positive Selection (if reserves few remaining impact.

the change in type of recreational

atmosphere

of reservoir

sites may have positive benefits the sites may displace

for recreation

are dedicated);

however,

some of the meadows along

stream fisheries.

Rocky canyons and mountain

streams provide excellent

sources of food for fish and big game and if stream course below the dam. resource

inundated will effect the remaining

The overall effect of coal mining on the recreation of the study area will be to diminish It may also affect long-term by reducing nonresident economic

present quality for the residents. strength for certain business sectors resources

recreation

days.

Increased use of recreation

outside the study area could result in the lowering of recreation in an ever widening circle.

quality

1-541

Agriculture Development site utilization lead to changes of existing of Eastern Powder River Coal Basin coal reserves, within on-

and transportation in land use.

and out of the study area, will be at the expense land use

These changes will ultimately

agricultural

lands since agriculture

use is the dominant

on approximately

94 percent

(4,600,000 acres) of the study area. of the facilities described in the

Construction introductory

and development

part of this impact section will result in land use changes 29,000 acres. Of this amount, 33 percent (9,500 acres) of plant 19,500

on approximately

will have been permanently facilities, residential

removed

from production

by construction The remaining

areas, roads, and railroads. of reclamation. disturbed

acres will be in some sequence

An estimated

61 percent

(11,800 acres) of the temporarily
by 1990.

area will have been reclaimed

Approximately and lost to production 0.2 percent

0.6 percent by 1990.

of agricultural

land will be disturbed

The permanent agricultural

loss will amount to only land. The permanent loss to

of the total available regional

is not a significant

loss, but it may be quite significant However,

the rancher experiencing through purchase

the loss.

in most cases he is compensated

of his land by the mining company.

Livestock

grazing It is anticipated that 35 percent of all coal development will take

place in the vicinity would represent major portion Gillette

of Gillette

and northward,

where a loss of 4.3 acres (Alnl). The

the loss of one animal unit month of grazing is projected

of the coal development

to take place between is

and Douglas

in an area where each animal unit month of grazing

1-542

assumed

to average

6.5 acres.

Based on these assumptions

and an estimated grazing, a

96 percent summary assumed

of the agricultural annual

lands being used for livestock loss of AUMs is shown in Table cumulative increases annual

of the projected

14.

At the

rate of development,

the projected

loss of livestock

forage would

be 1,515 AUMs by 1980, which Compared

to 3,435 AU}1s by 1985 and AUMs of average

5,067 AUMs by 1990.
annual livestock

to an estimated within

total of 831,923

forage

available

the study area,

this represents

approximately

0.6 percent direct

loss of the annual loss of livestock

forage base by 1990. secondary impacts associated

Besides with will cause population occur.

forage,

increases

due to construction, occur

mining,

and related

developments and may left

Recreation

use will

that causes forage

a nuisance

problem

temporary

impairment

of livestock

use. Livestock little

are generally other will than

unattended fences.

on the open range most Improved access

of the time with increase

control

and the projected

in population

result

in increased and general occurred

vandalism outdoor

of livestock

watering Rustling

facilities

and fences by hunters of property has

recreationists.

and disturbance

in the past because animals,

of the inherent during calving These

lack of protection. and lambing

Molestation vehicle be impact

of grazing

especially

by off-road would

use, is a serious expected

problem

to ranchers.

types of incidents areas will result

to increase.

Expanding

residential livestock.

in greater

on agricultural

lands and grazing

Construction land separation many county

of railroads,

highways,

and service

roads will

lead to and

and alter present travelled

ownership access

patterns.

Railroad, fenced

highway,

or heavily

roads are usually

to prevent and isocause

accidents lation

and loss of livestock. which

This will result will disrupt

in the separation

of ranch properties,

established

use patterns,

1-543

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I-544

access

problems tracts

to livestock could result,

waters, which

buildings

and for care of livestock.

Small

isolated

are too small in size to be used profitably. during extreme blizzard conditions of by

Livestock severe winter animals jected losses fences, being

drift with

the wind

storms.

Historically,

heavy

livestock

losses have occurred

trapped by fences, will

deep-cut

draws and other obstacles. obstacles. Additional

Many pro-

developments

create additional

livestock by additional

can be expected

to occur from obstacles rights-of-way

and traps created developments.

road and railroad Physical

and similar private

separation grazing

of adjoining

land from Bureau allotments

of Land by fenced admin-

Management

federal may

leases and division

of grazing

rights-of-way istered

cause loss of leases or, in the case of Forest realignment of grazing allotment

Service

lands, necessitate

boundaries

and users.

Some loss of grazing activities

use on federal within

lands will occur due to coal developmental loss of agricultural land

and is included

the total projected

and production. Generally, miles. each livestock water watering facility services several square

Some loss of livestock

is anticipated

through

change

of land

use or land severance. result

Increased

use of ground water

supplies water

may also levels. The of easy

in the loss of livestock source

water wells by lowering the usability wells water.

loss of water rangeland.

could affect

of several

square miles may prevent

The high cost of replacing of adequate livestock

and reservoirs

reestablishment

Some grazing mentation. accelerated Alteration erosion losses

lands could be affected of drainages by mining

by increased or disturbed drainage

erosion

and sedi-

lands could cause bottoms resulting reservoirs

and headcutting of livestock through

in productive forage. reduction

in additional would

Sedimentation of storage

of livestock capacities.

cause loss of water

Farming Loss of nonirrigated of total land area occupied, of the projected farmland compared production is estimated on the basis A summary 14.

to the total county and farmland

land area.

loss of crop production

is contained

in Table

1-545

It is estimated be removed from production 1990. Crop production

that 189 acres of nonirrigated

cropland would

by 1980, 421 acres by 1985, and 616 acres by therefore, be anticipated of wheat annually. This to

losses by 1990 would,

be equal to 254 tons of hay and 4,129 bushels would represent hay production 0.7 percent of the estimated of 38,625 tons and 0.8 percent of 528,652 bushels

average annual nonirrigated of the total nonirrigated

wheat production

in the study area. is anticipated to occur due to cropland may for roads,

Impacts to irrigated the projected expansion

croplands

of Douglas.

Additional

irrigated

be affected by industrial water diversions pipelines, railroads,

and rights-of-way

and similar developments. loss of 450 acres of irrigated cropland would

The anticipated

result in a loss equal to 549 tons of hay, plus yield from III acres of miscellaneous approximately and minor crops. This loss of hay production would represent from irrigated

one percent of the 48,876 tons produced the study area. irrigated

annually

croplands within

Loss of productive

cropland will also occur from conversion use. The possible loss of irrigated

of irrigation water rights to industrial cropland due to water conversion

is shown in Table 15. Table 15

Projected

Cumulative Loss of Irrigated Cropland Due to Water Right Conversion Projected Annual Industrial & Municipal (Acre/Feet) Irrigated* Cropland Lost (Acres) 11,473 25,564 31,473

1980 1985 1990 *Assuming 1.1 acre-feet

12,620 28,120 34,620 of water is used per acre of cropland.

1-546

Industry gated cropland with

has already the intent

made known of water

purchases

of 12,000

acres of irrithe acrethe

right-conversion involve

for use within 13,200

study area by 1980. feet of water. Powder

This conversion purchases

would

an estimated being made

Additional

are presently River

throughout

River Basin and the North inside

Platte

system

in Wyoming

for use in water is

coal development the major supply

and outside

of the study area. although

Irrigation

available

to industry

some plans

are being

developed is as

to obtain water not contained shown in Table

from deep wells. the projected

The anticipated industrial

use of deep well water water needs

within 15.

and municipal

Based on present supply to many acres

information,

water

is indicated Loss of water

to be in short for irrigation six

of irrigated replaced

croplands.

could not be readily percent

from existing

sources.

Approximately

of the irrigation and municipal

water would

be needed

to satisfy

the projected

industrial of winter area with

needs by 1990. industry

This represents equal to 67,200

the loss of a source tons of hay in an

feed to the livestock a winter feed deficit.

Summary The direct not constitute is anticipated cultural loss of agricultural regional land and production as lost production by 1990 would by that time agri-

an important to represent

impact

one percent

or less of the total regional

production. Land severence problems, loss of livestock water, and other disto hazards These impacts

ruptions created

will occur by mining,

and some livestock construction,

will be lost directly activities.

and operation

1-547

will be localized region's

in nature

and would

not involve

a major

change

in the

agriculture. A projected six percent loss of irrigation not be considered the study area. conversions cropland water supplies and hence

irrigated impact

cropland

production agriculture

would within

to be a significant Locally, beyond this could

to overall

be a significant may have eastern duction serious Wyoming

impact. impacts

However,

water

1990 projections within north-

on total irrigated operations

production

and on livestock feed.

that rely on irrigated

hay pro-

for winter Impact

on individual

ranchers

cannot be determined in higher

on a regional the

basis.

Loss of agricultural supplies

land could result and livestock feed

prices within have

area as additional into the area.

(hay) would

to be brought

1-548

Transportation Impact on transportation coal and construction portation population

Networks (1) mining of (2) transand

networks will be caused by: and transportation

of utilization

facilities, employment

of coal out of the study area, and (3) increased with its attendant increase in vehicles

and miles travelled. resulting from populaThe

The actual impacts on transportation tion increases will be primarily Gillette/Campbell

networks

on highway commuting

and airports.

County Airport will most probably

receive

the major impact

from increased use. Based on the 1970 rate of vehicle registrations the projected number of registered automobiles per 1,000 persons, and Converse The highway Counties

for Campbell

by 1990 is 30,400.

This is 43 percent more than in 1970.

arteries and

that will be most impacted are State Highway 59 between Gillette U.S. Highways Highway 14 and 16 combined, north and east of Gillette.

and Douglas

By 1980, State per day 14 and U.S. 14 1-90 is The

59 is expected

to have a flow of approximately and 1,000 vehicles

3,300 vehicles

north of Reno Junction 16 north of Gillette

per day south.

U.S. Highways per day.

are expected

to have about 2,400 vehicles

and 16 east of Gillette will probably completed. Wyoming

receive less traffic when Highway and vehicle

Increase in road maintenance

accidents will result. improvement

State Highway Department

estimates

that substantial

and upto

grading of State Highway 59 between accommodate the projected

Gillette

and Douglas will be required This upgrading

traffic flow increases.

and improveand wildlife.

ment will create minor environmental Present travel.

impacts on soils, vegetation,

accident rate on this stretch is 2.6 per 100 million vehicle miles of The State Highway Department predicts that even if traffic flow doubles

or triples the rate will not change but more accidents will occur as the number of miles travelled will increase.

"
1-549

Carter north of Gillette

Oil Company to a point

intends

to reroute

a portion

of State Highway impact

59

east of the coal lease. through traffic traffic. A limited further

Overall

is viewed area to used

as beneficial avoid possible with

in that it takes congestion

from the mining

with mining per day.

This road is only lightly number of minor graded

less than 400 vehicles roads

dirt

roads and gravel lightly traffic. travelled

lie within

mining

lease areas but they are generally if necessary without much with disturbance to

and could be rerouted Department

The State Highway Construction

foresees railroad

no difficulty route will

these roads. as 50

of the primary

cross as many

unimproved lightly

and graded dirt roads and many to ranches construction

lesser

roads which Grade

are all generally or detours impact on

used for access during

and oil fields. which will

crossings

will be provided the traveller.

cause an inconvenience coal, 46 unit Impacts

Once the railroad

commences

transporting

trains per

(
day by 1990 may be expected highways will be negligible from Gillette inasmuch to Douglas. on the designated and as they will be crossed traffic. The Wyoming by an overpass State Highway may develop at

thus not impede Department

the flow of vehicular

has indicated the existing signal

that a potential railroad tracks

traffic

tie-up problem

Glendo where The present pass.

cross U.S. Highway may have

26 and 87 combined. by an overof numerous are less of

and gate at this location of the designated grade

to be replaced the crossings

Unlike

the crossings

highways,

lesser roads will be by standard travelled, train traffic the tracks.

crossings.

Although

these roads

of up to 46 trains per day will A potential for an inestimable

restrict number

freedom

travel across accidents

of train-auto

is possible. Numerous new roads, railroads, power and pipelines are proposed for 82

construction.

The pipelines

and transmission

lines are depicted

on Figures

1-550

and 83, Chapter impact

IV.

These proposals, some existing

at least during

the construction Minor

phase, will

and disrupt

transportation

networks.

electric but without applies is not than

transmission inconvenience

lines may require

relocation

due to mining

activity

to the user or cost to the owner. that may require any electric relocations.

A similar Railroad

circumstance

to any pipelines expected requiring 230-kv

construction other

to affect

transmission

lines or pipelines

some minor

line relocations.

The construction

of the three proposed existing with transof

electric

transmission Highway

lines is not expected crossings are usually

to impact achieved

portation delay.

networks.

a minimum

Construction cross numerous temporary travelled electric caution

of both

the slurry and synthetic dirt roads with Highways

gas pipelines impact

will than

unimproved during

and graded construction.

little

other

detours

in this vicinity No impact are being

are not heavily is expected crossed and of on

and little congestion transmission

or delay

is expected. routes to avert

lines but other pipeline during construction

must be exercised line.

the accidental

rupture

an existing

A new highway Junction area. other which would

is proposed

for construction a more direct

between

Newcastle

and Reno

give Newcastle

link to the coal development to adversely affect any of the of a

Construction transportation or overhead Impact

of this road is not expected systems other than require line.

an infrequent

relocation

pipeline

transmission

from the transportation to manifest itself

of coal, its derivatives on highways and railroads

and service only. The

supplies actual

is expected

transportation

of electricity and water

by powerlines, by aquaduct

coal by slurry pipeline, other systems.

synthettc

~as by pipeline,

will not impact

1-551

The shipment of service supplies by highway will increase Newcastle and Reno Junction and between Increased costs.

traffic between

Casper and the two Cities of Gillette road wear and higher is of high standard but

and Douglas. maintenance

traffic will induce incremental

The highway between

Casper and Douglas

and appears able to withstand the route between Midwest ing to accommodate location).

the increase

in traffic without modification,

and Reno Junction will require considerable traffic (see Figure 80, Chapter

upgradIV, for

service supplies

The existing railroad standard

line was built a number of years ago to a the shipment of a large number of heavy This line will thus experience and will require significantly rapid large

that did not contemplate

trains hauling deterioration

coal on a daily basis.

from its present condition

amounts of capital to maintain probability low. Burlington

it at a standard high enough to keep accident is planning and programming for the up-

Northern

grading of all lines which will experience is usually accomplished by replacing

coal train traffic.

Upgrading

deterioriated

ties and laying a heavier or roads, minor delays

grade of rail.

~fuere the main line crosses highways

may be caused by this upgrading.

1-552

Land Tenure The impending has already impacted from individual issuance development of the Eastern Powder River Coal Basin The recent trend of change in ownership is apparently in anticipation approval of

land tenure.

to corporate

ownership

of additional

federal

coal leases and pending Many companies ranching

of mining

plans on existing

coal leases.

are acquiring

land in the mining the

name of the company, a subsidiary operation. general possible

operation,

or a subsidiary is to reinforce

The general impact of change in ownership of agricultural

trend of deemphasis outcome

and grazing

land use with the owned, they may removed from their

that once these lands are corporately properties use. and perhaps permanently

be held as investment original property agricultural elsewhere,

Present

ranchers will have to buy comparable arrange a entirely. and

get by with less acreage in their operation, agreement,

lease and repurchase

or get out of the ranching business offices

Conversations Converse Counties

with the county assessor's

in Campbell

and with numerous

other sources provide

only a wide range ownership.

for the number of private These sources estimate

acres that have passed into corporate

that over the last five years 30,000 to 50,000 acres to corporate ownership. Many companies

in each county have passed from private are still in the negotiation estimate

stage of their land purchases, is unavailable.

and an accurate

of total acreage involved

1-553

Socia-Economic

Conditions utilized in analyses of

The general approach and methodology impacts on the socia-economic contained in Appendix Development with associated C. of the coal resources in employment conditions baseline

conditions

of the study area is

of Campbell

and Converse

Counties

increases

and population

will have varying

impacts on the socia-economic areas.

of the basic study area and surrounding which will occur is the foundation

In fact, the increase in population

and cause of many of the secondary

impacts associated with coal development.

Population Population projections for the cities and counties of the Eastern of conditions the

Powder River Coal Basin from 1980 to 1990 are only estimates considered population likely to occur, not predictions. estimates were developed

The model from which C.

is located in Appendix

Projected

population

distribution region (Campbell, Converse, population Crook, Johnson,

In the eight-county Natrona, Niobrara,

Sheridan, and Weston)

has been projected

to increase consequence 16).

from 107,364 in 1970 to approximately of forthcoming

167,000 in 1990 as a development (Table

coal and other industrial

During this 20-year period, population 55 percent.

will have expanded in the eightcounty will con-

county region approximately

The most populous 1990 population

tinue to be Natrona with an anticipated represents 51,264.

of 61,800 which of

an increase of 20.6 percent relative County will experience

to the 1970 population

Campbell

the greatest percentage

increase

of any county in the region during the period 1970 to 1990 (Figure 8).

1-554

1970-1980

1980 -1990

LEGEND

C> C>

Campbell

Natrona Converse

Other (Crook, Johnson, Niobrara, Sheridan, Weston)

1970-1990

Figure County

8

Growth as a Percent of Reg ioncl Growth

1-555

Population

will have tripled from a 1970 total of 12,597 to a projected Converse County will encounter Population population expansion from 5,938

1990 level of 50,400. of 156 percent between

1970 to 1990.

will increase

in 1970 to 15,200 in 1990. from an existing

The population

of Johnson County will grow

level in 1970 of 5,587 to a total in 1990 of 7,400, representincrease from 1970 to 1990. The Counties of Crook, increases from

ing a 32.5 percent Sheridan,

and Weston will experience

only slight population

1970 to 1990 with four percent.

the growth rate during

that time period not exceeding will have less population

Of the eight counties, Population

only Niobrara

in 1990 than 1970.

will drop from a 1970 level of 2,924 to of 11.1 percent.

a 1990 level of 2,600 for a 20-year rate of decrease

Table 16 Population Projections 1980 Campbell Converse Crook Johnson Natrona Niobrara Sheridan Weston Total 32,200 13,200 4,500 7,500 59,000 2,800 18,200 6,300 143,700 1985 46,600 14,900 4,600 7,400 60,400 2,700 18,300 6,300 160,200 1990 50,400 15,200 4,600 7,400 61,800 2,600 18,500 6,500 167,000

Campbell

County.

Campbell

County will be the second most populous 1990 popuof

county in the Eastern Powder River Coal Basin with an anticipated 1ation of 50,400, 300 percent higher 12,597. Campbell County between

than the current 1970 population

1970 to 1990 will capture over 60 percent increase of approximately 63,000

of the anticipated

regional population

1-556

(Figure 9).

Population

growth will be most pronounced

from 1975 to 1980 to rise from growth rate will five-

when population

will nearly double.

Growth will continue

1980 to 1985, increasing

from 32,200 to 45,600.

The five-year

from 1980 to 1985 is 41.6 percent.

From 1985 to 1990, population

increase at a rate of 10.5 percent which is less than the previous year period but still the highest regionally.

The City of Gillette will (Table 44, Appendix

grow from a 1970 total of 7,194 to a 1990 total of 28,000 The projected 20-year growth rate for Gillette

C).

is 289.2 percent.

Converse County.

Converse County will be the fourth most populous Population will

county in the region by 1990 having been fifth in 1970. rise from 5,938 in 1970 to 15,200 in 1990, representing rate of 156.6 percent. 15.5 percent 63,000. Converse

a 20-year growth

County between 1970 to 1990 will capture regional population increase of approximately from 1970 to 1975, reaching

of the anticipated

Population

growth will be most pronounced Population

a total of 9,900.

in 1975 will have risen by 66.7 percent from

a 1970 level of 5,938. increasing

Growth will continue to rise from 1975 to 1980,

from 9,900 to 13,200 for a five-year growth rate of 33.3 percent. will grow but more slowly. In 1990, the 1980

From 1980 to 1990, population population population.

of 15,200 will be about 2,000 greater than the anticipated In 1990, Converse County will have two urban places
1

as opposed

to one in 1970.

vfui1e Douglas will grow from a 1970 total of 2,677 to

a 1990 total of about 7,000, Glenrock will increase during the same time period from 1,515 to nearly 4,000 (Table 44, Appendix

C).

Crook, Johnson, Natrona, Niobrara, Population

Sheridan and Weston Counties. in Johnson and

growth from 1970 to 1990 will be most prominent

1 Urban place is defined

as a city with a population

greater than 2,500.

1-557

22,4%

1970

1980

LEGEND

C>
:'::'::'::':'
.:::.:.:.

Natrona

C>
1990

@>::::,:::::".
Shendan Campbell Converse

Other (Crook Niobrara

I

I

Johnson Weston)

Fi qu r e 9 Population Distribution, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, 1970,1980,1990

1-558

Natrona will

Counties.

During

this time period, from 5,587

population

in Johnson

County

increase

by 32.5 percent

to 7,400; population to 61,800. no more

in Natrona in Crook, growth

County will Sheridan,

grow by 20.6 percent Counties

from 51,264 experience will

Population

and Weston

will

than four percent Population of 11.1

from 1970 to 1990.

Only Niobrara

lose population.

in Niobrara percent.

County will be 2,600 in 1990 which This six-county 1990 regional will receive growth with the other of Crook, Niobrara remain subregion will

is a decline about

in 20 years

capture

25 percent

of the anticipated Natrona County

population approximately

increase 10,500 of Crook,

of approximately or nearly Johnson,

60,000.

two-thirds Sheridan,

of the 1990 subregional and Weston sharing in

the Counties

one-third. Sheridan, which will

Population and Weston consistently city in the

growth between

1970 and 1990 for the Counties except for

will be stable and inconsequential lose population. study area.

The City of Casper will of Casper Of the other will

the largest

The population to about 47,000.

will grow between urban places

1970 and 1990 from 39,361 subregion, growth.

in the six-county

only the City of Buffalo Buffalo will

experience

significant

population

grow from 3,394 growth rate of very

in 1970 to approximately 32.6 percent. little growth, Urban in the Eastern in 1970. County was populous Prior The Cities i.e.,

4,500 in 1990 which of Newcastle

is a 20-year will

and Sheridan

encounter

less than four percent centers. River There will

from 1970 to 1990. exist two major population centers

growth Powder

Coal Basin by 1990 compared industrial development,

to a single Casper

center

to coal and other urban

in Natrona

the principal

center.

Currently,

Sheridan

is the second most for county line from

city in the Powder Energy

River

Basin and serves as a focus of a railroad

activities.

development

and construction

1-559

Gillette

to Douglas

will alter will reach

the population 28,000, while than Sheridan historically

balance. population

By 1990 population

in

the City of Gillette will be 47,000. populous because city.

in the City of Casper the second most urban center

Gillette Although

rather Casper

will become

has been with

the major

of its relative to attract to locate

greater

size, Gillette

its increased otherwise

population would have

may begin preferred

certain

econoTIic activities Conseouently, Powder River

which

in Casoer.

there could be two population (Table 44,

foci developed App~ndix C).

in the Eastern

Coal Basin by 1990

Employment Employment facilities and Analysis jection projections are based on estimated generation) I. coal production and

(mines, gasification·, and power Guidelines, assume Chapter II, Part

shown in Assumptions employment pro-

County-by-county

figures

that employment

and residence

are coincidental, out. Projection

but where Tables Institute, model impact

anomalies 45 through University

in this assumtion 53 (Appendix of Wyoming,

may exist they are pointed

C) were provided based

by the Water Resources and population

Research

on the employment Resource

projection

used for the Northern study. region jected Figure

Great Plains

Program

social and economic employment

10 graphically

displays

changes

in sector

for the pro-

and Campbell employment Regional

and Converse

Counties. growth.

Figures

11, 12 and 13 display

and population employment

is impacted

by a projected

period

of employ1970 to 1980 C). by

ment growth

that could be described for the period employment

as enormous

for the period

and substantial Total 41.4 percent

1980 to 1990

(Table 45, Appendix

for 1970 to 1980 is projected

to increase

(17,060 new jobs) and 20.6 percent

(11,985 new jobs)

from 1980

1-560

8 County
12.4%

6%

LEGEND

0>
...... . ..
,

,

Agriculture Petroleuma Natural Gas

~ ~ ~
Campbell County
28.4% 16.9%

Coal Etal

/>;
~ ~ ~
2.4%

Mining 8 Manufacturing

Constuction

Railroads

Other Residentiaries

44.6%

54.5% 12.5%

Converse County

9.4%

10.9%

Explanation Coal Etal: Cool Mining, Gasification and Power Generation. Manufacturing: All Mining and Milling of Coal and manufacturing of Farm and miscellaneous products. Other Residentiaries: Consumer and Business Services and Government and Education. Mining

a

1970

1980

1990
ClInd

Figure 10 Employment by sectors for 1970,1980

1990.

170 167,000 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 107,364 117,500

143,700

160,200

en en

Z <

X X Actual
1:::1 tV

x 1975 1980 1985 1990

l)XX<'X1

Total employment (all sectors)

Total population

Figure

12

Total Employment and Total Population Projections for Campbell County 1970-1990.

1-563

17
\

16 15 14 13 12 II 10

-

I

15,200 14,900
I I

13,200

I

I

/

Il
II

-

Ii

f

I(
9,900

-

Kt::
I
I
6,270 6, 382

h I{

I(
( (

6

-

5,938 5,421

5
4 3

3,979

(
(

2,168

2

-

~

x
X

.
I

..

x
X

'>I.

o

x v Actual

~ I
1980 1985

L..l
1990

1970

1975

l<5<5<5¢l Total employment (all sectors)
Figure 13

Total population

Total Employment and Total Population Projections for Converse County 1910-1990.

1-564

to 1990.

After

1985 the employment

surge begins

to taper off due principally plants (synthetic

to the lack of introduction gas in tables) and a reduced

of any new coal gasification rate of increase

of coal mining power

employment. generation, the greatest

Employment railroads, numerical jobs).

in coal mining, and uranium growth

coal gasification, mining and milling

construction, and percentage

sustains

increase

during

1970 to 1990

(10,019 new growth in

All but

the latter are coal related sectors. A shortage will

and induce

substantial

other residentiary coal gasification, labor supply

of available likely

labor for coal mining, a bidding war for the Labor

and construction

induce

in petrochemicals,

other residentiaries,

and agriculture. Despite of a labor

will likely be attracted of labor across sectors,

from the latter

to the former. possibility

this movement shortage Map 6,

there is a strong

in the coal-related Appendix

sectors

and most particularly labor employment

in construction.

A shows coal related Certain employment

locations. as a direct result by of

sectors will be impacted Agriculture industries.

coal development

and employment. to coal-related comparable

may be the most Agriculture

impacted

loss of employment to offer salaries

cannot be expected and is expected between 1970 to

to those of the energy industry (a loss of 465 employees) will

lose 12.3 percent and 1990.

of its employment

Its share of regional in 1990

employment (Figure 10).

also drop from 9.2 percent this may have on

in 1970 to 4.7 percent agricultural by increased

What impact Labor

productivity mechanization

is speculative. or improved which

losses could be offset

efficiency. lost employment to continue between 1960 and 1970 coal as

The railroad

industry,

(from 518 to 305) and would freight, will likely reverse

be expected

this trend without

this trend and by 1980 employ

as many people

it did in 1960.

1-565

Impact from coal gasification between greater 1975 and 1980, requiring

employment

will likely occur initially employees. However, that may

about 800 permanent

than this will be the prior demand for construction Construction employees

employees

reach a peak of 3,000. Construction to peak between required generation available through

could take three years per plant. is expected workers plants, will be

will be in heavy demand which Large numbers of construction

1980 and 1985.

1990 for construction and housing.

of coal gasification

power

plants,

The skilled labor required

does not appear periods.

in the area in the amount required Impact on other residentiaries

for peak construction

is a direct function

of employment are considered does not

in the basic sectors nonbasic

(only construction Although

and other residentiaries numerical relationship

or secondary). employment

a precise

exist between

in the basic sector plus construction a range can be made. For Campbell

and employment (Table 46,

in other residentiaries, Appendix

County

C) for the years 1970 through to total employment in a basic sector

1990, the ratio of basic plus construc-from 0.56 to 0.45. Thus, one addi-

tion employment tional employee

ranges

(coal, etc.) induces a total employment being attributable to other residentiaries. in coal position

of 1.8 to 2.2 persons,

the difference

The figures are not as important mining, coal gasification

as realizing

that for each employee an additional employment employee

or power generation, Filling

is induced in other residentiaries. lag behind employment

in this sector will of the available for movement

in energy industries

due to attraction

supply of labor to higher paying energy jobs. is generally considered beneficial

This opportunity

to the employee.

It should be emphasized sector (such as law

that it will be difficult enforcement) incomes.

to fill jobs in the services are fixed with no allowance could be recruitment

where salaries

for areas of inflated inferior personnel

The consequences

problems,

and understaffing. In summary, development of the coal resource will provide a large

number of basic and secondary will compete fiercely

jobs, perhaps

as many as 30,000 by 1990, which Skilled labor shortages

for the available

supply of labor.

1-566

for construction plant construction

peaks

during

coal gasification

plant and generating by simultaneous plant

may be severe and could be worsened identification

construction. isolates

Impact

on a county by county basis

further

the location

of these impacts.

Campbell

and Converse Campbell

Counties and principally the City of Gillette, region will likely

County,

experience

the most C).

impact within

the eight-county

(Tables 54 through employrailroadin 1980 employ-

56, Appendix ment growths

The county

is projected

to experience

significant

in coal gasification,

coal mining,

power generation,

ing and construction (Table 46, Appendix ment

from a total of 351 employees C). This is a change The bulk

in 1970 to 5,523 of county

of 7.4 percent

to 39.9 percent.

of total regional

employment

in coal mining, in Campbell

coal gasification, County. shortage

power

generation,

and construction

is expected

With a 1970 unemployment of available The economic labor. structure

level of 2.6 percent,

there is an obvious

of Converse

County

is likely

to be impacted. of

Agriculture county (Figure

will

no longer be dominant

and will

fall from 22.4 percent

employment

in 1970 to 8.3 percent and Table

in 1980 and 6.6 percent C).

in 1990

10, this chapter; based more

47, Appendix

In its place will be Power generato

an economy

on energy which

and railroad

transportation.

tion and coal mining, employ County. primary alter 382 in 1980. Uranium

employed

39 persons

in 1970, are expected will

The bulk of railroad and milling,

employment

occur in Converse to become could the

mining

however,

is expected change

employment

sector by 1980. on Converse plants County.

One significant The change County

largely of one of

the impact

of the location to Converse

the coal gasification

from Campbell

County would

1-567

make coal related railroads, employment to directly amount

employment

in mining, the largest

gasification, employer

power generation, Thus, related of a large impacts on

and construction impacts would

in the county. noncoal

change from being which would

principally

coal related,

require

the importation with subsequent

of labor

to fill employment sectors County

vacancies

other socia-economic and housing. where

discussed could

and most immediately be placed

population in the position outside Campbell

Converse

conceivably

a large number

of its residents

are commuting is located

and employed in southern

the county County.

if the coal gasification

plant

Crook,

Johnson, Crook,

Natrona, Johnson,

Niobrara,

Sheridan,

and Weston

Counties role

and Sheridan

Counties

play an insignificant in Campbell

in the coal development Counties Johnson

projected

to take place

and Converse to it. by coal

and show no change and Sheridan within

in employment

directly

attributable impacted

Counties

are, however,

potentially Montana,

development

Johnson

County and southern

but an analysis

of this impact Table County at all through

is beyond

the scope of this statement. C, projects rather moderate growth for Natrona if

50, Appendix

1990, but this growth

is only partially

attributable,

(and only secondarily), County Niobrara from_coal County,

to coal development.

Any impacts minor.

on employment

in Natrona

development like Crook,

are considered is faced with

little

impact

from energy

development.

However,

there is one firm proposal a number

to ship coal via a and permanent the

slurry pipeline jobs within

that could create

of temporary

the county.

Few specifics,

other

than those cited within

1-568

Modes of Distribution A preliminary estimate

section,

Chapter II, Part I, are known at this time. workers will be needed for two

of 1,000 construction

years, and a permanent

crew of 200 will be employed. is dependent on construction of

Impact on Weston County, like Niobrara, of a transportation a highway between link. Newcastle C). The impact depends and Reno Junction

entirely

on construction County

in Campbell

(Tables 48

through 52, Appendix Income

Income levels for the entering range from $10,000 sufficiently to $15,000 per year. to lure employees

coal or industrial Whether

worker will

or not these incomes are

attractive

to the Eastern Powder River Coal workers will be high, e.g., government services

Basin is unknown.

While incomes of the industrial employment, lower.

incomes of the work force in supportive and consumer services, may be relatively

The average

income of the

induced labor force will be greater region ($10,900).

than or at least equal to that of the incomes and probabey inflation of of

The effects of rising

prices and property the population recipients.

values will be particularly

adverse on that portion

living on fixed incomes, this condition

such as disabled,

aged and welfare rapid industrial

Although

is almost universal,

growth could likely worsen

the situation. Product (GRP) for the Powder River Basin will to a projected 1990

The Gross Regional increase from an estimated

1970 level of $730,000,000

level of $1,240,000,000 Product economic

to $1,410,000,000

(current dollars). annually

Gross Regional the value of

is an income accounting goods and services.

tool which measures

The estimated Department

GRP was derived from data in PLanning and Development

a 1972 report of the Wyoming (Burnett 1972, p. 2). people for participation Regional Product

of Economic

Civilian

income represents

the income received by Gross

in current production

(Burnett 1972, p. 12).

is the product of employment

and mean income when divided by the product (Burnett 1972, p. 2).

proportion

of the civilian

income to gross national

1-569

The 1990 Gross Regional at the present worker. the mean incoming regional

Product

was computed

for additional

employment per coal

mean income

of $10,900 employment

and at $15,000 are likely

As incomes income

for supportive

to approximate of the

and given

the anticipated

relatively

high income

industrial

worker,

a range for the 1990 GRP was developed.

Housing Table five-year Implicit who work 17 displays projected urban, housing demand from 1980 to 1990 in each county. employees labor

increments

by county,

and rural

areas within

in these projections in a given

are four major

assumptions:

(1) Those

county also reside in urban

in that county,

(2) the incoming

force will prefer location patterns

to locate of 1970,

and rural

areas similar of urban

to the existing by

(3) the percentage for the future

and rural housing and

county has been projected of housing rural area, demand

at 1970 levels,

(4) projections city,

are based

on 1970 household

size for each respective to identify

and county. patterns

Because

it is difficult work

the location based

and commuting

of the arriving

force,

these assumptions

on 1970 levels, the housing

have been used.

Furthermore,

these projections

underestimate to account

demand

of the population

as they have not been increased market. units

for the vacancy

rates which would demand

occur in the housing

The housing and 53,500 8,900 more to meet units

for the study area will be 46,400 to the 1970 base of 37,463. regionally

in 1980

in 1990 relative

Approximately in 1970 demand in and

units will be required population

in 1980 than existed demand.

the rising

and resultant

The 1990 housing than existed

is 6,000 units more 1980. The greatest Counties,

than 1970 totals and 7,100 units more increases primarily in housing demand will

occur in Campbell related

Converse

due to coal and other energy only Natrona and Johnson

development. that

Of the remaining

six counties

show a demand

1-570

000 000

'" 0"'-<1" .-I I .-I I

- s::

t1l cd

~
0
U

0

0 0 1-1
U

~ ..cl

en

0

~
-I-l
H

H 1-1
.0 cd

-e
0
t1l ..-l

§
..-l

H

o Q) ~ s::
1-1 0

-I-l ..cl
QJ

0

O..-l ..-l 0

~~
en

tlOl-I

"
1-579

Z

Z

(J)

~

Q)

Q)

~

P::~

number

of full-time

teachers

in these counties

would

be totally While

inadequate Johnson,

to cope with and Natrona

enrollment Counties

projections continue Niobrara,

for 1980 to 1990. to operate and Weston

Sheridan, capacity

would

near maximum Counties

levels, very

school districts minimal capacity changes

in Crook,

would

realize

in 1980 to 1990 enrollments than 25 percent. The most

and would

operate

below maximum

levels by more Campbell

County.

significant

impacts realize

on public a phenominal

education 300 a school

would

take place

in Campbell increase

County which would between

percent detailed

enrollment analysis

1974 and 1990.

Table

19 provides on existing period

of the impacts teaching

of increasing staffs.

enrollments

capacities enrollment increase

and full-time growth would

The most critical

of student would

occur between from 3,022

1974 and 1980, when to 8,050 students. be unable to absorb capacity

enrollment Existing

by 166.4 percent and teaching

school

facilities By 1980, percent

staffs would would

this large increase. levels by 97.5 high and 200

school enrollments in elementary schools.

exceed maximum

schools

and 82.7 percent would

in both junior require

senior high more

The school district and school

approximately

full-time

teachers

facilities

with which

enrollment includes students. number

capacities 1,990 elemen-

to accommodate

an additional

3,810 students,

tary, 910 junior high,

and 910 senior high school capacity

By 1990, the enrollment teachers ment would

and existing

of full-time enroll-

need to triple in order students. County. The Douglas

to accommodate

the projected

of 12,600

Converse Converse ments

and Glenrock

school

districts

in

County would

realize

a 109.7 percent Table 20 details

increase

in student

enroll-

between

1974 and 1990. school

the impacts

of increasing st2ffs.

enrollments

on existing

capacities

and full-time

teacher

1-580

Table

19 School District Levels, and Teacher Actual 1974,"

Enrollment

Campbell County Unified Projections, Capacity

Needs

1980

Projections 1985

1990

Total Enrollment 3,022 Projected Number of Pupils'''''~ Number over (+) , under (- ) capaci ty*,b" - 768 -20.3% Percent over or under capacity Elementary Enrollment (K-6) Projected Number of Pupils# Number over (+), under (- ) capacity Percent over or under capacity Junior High Enrollment (7-9) Projected Number of Pupils Number over (+), under (- ) capacity Percent over or under capacity Senior High Enrollment (10-12) Projected Number of Pupils Number over (+), under (- ) capacity Percent over or under capacity Full-time Teachers Projected Number Deficit/lilif

8,050 +3,810 +89.9%

11,400 +7,160 +168.9%

12,600 +8,360 +197.2%

1,722 - 318 -15.6%

4,030 +1,990 +97.5%

5,700 +3,660 +179.4%

6,300 +4,266 +208.8%

699 + 49 + 7.5%

2,010 910 +82.7%

2,850 +1,750 +159.1%

3,150 +2,050 +186.4%

601 - 499 - 45.4%

2,010 + 910 +82.7%

2,850 +1,750 +159.1%

3,150 +2,050 +186.4%

Required##

204 0

405 - 201

570 366

630 426

*1974 figures represent existing levels in enrollments and teaching staffs. **Refer to Appendix C, Table 70 for derivation of projections. ***1974 maximum enrollment capacity total equals 3,790, which includes 2,040 elementary, 650 junior high and 1,100 senior high student enrollment capacities. By 1980, the maximum enrollment capacity total will be 4,240 with an increase in junior high school enrollment capacity to 1,100 students. #lncludes figures for rural schools (grades K-8). ##Based on students to teacher ratios of 20 to 1. ###Based on Fall 1973 level of 204 full-time teachers.

1-581

Table

20

Converse County Unified School District #1 (Douglas) & #2 (Glenrock) Enrollment Projections, Capacity Levels, and Teacher Needs Actual 1974* Total Enrollment Projected Number of Pupi1s** Number over (+), under (-) capacity*** Percent over or under capacity Elementary Enrollment (K-6) Projected Number of Pupi1s# Number over (+), under (-) capacity Percent over or under capacity Junior-Senior High Enrollment (7-12) Projected Number of Pupils Number over (+). under (-) capacity Percent over or under capacity Full-Time Teachers Projected Number Required## Defici ttFt/1l 1,8q.8 -272 -12.8% 998 - 172 -14.7% 850 - 100 -0.8% 92 0 1980 Projections 1985 1990

---

3,300 + 750 +27.2% 1.650 + 305 +22.7%

3.725 +1,130 +43.5% 1.865 + 520 +38.7% 1.860 + 610 +48.8% 186 83

3.875 +1.280 +49.3% 1.935 + 590 +43.9%

1.650 + 400 +48.8% 165 62

1.940 + 690 +55.2% 194 91

*1974 figures represent existing levels in enrollments and teaching staffs. **Refer to Appendix C. Table 71 for derivation of projections. ***1974 maximum enrollment capacity total equals 2.120 which includes 1,170 elementary and 950 junior-senior high student enrollment capacities. By 1980, the maximum enrollment capacity total will be 2,595 with an increase in elementary enrollment capacity to 1,345 and junior-senior high enrollment capacity to 1,250. t/ figures for rural schools (K-8). {if/Includes students to teacher ratio of 20 to 1. IItlllBased on Based on Fall 1973 level of 103 full-time teachers.

1-582

Like Campbell County would enrollments increase would

County,

the most

substantial

increase

in Converse

take place between from 1,848

1974 and 1980.

Enrollments and existnot be would and need

by 78.6 percent

to 3,300 students, teacher

ing school

enrollment

capacities

and full-time

staffs would

able to adequately exceed present 32 percent

support

this increase.

By 1980, school

enrollments schools would

capacity

levels by 22.7 percent high schools. full-time

in elementary

in junior-senior 60 additional

The school districts and accommodations

approximately additional school

teachers

for 705 high

students--305

pupils

in grades

K-6 and 400 junior-senior

students. By 1990, the school districts capacity levels would require a 50-percent existing increase

in present teachers which

enrollment

and twice as many

full-time

in order

to accommodate

the projected

enrollment

of 3,875 pupils, students. of

include

1,935 elementary County.

and 1,940 junior-senior 78 in Appendix school

high school

Johnson increasing staffs. would

Table

C, shows

the impacts

enrollments

on existing

facilities

and full-time school

teacher district

Between

1974 and 1980, a significant

the Johnson 53.2 percent By 1980,

County unified increase

experience

in school

enrollments slightly and would

from 1,224

to 1,875 students. capacity

school

enrollments

would

exceed maximum

levels by 13.1 percent high schools.

in elementary The school

schools district

only 4.2 percent

in junior-senior full-time

need only one more students. After

teacher

and additional would

facilities

for 170 more and, thus,

1980, school

enrollments upon

decrease

slightly

impose no additional Sheridan, tion increases

requirements Natrona,

the school district. and Weston developments Counties. Popula-

Crook, Niobrara, related

due to coal and energy

in the region will

1-583

have very minimal, Tables

if any, impacts on public education C provide

in these counties. school

79 through 83 in Appendix and full-time

the status of existing to student

facilities projections

teacher staffs in relation During

enrollment

for 1980 through 1990.

this time period,

school districts

in Crook, Niobrara, However,

and Weston Counties will sustain rather stable enrollments. commuting for employment purposes occurs across county could change.

if substantial

lines, particularly

from Crook to Campbell like Moorcroft, increase.

County,

this prediction

Small school districts, rather small enrollment Although portion

could have substantial

impact from a

the scope of this report does not include the Montana
out that school

of the Powder River Basin, it should be pointed County would be affected developments

enroll-

ments in Sheridan

by work force populations in Montana.

associof

ated with coal-energy-related this report, however, solely on anticipated Wyoming. Sheridan

For the purposes

County enrollment

projections

have been based in

population

changes resulting

from developments

Summary. , Table 21 provides teachers and enrollment capacities

a summary of needs for full-time student enrollment and Converse demands Counties

to meet projected

for 1980, 1985, and 1990. would include

The combined

needs of Campbell full-time

the largest share of the region's total.

teacher deficit and 533 addi11,235 over

enrollment

over capacity

By 1990, the region would require capacities

tional teachers additional capacity

and increases

in enrollment

to accommodate

students.

The regional

teacher deficit level and enrollment 1980 and 1990. and Converse

total would double between School districts

in Campbell

Counties would realize capacities and

the regions most substantial teaching creasing staffs.

impacts on existing

enrollment

If these districts

do not provide

accommodations

for in-

enrollments,

then the following

impacts could result:

1-584

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In order between

to accommodate the police

the city's department

largest would

population

increase its existing

1974 and 1980, officer

need

to double

full-time 200 square

staff and acquire space. Department.

one more patrol

car and an additional

feet of office Glenrock Police would

As indicated

in Table

86 in Appendix two

C. the department patrol

need an additional feet of office increases

three full-time

policemen,

cars and 400 square substantial would demand

space by 1990 to meet

the demand. the

The most department

occur between two full-time

1974 and 1980, when officers,

require

an additional car.

300 square

feet of office

space, and a patrol Sheridan,

Buffalo, three departments (Tables 87 through vehicle,

and Casper

Police

Departments.

The needs in Appendix C

of these

to meet projected 89).

demands

are indicated

By 1980, Buffalo office

would

lack three full-time Sheridan would require

policemen, an

one patrol increase policemen Buffalo

and adequate

space;

of two officers

and one patrol

vehicle;

and Casper would are met,

lack 21 and 1980

and ten vehicles. departments

If 1980 demand would require

levels

Sheridan

police

no additional need

increases

between

and 1990. demand

However,

by 1990, Casper would officers.

to increase

its 1980 manpower

level by four full-time Mills,

Lusk, Newcastle, 93) describes Lusk,

and Sundance the needs

Police

Departments.

Appendix At number

C (Tables 90 through current levels,

of these departments. would have an adequate demands

Newcastle,

and Sundance

of policemen 1990 period.

and patrol

vehicles

to meet projected

in the 1980 to

Municipal projected needs

police

department

summary.

Table

24 provides

a summary

of

to meet

the demand

for 1980, 1985, and 1990. 1,770

The major square

deficits

occur between

now and 1980 when

a total of 50 officers,

feet

1-600

of office space and 19 vehicles would be required to meet the demand on these departments by an expanded population.

Crime levels In the description of the existing environment section of this for each

report, the current levels of crime incidence are fully described county in the region. However,

crime is a social problem that is not only to project in the future, especially and rapid population in

difficult but nearly impossible

areas which will realize large immigration The Federal Bureau of Investigation

increases.

(FBI) in its latest Uniform Crime Report The

states that factors which cause crime are many and vary from place to place. FBI cautions against comparing statistical ties solely based on a similarity Population information of individual counts. communi-

in their population

is only one of many factors which must be considered. or crime factors which affect the volume and type of (FBI

Some of the conditions

crime that occurs from place to place are briefly outlined as follows 1973, p. vii): --Density and size of the community population area of which it is a part. --Composition of the population age, sex and race. --Economic

and metropolitan

with reference particularly

to

status and morals of the population. including commuters, seasonal and other

--Stability of population, transient types. --Climate, including

seasonal weather conditions. and religious characteristics.

--Education, --Effective --Standards --Policies --Attitudes

recreational

strength of the police force. of appointments to the local police force. officials.

of the prosecuting

and policies of the courts and corrections. 1-601

--Relationships --Administrative --Including

and attitudes

of law enforcement efficiency

and the community.

and investigative of adherence

of law enforcement. standards. police

degree

to crime reporting of adjoining

--Organization and cooperation jurisdictions.

and overlapping

Since there is no way of predicting ality profiles of incoming populations

the socio-economic

and personthe the change

in the 1974-1990 largely

time frame, unknown.

levels and types of crime incidence crime rate will change

will remain

Thus,

to indeterminable

new levels,

and this potential

in crime incidence

will be an impact agencies

on the region

as a whole. Counties will re-

Law enforcement quire the largest

in Campbell

and Converse

increases

in full-time needs

staff sizes,

facilities,

and police the counties

vehicles. and local coverage. prevent

If the projected communities While would

of these agencies police

are not met, services

not have adequate of more police police

and proper

the presence

officers

does not necessarily to arrest crime.

crime or any increases,

officers

are needed

Thus, a law enforcement

agency with

significantly

large shortages

in manpower as they a wider

may not be able to adequately occur. portion Under these conditions,

respond

to and investigate crime rates

incidences could impact

increasing

of the population.

Fire Ero tec:.Si.on From the National strength Estimated of a city is based fire flow is based composition Fire Underwriters on the individual on a rather and size. the recommended town's required formula fire department fire flow. involving a

complicated

town's building is dependent

The number

and location

of fire houses of ability

on the distribution

and shape of a town.

In the absence

1-602

to predict provides

a growing

town's building

composition,

Table 94 (Appendix of population.

C) Once the

a means

of estimating

fire flow on the basis

fire flow is estimated, equipment necessary Table of Douglas of existing

Table 95 (Appendix

C) can be used to establish

for the fire department. C, projects urban population increases for the Cities

44, Appendix

and Gillette. facilities

Based

on these forecasts,

the impact

and deficiency

can be evaluated. for rather dramatic population increases by

Douglas

is projected

1980 and 1990 that will increase
sently less than 2,000 gpm units

its fire flow requirements

from its preExist-

(gallons per minute) this higher

to 2,500 gpm by 1980.

ing pumping a deficiency meet

fail to meet

fire flow requirement firemen appear

and leave to

of 1,500 gpm. town's needs.

Twenty volunte2r

inadequate

a larger

Gillette,

even more

than Douglas, its existing

is faced with

tremendous

populaof 2,500

tion growth which will gpm to about pumper mated

increase

fire flow requirements Their

4,000 gpm by 1980 and about 5,000 gpm by 1990.
is already deficient by 750 gpm.

present

truck capacity

By 1980, it is esti-

that the comnlunity will need and a ladder truck.

two pumper

trucks with

2,250 gpm combined
of 1,000 gpm fire

capacity capacity house

By 1990, an additional ladder truck.

pumper

will be needed,

plus another

An additional

and full-time

fire crew will

likely be required.

Summary Table and Gillette.

25 summarizes

the estimated

fire flow requirements

of Douglas

1-603

Table 25 Fire Flow Requirements 1974 Town Douglas Gillette Capacity 1,000 gpm 1,750 gpm for Douglas and Gillette 1990 Estimated Nee d De f Lc i lClency(
(

1980 Estimated Need Deficiency 2,500 4,000 -1,500 -2,250

1985 Estimated Need Deficiency 2,500 4,500 -1,500 -2,750

2,500 5,000

-1,500 -3,250

The net impact of having deficiencies communities because

of pumping

capacity by these buildings In the case may

is that more damage could be sustained

to burning

of an inability

to pump enough water onto larger fires.

of simultaneous

fires in different

parts of the city, the fire department protection at either fire.

be spread too thin to provide

adequate

The probloss

ability of larger and more damaging

fires is thus increased.

Potential

of human life due to fire is also increased.

Water and sewer facilities Nearly 80 percent development of the growth induced by coal and other industrial and Converse additional Counties population and principally will impact the in

will occur in Campbell and Douglas;

the Cities of Gillette capacity

of the present water and sewer facilities.

Water Gillette. from 1.3 million Current and estimated water demands (Table 26) range 3.2 million

gallons per day (gpd) in 1970 to an anticipated gpd by 1990 1

gpd by 1980 and 5.0 million

The water supply will be more than

lWyoming State Engineer's office uses 180 gallons per day for per capita Intermountain Planners daily water usage as its standard for planning. and Wirth-Berger Associates (IPWBA), Ch. II, B.

1-604

6.1 million

gpd by 1990 which will be more than sufficient (Intermountain Planners and Wirth-Berger

to meet preAssociates (IPWBA)~ a

dicted 1990 demand Ch. IV).

On the other hand~ if the city's contract with the company building plant to supply 3~500 acre-feet

power plant and a coal gasification ning in 1977 is not realized~ 1975 and 1980 (IPWBA~ Ch. IV). inadequate water

per year begin-

the water supply will reach capacity between The water treatment 1 facility presently The capacity is

to process a peak day demand for water. plant is 2.2 million

of the

treatment

gpd and was 1.5 million

gpd below the

greatest million

level of service in 1970 and will be 7.0 million gpd below recommended

gpd and 12.2

capacity by 1980 and 1990~ respectively.2 at present; however~ the gpd

The water distribution distribution

system is fully utilized

system will be insufficient gpd~respectively.

by 1980 and 1990 by 6.5 million to the city of

and 10.8 million Gillette

The added population on existing

will place such water demands plant would be required

facilities

that expansion

of the physical

by 1980 and 1990. (Table 26) range from gpd by 1980 and 1.3 gpd by 1990 The fully

Douglas. 0.5 million million

Current and estimated water demand 1.1 million

gpd in 1970 to an anticipated

gpd by 1990.

The water supply will be over 3.0 million to meet predicted

which will be more than sufficient capacity utilized of the water treatment and will be 1.7 million

1990 demand. gpd which

plant is 1.4 million gpd and 2.2 million

is presently

gpd below projected system is

service levels by 1980 and 1990, respectively.

The water distribution

lpeak water usage is generally 2.5 times the average daily use or 450 gpd per capita. IPWBA, Ch. II, B. 2Water treatment plants should be able to process a peak day's usage plus 15% excess capacity. IPWBA~ Ch. II~ B.

I-60S

'U'D

p..p.. bObO bO 0 0 0
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be
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1-615

Table Wyoming A. Fuel Combustion 106 Btu/hr. Fuel Heat 1nput* - Particulate Emission Matter

3 Standards

Existing

# Particulate/106 Source

Btu New Source** 0.10 0.10

10
10,000

0.6
0.18

B.

Fuel Combustion

- NOx # NOx/106 Btu New Source** 0.2 0.3

Fuel Fired Gas Oil

Existing

Source

0.23 0.46

C.

Visible Existing

Emissions Source 40 percent 20 percent opacity opacity

New Source**

*1nterpolate between values **After February 22, 1972

Table NSPS

4

for Steam Generators Allowable Emissions

Fuel-Fired Coal Particulate, #/106 Btu Particulate, opacity Sulfur dioxide, #/106 Btu Nitrogen oxides, #/106 Btu 0.10 20% 1.20 0.70 Oil 0.10 20% 0.80 0.30 Gas 0.10 20% 0.20

1-616

Water Quality National and biological Federal standards to restore

and Supply and maintain the chemical, physical

integrity

of the nation's

waters were promulgated

by the

Water Pollution

Control Act (FWPCA) as amended

in 1972, and as it

may be hereafter

amended. with

Wyoming water quality standards were issued in accordance the Wyoming the Wyoming empowered standards centrations Environmental Department Quality Act of 1973. Under Article

3 of the Act, is

of Environmental

Quality, Water Quality Division, standards. Important prescribed

to enforce these water quality

include those which specify maximum of pollution, minimum permissible

short-term

and long-term

con-

concentrations temperatures

of dissolved

oxygen and other matter, of the state. amounts Effluent

and the permissible standards

of the waters the maximum

and limitations

specifying

of pollution

and waste which may be discharged

into state waters pursuant to section

are described.

Other health and water quality

standards

402(b) of the FWPCA, as amended The enforcement lations concerning

in 1972, are described

as well.

of all applicable

federal and state laws and regueffects

water quality

standards will reduce the cumulative These include:

of regional 1.

development

on water quality.

Federal Water Pollution as it may be hereafter

Control Act, as amended amended;

in 1972, and

2. 3.

Wyoming

Environmental Standard

Quality Act of 1973; and for Wyoming, Wyoming Department of

Water Quality

Health and Social Services,

State of Wyoming,

June 28, 1973.

1-617

Water

supplies Wyoming water law requires water-right filings for water impoundments sources. rights,

and for the general If the mining

utilization interfers

of water

from groundground-

or surface-water or surface-water

activity

with existing

it may be required

that water

be provided water

to satisfy law make

these rights. to change the

Provisions location of a well,

under Wyoming a reservoir

it possible

or irrigated prevent

lands that are affected

by activand of

ities such as mining. irrigated activity.

This would

the loss of these facilities reduce

lands, and in many

instances

would

the impact of the mining

The appropriation surface Control. water is under

of and supervision

and distribution

of ground

and

control

of the office of State Engineer

and the Board of

Monitoring

programs Monitoring programs are being established programs by companies planned planning to

mine

coal.

A number the Water

of the monitoring Resources

are being

in consulThe

tation with programs

Division

of the U.S. Geological wells to determine

Survey. water

consist

of establishing

observation

level

fluctuations Water samples

in the coal and the overlying are being collected

overburden

in the mine lease areas. quality of the water

to determine changes

the chemical in water

and to serve as a basis begins. As mining

for detecting

quality

after mining wells will be of toxic materials areas.

of coal progresses, areas

additional to monitor

observation for leaching

established

in or near backfill and movement

from the backfill

of the water

from the backfill

1-618

Resource Federal Significant associated disturbances

Disturbance

to the natural

and human environment pipeline

are

with surface mining and railroad, Unless measures occurs, productive effects realized. to mitigate capacity

transmission,

and road

construction. disturbance

impacts are initiated

timely after

of the affected

areas may be lowered and

other adverse

Listed below are some of the laws and regulaof Interior and Agriculture Commission authority and the to impose measures

tions which grant the Secretaries Commissioner of the Interstate

Commerce

that will mitigate 1.

adverse impacts on the natural

and human environment: 30 U.S.C. 181

Mineral Leasing Act (41 Stat. 437 as amended; et seq);

2.

Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired 351-359);

Lands

(61 Stat. 913; 30 U.S.C.

3.

Multiple 528-531);

Use-Sustained

Yield Act of 1960 (74 Stat. 215; 16 U.S.C.

4.

Bankhead-Jones

Farm Tenant Act of July 22, 1937 (50 Stat. 525;

7 U.S.C. 1010-1012); 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Interstate Commerce Act (49 Stat. 543; 49 U.S.C. 1(18));

Title 43 CFR Parts 23 and 3500; Title 43 CFR Subpart 3501;

Title 30 CFR Part 211; and Title 36 CFR Part 213. measures with respect to development of coal are found in to

Mitigating the Mineral

Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. on the amount and character

The lessee has the obligation of extracted leased coal, make

report quarterly quarterly

royalty and 1-619

annual lease payments,

and protect and rehabilitate Lands authorized

the surface.

The

Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired deposits,

the leasing of mineral over the lands, leasing laws"

with the consent of the agency having jurisdiction by the United States to which the "mineral the mine operator

in lands acquired

have not been extended. supervision Geological

In addition,

is subject to the through the juris-

and administration

of the Department

of Interior

Survey in conjunction

with the agency having administrative

diction of the surface. Mining revised Operating

~he lessee must comply with CFR Part 211, Coal These coal operating regulations were

Regulations.

and published

in the Federal Register

as proposed

rules on for discovery, testing(

April 30, 1973. development,

These regulations and preparation

will govern operations of coal under leases, lands pursuant

mining

licenses and permits in

issued on public domain and acquired 43 CFR Group 3500. orderly The purpose operations

to the regulations

of the regulations and production bearing

in Part 211 is to promote without waste or to encourage maxpractices which (

and efficient

practices formation;

avoidable

loss of coal or other mineral and use of coal resources;

imum recovery

to promote operating

will avoid, minimize, water,

or correct damage to the environment, or correct hazards

including

land,

and air, and avoid, minimize,

to public health and

safety; and to obtain a proper record of all coal produced.

Bonding Title 43 Code of Federal Regulations, approval of an exploration Part 23.9 states: "Upon

plan or mining plan, the operator bond of not less than $2,000.

shall be required The requirepartial or

to file a suitable performance

Bond shall be in an amount sufficient ments of an approved exploration

to satisfy the reclamation

or mining plan, or an approved

1-620

supplemental

plan.

In determining

the amount of the bond, consideration of the reclamation requirements and

shall

be given to the character estimated performance

and nature

costs of reclamation bond." Deposits

in the event that the operator

forfeits

his

of cash or negotiable may file a nationwide

bonds may be used in lieu of surety or statewide lease surety bond with under more

bonds.

An operator

the Bureau of Land Management

to cover reclamation

requirements

than one lease if its terms and conditions regulations in 43 CFR Part 23.

are sufficient

to comply with the to cover each lease with the

The amount of bond required manager after consultation

is established Geological agement

by the BLM district

Survey mining

supervisor,

and when appropriate

with other land man-

agencies

if involved. 18, 1969, and its requirements have

43 CFR 23.9 was issued January been incorporated in all coal leases

issued by BLM since that date. 1969 were issued on a which states in

Most coal leases issued by BLM prior to January lease form similar to the current Sec. 2, that the lessee agrees coal lease form

(Form 3130-1),

"to maintain

the bond furnished

upon the issuance

of this lease, which bond is conditioned of the lease, and to increase required." A nationwide

upon compliance

with all provisions

the amount or furnish

such other bond as may be

or statewide

bond may also be used in lieu of the

bond required

by this section. with Sec. 5 of the lease, and improvements." titled "pro-

Such a bond covers compliance tection of the surface, natural required under either provision

resources

The amount of bond cost of

may be adjusted

to cover the estimated

compliance,

at any given time, with the lease terms and terms of any approved plans.

mining and reclamation

1-621

Wyoming Wyoming's Environmental force mined establishing mine Environmental and vested Quality Act of 1973 created powers the Department to oversee In addition and licenses of

Quality

in that agency broad

and ento to

land restoration

and reclamation

in the state. permits

rules and regulations for minerals;

DEQ also grants penalties

or explore

invokes

for non compliance; mined land if bonds is required

requires are forbefore a

and collects feited. mining

performance consent

bonds;

and can reclaim

Written permit

or waiver

by the surface

owner

can be granted. land quality regulations form. are in the public under hearing stage

Proposed and should minimum value;

soon be issued

in final

However,

terms of the Act,

reclamation revegetation

standards of mined

require lands;

restoration

of land to equal or higher and reuse of topsoil; and water pollution. and Upon to

stockpiling sedimentation

prevention conclusion

of erosion,

land slides,

of reclamation,

up to 75 percent 25 percent,

of the bond may be returned

the operator. for five years consent

The remaining

and not less than $10,000,

is held on

to insure proper

revegetation.

This also may be returned

of the landowner Violation

and the DEQ. can result The penalty in penalties for willful Penalty up to violations

of the Act or regulations violations.

$10,000

per day for non-willful per day and/or

is up to $25,000 for second

up to a year in prison.

limits double

offenses.

I-62la

Surface

protection

and rehabilitation operation, surface road, pipeline, disturbance powerline, railroad or other

Each mining action that would

cause

is unique, Surface

having

different activities vary

construction from casual

and operating occupation

requirements.

disturbing

of the surface

such as off-road and underlying

vehicle

use to com-

plete disruption these activities climate,

of the land surface normally occur

strata.

In addition, in

through

time and over areas with differences

topography,

soils and vegetation.

Preplanning--Iand

use objectives that will be encountered, protection preplanning

In view of all the variations is necessary to assure successful

surface

and land rehabilitation.

A determination

must be made

in the preplanning

stage of the use to which and consideration given

land might be committed to the site suitability

after mining

and reclamation, to respond

and capability

to rehabilitation. and decided upon before conditions attainable.

Land use objectives mining. Objectives

should be selected

should be compatible

with controlling

physical

such as climate,

soils and local to preplan

topography

and must be realistically and determine

In order an assessment istics.

rehabilitation

land use objectives, character-

is needed

of overburden, mining

its physical methods

and chemical

Topography,

hydrology,

and equipment, stripping

access roads,

road grades,

transportation

systems,

pit limits,

ratio of overburden

to coal, production

rates, and bench heights

must also be considered.

1-622

In general, Geological

the mining and reclamation

plan filed with the U.S. state laws, and

Survey, in conjunction

with federal regulations, to mitigate

the coal lease terms, requires mining. operator, The restored

actions

adverse effects of surface by consultations among the

landform will be determined

the agency having jurisdiction

over the surface, Survey.

the Wyoming Department Such consultations of mining

of Environmental will be frequent or reclamation.

Quality and the U.S. Geological enough so as not to unnecessarily

impede progress

Topography Topography of the existing activities land will be studied in view of the to take place. The in

mining or construction topography

that are expected or construction

that would follow mining

will be predetermined

detail in accordance Prior to mining, topography objectives.

with the rehabilitation

capabilities

and land use objectives.

landscape models will be designed

to depict a suitable and land use

based on the amount of overburden,

mining methods

The reshaping and the topography

of disturbed

areas should conform to adjacent to achieve the best ecological and present

terrain con-

should be reshaped

ditions, meet proper drainage landscape. Unusual,

and hydrologic

conditions

a pleasing

objectionable

or unnatural

landforms will be avoided. of the mined areas The thick coalbeds of

A major consideration throughout

determining

topography

the region is the overburden

to coal ratio.

1-623

the area are overlain by thin overburden. its former elevations The National for Rehabilitating considered conditions is unlikely Academy

Restoration

of the land surface to coal to overburden ratios.

due to the existing

of Sciences,

Study Committee

on the Potential

Lands Surface Mined for Coal in the Western United States, of excavated drainage stability overburden should offer optimum It was

that the placement for land stability,

control and revegetation. could not be attained

stated that maximum vegetative steeper than 33 percent

on slopes

(3:1) and that optimum vegetative (5:1). Various

stability would

require slopes of less than 20 percent wildlife habitat, building

land uses such as

sites or farming may tolerate a range of slopes. operation and erosion potential are considered

Limits on machinery essential values. of various to the rehabilitation

success and maintenance Service 1971).

of surface land

(U.S.D.A. Soil Conservation

Some other limitations

slope classes are listed below: Level to gentle slopes 0-20 percent (level to 5:1) can be reclaimed habitat, and recrea-

for irrigated

cropland,

urbanization,

grazing, wildlife Various

tion, including water impoundments. to some extent within revegetation steepness

land use values may be limited and influence on

this slope class. Mechanical

Erosion hazards

is minimal.

treatment and seeding are not limited by

of slope. Moderately steep slopes 20-33 percent orchards, recreation, (5:1-3:1) can be reclaimed habitat, including

for grazing, woodland, water impoundments.

and wildlife

Light agricultural

machinery

can be used for rehabilitation.

1-624

Moderate

erosion

hazards

are experienced.

Revegetation

can be successfully

established

and maintained. Quite steep slopes Grazing 33 percent plus (3:1 and steeper) wildlife have limited may be

use potential. established.

may be permitted

and suitable

habitat

Use of machinery

is restricted. hazards

Revegetation unless

of these slopes stabilizing

may be difficult structures

and severe erosion

persist,

are used. Mining equipment used for overburden thickness removal is selected after conreclamawill contemshovels

sideration

of type of overburden,

of overburden,

topography,

tion requirements depend plated

and coal production. equipment

The shaping used.

of the topography

on the types of mining for overburden dozer removal

The types of equipment draglines, Draglines power

in the region and wheel

include

and truck, excavators require

and scraper,

excavators.

and wheel that

leave a series slope

of peaked reduction

spoil banks

or ridges

in their wake

considerable Scrapers

and final shaping overburden

to achieve spoil

an acceptable

topography. grade

and trucks

can discard

to a planned and truck amounts

that requires

only minor removal

shaping

and grading.

Scrapers

methods

of overburden

are generally

used only where

limited

of overburden

are present. and final grading of overburden should be accomplished

The placement in such a manner

that a natural

and compatible conducive

topography

can be achieved. stability, the desired (3:1) grade

The land form will provide adequate drainage

conditions

to land surface of supporting a 33 percent

and surface

conditions

capable exceed

vegetation. after

No spoil

or cut slope should

rehabilitation.

1-625

Unreclaimed hazard to humans,

highwall

areas may be unsightly

and can be a safety High walls

wildlife,

and livestock

and may limit land use. final

will be reduced control

to a slope no steeper such as terraces,

than 3:1 during water breaks,

cut. Erosion suitable structures

structures

or other

may be necessary. If highwall ~ recreation areas of steeper protective slopes are necessary to maintain above the

lakes or ponds,

fencing will be installed

slope and the approach

to the water

should not exceed a 3:1 slope.

Drainage During drainage with reshaping and final grading, provision will be made for adequate that are compatible

through

a reestablishment drainage systems

of drainage of adjoining

systems lands.

the natural

Accumulation harmful These materials

and concentration

of salts,

toxic elements,

or other

by evaporation

of surface waters

should not be permitted. to control pollution of

impoundments

should be removed

if not installed

streams

or land surface. Shaping of spoils to manage water is an important aspect of rehabilior sediment

tation. damage Runoff

Where

operations

could result

in acid or saline

drainage

to adjoining

lands, provision

will be made for water from causing courses.

impoundments. erosion downprior to

from spoil areas

should be prevented or natural water

siltation,

or other damage stream erosion

to streams control

When desirable, will be required designed

and flood control impoundments

structures

excavations. structed installed

All water

should be properly outlet

and con-

for that purpose if appropriate.

with suitable

structures

and spillways

1-626

Surface hydrology areas.

is affected materially

by the surface of spoil and impeding

Spoil surface design is fundamental Runoff from precipitation porosity

in intercepting

runoff flows.

on spoils is reduced by a roughened Surface manipulation may

surface or increased

of spoil materials.

be used to retard runoff erosion and relieve compaction Terracing, a roughened moisture, pitting, ditching, listing, deep chiseling, to reduce excessive

due to heavy machinery. and discing runoff, or leaving soil

surface may be required

increase on

and reduce erosion.

These practices

should not be performed of salts would create

saline soils since accumulation

and concentration

alkali spots in surface pits and hinder revegetation.

Spoil materials

characteristics of freshly broken weather and

Spoils left by mining are mostly a mixture sandstones and shale, and some soil.

These spoil materials

break into particles soon as mining at the surface. Overburden by the USDA Northern physiochemical

that are subject to erosion.

Active erosion begins as and occurs most rapidly

operations

expose the spoil materials

materials

left as spoils following mining were studied Center. Results showed that the a poor environ-

Great Plains Research of materials

properties

left as spoils provided

ment for vegetative

growth.

1-627

The various the mine area.

layers of overburden

may become mixed upon removal from of elements
(

Some of these layers may contain toxic concentrations Analysis

such as boron, arsenic, and selenium. overburden in relation should be made and examined to stratigraphic

of the surface soils and of toxic materials will be planned

for concentration

occurrence.

Mining operations

to provide for the segregation and vegetation.

of spoil materials

toxic to humans, animals,

All exposed coalbeds should be covered by at least three to prevent coal fires and aid revegetation. Waste coal

feet of soil material and toxic material

should be buried in spoil so as not to inhibit revegetation source of pollution to ground or surface waters. the amount of moisture

efforts or be a potential

Spoil and surface soil textures influence available for plant growth. Materials

composed largely of sandy material properties but are apt to be droughty. and crust during dry to hold to the

exhibit good aeration and percolation Clay materials periods. moisture.

compact easily from machinery

operations

Loams and silty material

usually have enough fine materials are important

The textures of the spoil and soil materials to be established and unleached

types of vegetation Unweathered

and the success of revegetation. may contain significant

spoil materials

amounts of saline or less likely acid materials which if used as surface material would be a source of pollution incapable of supporting acid or alkaline material. significant to adjoining lands and streams and Excessively

amounts of plant growth. materials

surface or overburden

will not be used as surface

1-628

Excessive deleterious

acid or alkaline and infertile

surface materials

material

that contains

toxic or that

materials

should be buried cover.

at a depth The surface

will not reduce overburden growth. pH Range

reestablishment

of adequate

vegetative pH's capable

materials

should have favorable

of supporting

plant

6.0-8.5:

This soil class will adapted plants. establishment

support

a wide variety

of climatically pH greater

than 8.5:

Plant

will be difficult.

pH less than 6.0:

Plant

establishment

will be difficult.

Topsoil Vegetative plant growth. establishment cannot succeed without a proper medium and may for

The soil-forming

process

is slow in semiarid

climates

topsoil contain

is thin on most hilltops several feet of alluvial

and steep hillsides. materials. that topsoil

However,

drainages

Beauchamp not excessively the overburden Potential States

(1973) considered or acid since

should be used if it is minerals not present in

alkaline spoil.

it may contain of Science Mined

The National Lands

Academy Surface

Study Committee

on the United

for Rehabilitating

for Coal in the Western to saving

considered quality

that special that exists

attention on a mined

must be given site.

any soil of that

acceptable the values

It was also considered

to be derived

from adding

topsoil

are often decreased

by stockpiling of

the soil since one advantage live seeds and plants, The entire materials

of spreading

topsoil

is the transplanting

especially

rhizomatous

species. surface

topsoil

structure

to the total depth of suitable surface disturbance or

will be stripped

from all areas where

1-629

coverage directly

by spoil piles to a reshaped

is planned and prepared

and stockpiled rehabilitation and place

for later use or moved area. Topsoil stockpiles

should be located materials diately landform

in such a manner

that mixing

with subsurface imme-

will be prevented.

If possible,

topsoil

should be returned to the desired

to spoil areas and topography

that have been graded

and shaped

since live seeds, rhizomes

and soil microorganisms Stripping and respreadint and will be of stored

are lost if soil is stockpiled of topsoil will be considered timed to coincide topsoil topsoil. with

for any length of time. as part of the seedbed of rehabilitation. of manure

preparation

this phase

Reinoculation

may be accomplished

by addition

or mixing

with fresh

Mulch Vegetation rapidly eroded. can be established only with difficulty friable on soils being and susceptible reduce erosion,

Topsoil

is characteristically Mulches

loose,

to both wind and water soil movement, especially

erosion.

increase enhance

infiltration, revegetation Mulches

evaporation

and materially

potential are effective (National

where

poor soil texture precipitation

conditions is between

exist.

in areas where Academy

annual

9 and 14 inches.

of Science Mulch

1974). of plant residues or other suitable Acceptable materials will are

composed

be required

as part of seedbed

preparation.

mulching

materials should be

grass, hay, manure, applied

and small grain straw.

The mulch material by discing,

at two tons or more per acre and anchored

special mulch

1-630

machine,

or a Colter type machine

to a depth of two inches.

Other types of

mulch material

such as straw mat, fine wood fiber, excelsior mesh, plastic

mesh, wood chips, gravel and jute mesh can be used. The type, rate, and anchorage of mulch will be specified.

Seeding Rehabilitation of mixed grass prairie sites has not been difficult is critical for

when proper seeding has been used. The time of planting dryland seeding. In the Northern

Great Plains area, early spring or late Planting of cool-season grasses that are when soil

fall seedings

are the most reliable.

capable of germinating moisture is depleted

under very cold conditions is desirable. (Hodder 1970).

and can aestivate

Most land reclamation

seeding will take place under dryland

condi-

tions unless irrigation water is available. moisture for germination, rudimentary initial growth,

Snow or spring rains provide New seedlings,

and establishment.

when producing extended

root systems and a primary irrigation

leaf cannot tolerate

drought.

Supplying

water will be required when drought A suitable water conditions.

conditions

threaten seed germination

and plant survival.

supply will be made available

in anticipation

of these periodic

The dryland farming practice may be required

of summer fallowing accumulation

prior to seeding reserves

to allow for an adequate vegetation

of soil moisture

to assure successful adequate

establishment.

If such a practice

is used

erosion controls

on unprotected

spoil areas

(such as surface manipula-

tion and mulching)

will be provided.

1-631

The species and climatic been selected

selected

for planting

must be adapted

to local soil they have to

conditions. through

Native

species may be desirable of natural selection

since

the process

and are adapted

local climatic ability

and soil conditions. limit

The unavailability species.

of seed and unreli-

of seed sources Hodder 1970,

the use of native

considered

that some introduced establishment.

species Many

possessed of introroad

superior

qualities

essential

for rapid

species

duced grasses

and legumes

have been used successfully Academy of Science

for stabilizing

cuts and arid ranges

(National

1974). reclaimed for recreation

Trees and shrubs may be used on lands being or wildlife habitat. ~lost woody species

should be planted

from stock rather or tech-

than seed for best success. niques traps, woody shrubs being

Hodder

(1973) lists several

innovations

tested for tree and shrub establishment root transplanting and tubelings.

such as condensation Sites selected for Some

supplemental species

should be capable

of supporting

this type of vegetation. have been seeded

such as big sagebrush of native shrubs,

and fourwing

saltbush

successfully.

A mixture

trees, grasses, on suitable would

forbs, and introduced

species

of vegetation conditions for diverse habitat.

may be required

areas where provide livestock

soils and topographic opportunity and wildlife

are varied.

This mixture

a greater grazing,

land uses such as recreation,

Several legumes. Drilling

seeding

methods

are available available

for planting

grasses

and

the seed by readily method

farm equipment

has proven and coverage

to be the most is assured tively

successful

of planting. seeding

Seed distribution

and uniform.

Broadcast

is satisfactory

for small or relaby raking,

inaccessible

areas.

Broadcast

seed should be covered

harrowing,

or other means.

1-632

Rehabilitation ideal farming conditions. increased significantly

of mined land is usually performed Standard

under less than

seeding rates are usually doubled or due to areas. to attempt

to allow for seed and seedling mortality

adverse conditions Revegetation revegetation

present on mined lands and other rehabilitation The operator will be required to achieve reasonable

failures will occur.

as many times as necessary

success.

Fertilizing Maintenance of vegetation on disturbed manure, areas depends to a large

extent upon soil development. organic material

Applying

sewage sludge, or other to supply plants to handle and is

will materially

enhance the soils capability fertilizers

with water and nutrients. easy to obtain. dependent

Commercial

are convenient

The effectiveness

of nitrogen available.

fertilizers,

however,

on the amount of moisture

It is generally

considered

that annual precipitation benefit from commercial

should be at least 10 to 12 inches to receive fertilizer on rehabilitation areas. The type of

fertilizer

and rate of application

should be specified when appropriate.

1-633

Equipment

use A considerable amount of activity by all types of equipment will and mining. Wheeled and tracked equipment will

occur during construction be used in a manner

that will minimize

surface damages. and high erosion hazard areas will use of heavy equipment will site.

Excess disturbance be avoided. generally

of drainages

During muddy or wet conditions, to the construction

be confined

or mining

Rights-of-way,

roads roads to construction sites or similar developments will

Temporary be rehabilitated fill material topography. will c0nform revegetation

when abandoned.

Spoil banks, windrowed in the roadbed and graded

soils, debris, and to conform to the

will be replaced

Cut slopes will be reduced as the fill permits. to existing terrain, and be waterbarred

Closed roads for

and conditioned

upon abandonment. roads and trails will be used whenever of roads on steep hillsides access. possible for access

Existing purposes. alternate

Construction

will be avoided where

routes provide adequate

Ridge tops or level areas usually surface impacts. Drainage

offer the best access route along with minimizing will not be blocked by roadfills. Permanent and maintained

service roads will be constructed for vehicle use.

to acceptable Adequate

standards

in a good condition to minimize

water drainage

will be provided

erosion.

Erosion of borrow pits by runoff water at frequent intervals. drainage This may dips,

water will be prevented involve construction graveling

by diverting

of waterbreaks,

culverts, broadbased

or other methods.

1-634

Rights-of-way or areas

will not be located Construction Rights-of-way constructed

across high erosion

hazard

areas that

of unique values. soil erosion.

will be conducted

in a manner

will minimize

will not be used for "short cut" for such purposes. pits, roads,

trails or roads unless properly Deep vertical pipelines backfilling

cuts and long fill slopes of clinker

or other construction to conform To prevent

sites will be graded by reducing terrain. terraces, or diversion

slopes,

to the adjacent

erosion,

waterbreaks, spilled

ditches

should be installed to erosion.

and the water

onto areas relatively

resistant

Waste

disposal Release of waste water Disposal system containing injurious or deleterious materials

will be avoided. so as not be buried reaching

for solid and liquid wastes lands or drainages. overburden Liquid

will be designed should its

to cause damage or disposed surface water

to adjoining

Solid waste

of between courses

impervious

layers

to prevent

or aquifers.

disposal

pits containing so as to avoid

toxic or deleterious downward percolation

materials

will be lined or constructed of ground water

and contamination

aquifers.

1-635

Mineral

protection Oil and gas leases are in effect for much of the area. Priorities by

for mining

or drilling

for oil and gas on public lands are established of the U.S. Geological Survey. Mining

the Conservation approaching

Division

operations or other

wells or bore holes that may liberate must be approved in accordance

oil, gas, water,

fluid substances CFR 211.63.

with 30 CFR 211.17 and 30 largely by agree-

Impacts on oil and gas areas can be mitigated where significant instances drainage

ments among operators location arises.

impact on oil well siting or pipeline of conflict, practice, technology is adequate

In extreme drilling,

through directional pipeline adequately

recovery

of wells lost, to

and flowline mitigate

relocation,

pillar recovery,

and mining method

impacts which might arise. rock not of ore grade, materials clinker, and

Impacts on uranium bearing sand and gravel where mining can be mitigated

by stockpiling

in those cases of the ground. estate, isolate

and construction

threaten

loss by disturbance

To the extent these resources operators will be required for possible

are part of the federal mineral stockpile,

to segregate, future use.

or otherwise

the resource

1-636

Archeological Legislative federal commonly 431-433); authorities

Preservation which guide issuance of

and obligations

license to develop referred Wyoming

the Powder River coal resources

are the statute

to as Antiquities statutes relating

Act of 1906 (34 Stat. 225, 16 U.S.C. to archeological and paleontological Environ-

sites (sections 36-11 to 56-13 and 18-330.7 mental

W.S. 1957); Wyoming

Quality Act of 1973 (Section 35-502.l2(a)(v)); sites (74 Stat. 220; 16 U.S.C. 469-469c); (80 Stat. 915, 16 U.S.C. 470-47Om);

an act for salvage at an act for historic Environmental Policy

reservoir

preservation

National

Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 852, 42 U.S.C. May 13, 1971 (36 F.R.-892l).

4321 et seq); and Executive

Order 11593,

Both federal and state antiquities vation and collections,

acts regulate values

antiquities on public

excalands.

and both protect historical

They provide The Wyoming unique,

for fine and/or imprisonment Environmental

for violators

of their provisions.

Quality Act protects archeological,

areas of the state designated scenic or natural. The

irreplacable,

historical,

reservoir

salvage act provides

for recovery

of historical

and archeological as a result of

data from areas to be inundated federal action. historic The Historic

by certain water impoundment Act established

Preservation

a system of

preservation

in the nation and requires

that certain federal underCouncil on Historic of national

takings be submitted Preservation. environmental aspects

for review by the National Advisory

NEPA states in Section 101(b) (4) that one objective policy is to 'preserve important heritage and maintain, historic, wherever cultural possible, choice."

and natural an environFinally,

of our national

ment which Executive

supports diversity Order 11593 affects

and variety

of individual

federal agencies most intimately agencies,

in that they and indito the

are instructed viduals

to cooperate with the nonfederal

groups,

and to insure that federal plans and programs and enhancement of nonfederally

contribute

preservation

owned historic

and cultural

1-637

values.

Agencies

are directed

to inventory,

evaluate

and nominate Places.

properties

in their jurisdiction

to the National

Register

of Historic

Under the mandate that until inventories caution

of the Executive

Order, federal agencies must insure the agencies will use for

and evaluations

are completed,

to assure that federally to the National

owned properties of Historic

which might qualify

nomination transferred,

Register

Places are not inadvertently altered and that federal plans of nonfederally

sold, demolished, contribute

or substantially

and programs owned sites.

to the preservation

and enhancement

The Antiquities and animal antiquities The Wyoming archeological lands statutes

Act of 1906 prohibits

damage or excavation a permit

of plant

on federal lands without require

(see 43 CFR Part 3). excavation of any

that permits be obtained deposits

before

or paleontological

on either state or federal public

(sec. 36-11 W.S. 1957). Archeological and paleontological excavations. values on federal lands will be The Wyoming Antiquities Act

protected similarly permission

by surveys and salvage requires a permit

for excavation

of antiquities

on public lands,

to be granted by the State Board of Land Commissioners. The Wyoming Environmental Quality Act requires approval of any appli(g)(iv) of harm,

cation for a mining permit under the provisions this Act to assure that " ...the proposed destroy, or materially

of Section

35-502.24

operation

will not irreparably

impair any area that has been designated historical, archaeological,

by the Council scenic or

to be of a unique or irreplaceable, natural value." Surface surveys are fundamental Therefore

for evidence

of archeological stipulations

values

in the alluvium

to establishing

responsible

for their protection. that require sur-

those stipulations

in the mining plan and/or permit

veys will be followed

to insure archeological

and paleontological

protection.

1-638

Historical Authorities for protection

Values of historic values. values values

and preservation for archeologic

are the same as those just described are protected by the antiquities

Historic

acts, and surveys conducted

to ratify require-

ments of the reservoir

salvage law have included historic

research. order,

To meet responsibilities the approving federal

under these laws and the executive

agencies will insure that mining inventory, evaluation

plans and permits of sites, with the

include a program for historic districts, buildings,

and nomination

and objects,

in cooperation

and consultation

State Historic

Preservation

Officer.

1-640

No mining plans, permits or rights-of-way company has coordinated Historic Preservation its archeological

will be approved until the

surveys with the Wyoming State

Officer.

Company survey reports will be submitted to Officer with a copy to agencies approving Officer

the State Historic Preservation plans and permits. and forwarded

The report will be certified by the Preservation

to the approving agencies with a statement that surveys have professional archeologists and a recommendation

been conducted by competent, for additional

surveys to be required before plans and permits are approved. surveys may be necessary is necessary. if surface evidence indicates

These additional

further evaluation

In addition, approvals will be conditioned Supervisor of all archeological and

to require notification paleontological
cation

to the Area Mining

sites discovered
officer

during mining prior to disturbance
of the surface administrating

and notifiof sites~

to the appropriate

agency

discovered

during right-of-way

construction

prior to disturbance.

The Antiq-

uities Act of 1906 and Wyoming statutes make it unlawful which are discovered without a permit. Furthermore, it will be required

to excavate sites

that the alluvium to be displaced

during the mining operation be surveyed and that all surveys be coordinated with the Wyoming inventories, State Historic Preservation salvage, and preservation Officer to insure competent, professional of archeological and paleontological data.

All present and future applicants establishing

could share in the cost of under the superThe basin delays by per-

a full-time resident basin paleo-archeologist Officer.

vision of the Wyoming State Historic Preservation archeologist

would aid in reducing lead time and development

forming advance surveys for support facilities, employees, sampling soils, responding

educating construction and conducting

to company discoveries,

salvage work.

1-639

Recreation Requests coal development important decisions for water impoundments to supply expanded federal power generating,

and domestic

uses occupying

lands and threatening pending

cultural values

and related

recreational

use, can be granted contained

by the State Engineer

through

the authority

in the Reservoir Policy Act of

Salvage Act of 1960 (74 Stat. 220) and the National 1969 (83 Stat. 852, 42 U.S.C. If a planned water is designated be assessed and salvage are located Historic 4321 et seq). covers federal federally

Environmental

reservoir

surface

or mineral

and its

for another

approved

project,

it will first Policy Act values

under the requirements requirements the "criteria

of the National

Environmental

under the Reservoir for effect"

Salvage Act.

If cultural

under Section

106 of the National

Preservation

Act and Section

2(b) of E.G. 11593 will be initiated

by any federal Where on or adjacent

agency joined in the project. scenic, historic, to federal and recreation values are impacted, either aid highthe

land, it will be required complement

that new federal under

way study locations Federal Aid Highway

and alignments Act of 1973

these resources

(Sec. l34(a) P.L. 92-87).

1-641

Land Use Planning, A description constraints

Zoning and Controls land use controlsis

of the current status of planning, in Chapter IV.

and zoning is contained of jurisdictions planning,

The basic situation

that a multiplicity ing policies,

and agencies are involved

in establish-

conducting

analyses and studies and implementing The State of Wyoming pre-

program actions in response

to coal development.

sently has at least three entities which are in some way involved with policies, planning analyses and studies, Department However, and program actions. Theyare the Land Use

Study Commission, Energy Task Force. of existing ments,

of Environmental

Quality and the Governor's

in the absence of a major overall and restructuring and the land and resource several mitigative measures tenure arrangeand techniques Among these are

statutory authorities to suggest

it is possible

that could have a beneficial the following: The exemption

effect upon the planning base.

of minerals

and minerals

development

from county action while

planning and zoning should be removed by legislative providing minerals for a state override role on planning development. The authority

and zoning for should go

in any legislation

beyond just planning but should include management responsibilities. agreement, The legislation

and enforcement

should foster more joint powers planning, the changing roles

a greater degree of regional

for state and local governments ing awareness commodity. Encourage or philosophy

in land use controls and the chang-

of land as a resource rather than a

a strict enforcement

of the provisions

and regulations

imposed by the Wyoming

Environmental

Quality Act of 1973 w~th a

1-642

continual

monitoring

program

on industry

performance

to identify legislative

nonperformance attention. Amendment change

problem

areas and areas needing

further

to the existing

statutes

on planning

which

would from a provisions

the authorization

to effect

planning

and zoning

county option basis included to effect review

to a required compliance. and comment actions

basis with procedural

Institute

cycles

at the state and local levels

on all types of planning Encourage all planning tion plans, Advocate ations under

and programs. state and local) approach to

an integrated programs policies

(federal,

that relate or controls. that would

to land use or resource

alloca-

legislation

increase

the level of appropriactivities systems and intensify

for federal

agencies

to be devoted and resource

to planning development

their existing

planning

to upgrade

the quality

and substantive

content

of plans

the time schedule programs.

for earlier

completion

of plans

and implementation

Same with respect

to state and local agencies additional increases

and governments.

Same, but to include and control review, etc. functions

for plan implementation compliance

such as monitoring,

enforcement,

All future hearings plans

legislation

and regulations of proposed

should require federal,

public

or other disclosure

state and local

and programs.

1-643

Encourage

full public participation,

to the maximum

extent practic-

able, by the general ning decision-making

public and special interest processes.

groups in the plan-

1-644

Railroad Impacts on the region's to a degree under the authority Commerce

Construction network can be mitigated

rail transporation

contained

in Section 1 (18) of the Interstate the prior approval

Act (49 Stat. 543, 49 U.S.C. Commerce

1 (18)) which requires for the extension of operation

from the Interstate

Commission

or new construction

of a line of railroad Exempted

or the abandonment

of a line of railroad. or side a certifiis

from this authority

are spur, industrial

team, switching

tracks located who~ly within one state. cate from the Commission warranted

Section 1 (18) requires extension

that any construction,

or abandonment

by the present or future public convenience

and necessity. conditions public.

An intent of the statute is to promote sound economic among individual For an application for additional essentially carriers while recognizing for new construction,

the needs of the shipping

consideration area.

is given to the need

rail service in a particular or unnecessary

If a new line would create or if the present or future

duplicative

facilities

demand for rail transportation and developmental patterns,

is not supported by an area's overall growth certificate may not be issued. substantial

an authorizing

This could arise where a new line, if authorized, portions creating of the traffic handled an unprofitable over an existing

would divert

line thereby potentially of

operation which may affect the general adequacy health of the railroad an expansion company. In

rail service as well as the financial addition,

even if demand patterns may warrant location

or additional

line,

the actual authorized balancing

of such a line would be determined technical, applies and environmental

based on a factors. as well

of the relevant

economic,

The prior authorization as to additional

requirement

to new rail right-of-ways

lines in an existing

rail right-of-way.

1-645

The statutory donments is similar.

intent behind prior authorization

for railroad abancompany may

Here the financial

stability of a railroad

be impaired where a line with declining continue required to be maintained

freight revenues must nevertheless Substantial expenditures may be over against

or rehabilitated.

on a line with minimal lines.

traffic at the expense of maintenance This factor, however, must be weighed

more highly trafficked

the present or potential and the corresponding

need of the shipping public for continued rail service of a particular area. Commerce

effect on the economic vitality

The net effect of the regulatory Act is thus, to the extent practicable, transportation functions

scheme under the Interstate the availability

to promote

of rail

when and where it is required.

As an adjunct

to the regulatory

the Act further provides for a certificate

in Section 1 (19) that public notice of must be given with a related right to be prior to any major

any application heard.

In this manner

the public will be fully informed or deletions,

alterations,

either additions

to an area's rail network. or abandonment are

Finally, considered visions

since applications

for construction

federal actions,

the certification

process must comply with the proEnvironmental

of the National

Environmental

Policy Act of 1969. into the pertinent

values will thereby be incorporated

decision making process.

1-646

CHAPTER VII PROBABLE ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS WHICH CANNOT BE AVOIDED
Climate Since emissions atmospheric particulates cannot be completely is anticipated. emissions, airborne dust resulting plants will in an adverse from coal in a to controlled an increase of

Vehicle mining, emissions decline

and equipment from power

plants

and gasification

result impact

cumulative

in air quality

which may result Therefore,

climate which

would be unavoidable. mined

effects and water

of reduced supplies

precipitawould also

tion on agriculture, be unavoidable.

land rehabilitation

1-647

Air Quality Development activities quality. elements emission of coal resources in the region together with related air

will have an unavoidable Increases in particulates,

adverse effect on local and regional sulfur dioxide, nitrogen and hydrocarbons oxides,

trace

(including radionuclides),

will occur even though are enforced. These

controls are employed and air quality standards

emissions will decrease Casper intrastate

the ambient air quality in parts of the Wyoming and

air quality control regions. stack emissions cannot be completely eliminated with Table 1

Deleterious existing technology

so adverse impact to air quality is unavoidable. stack emissions

gives total estimated

per year for 1980, 1985, and 1990.

Table 1 Estimated Stack Emissions (tons/year) Sulfur Dioxide* 70,100 134,300 155,700 Nitrogen Oxides* 48,000 90,000 106,100

Year 19801/ 19851111 19901111/1

Particulates* 7,200 13,700 16,000

Hydrocarbons** 39,500 79,000 79,000

~Assumption: New power plant emissions will meet New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Wyoming Air Quality Emission Standards. **Estimated emission from gasification plants only. #Total power plant capacity 1,425 megawatts. ##Total power plant capacity 2,700 megawatts. ###Total power plant capacity 3,200 megawatts.

I-647a

Emissions

resulting

from daily operation

of 24 trains by 1980, 34 by as shown in Chapter to

1985 and 46 by 1990 cannot be avoided. V, Table 2, cannot be avoided, diesel locomotives.

The total emissions

as there are no emission

controls applicable

These emissions will add to the cumulative

adverse impact

on ambient air quality. Vehicle and equipment to 1990 even though controls and Converse Additional Counties emissions will increase during the period 1974 in Campbell

are required.

The number of vehicles 43 percent

is projected

to increase

over 1970 levels. power plants

miles will be driven as workers plants. increase

commute to the mines,

and gasification

An indeterminable matter

in airborne dust and similar particulate from coal development measures are applied. to be significantly harmactivities will

(coal dust, fly ash) resulting even if all mitigating adverse effects animals,

be unavoidable

Short-term ful to either humans, inversions.

are not expected

or vegetation,

except possibly during periods of occurrence is 15 times per by Marwitz During

The probability

of a two-day inversion is four times a year. -- Hearings

year, and a five-day indicate persistent

inversion winter

(Observations

inversions short-term damage

Statement

6-26-64.)

these periods,

significant

adverse effects may occur. to plants, animals and humans from air Even though air quality standards are

Long-term pollutants

unavoidable

may occur and be unavoidable. plant or source,

met by each individual

the adverse effect of coal development decline in air quality. Such a decline the period of 1975 in the study

in the study area will be a cumulative would be unavoidable

and would begin in 1975, increase during

to 1990 and would continue area.

as long as coal was mined and consumed

1-648

Table 2 projects the Casper and Wyoming

increases

in air pollutants

over the 1970 levels in

intrastate

air quality

control regions.

Table 2 Total Emission Summary for Casper and Wyoming (tons/year) 1980 Total 128 ~115 Increaseic* 6% 1985 Total l34~733 Intrastate Regions

1970 Type Particulates Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen Oxides Hydrocarbons Total* 120~649

1990 Increasel'cic Total 12% l37~162 Increaseic* 14%

63~ 389

134,095

112%

198~564

213%

220~259

248%

93~264 67 ~362

l45~20l 107 ~862

56% 60%

l88~943 l47~805

103% 119%

206~96l 148 ~292

122% 120%

*Combined total for Casper and Wyoming Intrastate Air Quality Control Region adapted from Wyoming Air Quality Standards and Regulations~ 1973. **Percent increase emissions. over base year (1970); includes stack and train locomotive

1-649

Topography A reduction overburden elevation throughout is directly Greatest in altitude 14,000 related caused by mining thick coalbeds beneath thin in of

acres by 1990 is unavoidable. to the ratio of overburden in altitude Lowering will

The decrease to the thickness

the coalbed. overburden

decreases coalbeds.

occur in areas of thinnest on a north-to-south (Carter), 68 feet at Ranch

and thickest

of altitude

basis will vary Wyodak mine mine,

from 54 feet at the North mine

Rawhide mine (A.R.Co.),

36 feet at Black Thunder

38 feet at Jacobs mine (Peabody).

(Kerr-McGee),

and 28 feet at the proposed of natural features

Rochelle

Destruction though cliffs the general

of the landscape

is unavoidable. at a lower level, scene,

Even

topography

of the area can be restored

and abrupt breaks, The exact shape Changes

presently and slope

a part of the topographic of the present topography

cannot be

restored.

is unrestorable. the proposed

in topographic

features

caused by deep cuts along affect topography

rail line cannot be avoided. of the entire but overall study area.

These will

over a small portion on the exact site

The impact may be very significant

magnitude

will be minor. changes and possible creation of new patterns by utilization is of sound

Drainage unavoidable. planning Even

pattern though

these changes may be minimized amount will

of operations,

a certain

still occur.

r-650

Soils Disturbance of topsoil on approximately 29,000 acres (0.6 percent from 9,500 by of

the study area) by 1990 cannot

be avoided.

Loss of productivity This acreage plants,

acres of topsoil by 1990 is unavoidable. roads, railroads, mine buildings, will

will be occupied and power plants.

gasification

The disturbance

of topsoil

lower to some degree mixing natural

the natural

soil productaccelerated

ivity of the area by compaction, soil erosion.

soils,

and causing

On the area to be strip mined, destruction which of all soil horizons,

14,000 acres by 1990, complete and soil characteristics time cannot be processes will be terminated. will start

parent material, of geologic

have developed The present

over long periods soil biota

avoided.

and soil forming

Once mining again. totally geologic

is completed

and the area reclaimed, of mining,

soil development

As an end result unlike

new soils will be formed with characteristics to mining and, during their early growth.

the ones existing

prior

life, likely Reduction

less suitable

as substitutes

for vegetation

of soil productivity, Increase

permeability

and infiltration rates will occur,

rates

is

unavoidable.

in erosion

and sedimentation

but amount

of soil loss through

time cannot be determined.

1-651

Mineral The mining and proposals. and removal

Resources

of coal cannot be avoided under present plans activity will have an unavoidable a nonrenewable mineral adverse will

Thus, coal mining

effect on the coalbeds. be depleted.

Coal reserves,

commodity,

Based on company plans and projections,

an estimated

1.5 billion

tons of coal will have been mined by 1990 which comprises estimated economically recoverable Counties strippable

12 percent of the thus far identified identified

coal reserves

in Campbell

and Converse

and about 11 percent of the reserves Loss of minor amounts

in the Northern mining

Great Plains of Wyoming. and transportation and adjacent

of coal in

operations

is unavoidable. to the proposed railroad right-of-way under-

Coal beneath

goes impact only in that the present value of the coal and/or coal land is decreased because mining is delayed until futher in the future. it is adverse only in the economic material sense. lost Although this

impact is unavoidable,

Small amounts of uranium-bearing through dilution of coal mining of grade and covering

might be unavoidably

of weakly mineralized

rocks in the course

and construction.

The loss would be minor.

1-652

Water Resources The increased use and consumption of water (52,220 acre-feet per

year) in the study area by 1990 cannot be avoided. be consumed The removal and unavailable

The exact amount which will and unavoidable. 15,000 acre-

for other uses is indeterminable

from the study area hydrologic

cycle of an estimated

feet per year by 1990 in the coal slurry pipeline The adverse impact resulting mining cannot be avoided. springs, Lowering

cannot be avoided. of aquifers during

from the interruption

of water levels of wells,

and drying up of

seeps, and reduction

in streamflow

will occur in an area around the and extent of this cone of on various aquifer prop-

mine when aquifers depression erties. around

are disrupted. the mined

The location

area will vary depending

If large quantities shale aquifers, proposed flow. some subsidence

of ground water are withdrawn may result. Increasing

from thick sand and

use of ground water as

may affect water well levels and discharge in flows throughout

of ground water to stream-

Reduction

the study area would be adverse. of

Development mining burden

of lakes, ponds, and pits of water at the completion thick coa1beds

cannot be avoided where levels.

are mined which have thin overstreamflows

This will be adverse

to the extent that it depletes

and adds to evaporation uses (agriculture,

loss of water which then is not available

for other

stream fishing habitat). and irrigation uses will occur.

Changes in water use from agricultural These changes, although involving

water uses, will actually and recreation

have adverse, unavoid-

able impact on farming, grazing, and wildlife populations.

land uses as well as on fish

1-653

Reduction tation, overtaxed

in water quality resulting

from increased

erosion,

sedimen-

sewage facilities,

release of toxic waste to streams, and The overall

return of production reduction

water to stream channels will take place.

in water quality which will take place is unknown.

1-654

Vegetation Existing housing of-way, nent sites roads vegetation will be destroyed on the mined areas, plant sites,

for increased and railroad

population, rights-of-way.

transmission

line and pipeline

rightsperma-

There will be an unavoidable

loss of vegetation Vegetation

on 9,500 will

acres by 1990 due to construction destroyed

of permanent

facilites.

be temporarily

on 14,000 strip mined

acres by 1990. Areas disturbed disturbance. revegetation With by rights-of-way climate will be reclaimed shortly after

the semiarid

prevalent mined areas

for the study area, successful is unknown at this time.

on the severely

disturbed

All plant ance. Fifty years

succession or more

is unavoidably

destroyed

at the time of disturbfor these areas and microclimate

of plant succession state

will be required soil structure

to return have been

to their present changed Adverse

as the existing

and altered. impact of stack emissions, especially sulfur dioxide, on

vegetation unavoidable. destroy

is unknown. Increased

The impact, population

particularly will intensify

on ponderosa recreation

pine, will be use which will

or decrease

the vegetative

cover depending

on the amount

of use an area

receives.

1-655

Archeological Subsurface material most responsible of population

and Paleontological

Values under the

and sites will be damaged or destroyed

mining program, with much more lost from surface activities

expansion. expansion

Some losses, removal of 9,500 acres by 1990, to regional will be expected from lack of surface evidence, nel to conduct regional surveys.

time, money, and trained person-

1-656

Historical Impact on the historical Ranch, Portuguese Houses,

Values Cantonment Reno, Fort Reno, Hoe from can-

sites:

Powder River Crossing and Red Cloud Agency, increase in vandalism

increased population

with attendant

and pot hunters

not be totally avoided. a result of development

Some damage to these sites will undoubtedly within the basin. from construction

occur as

Visual impacts resulting lines, mine facilities, especially

of rail line, transmission plants are unavoidable. at some time strippable

silos, and industrial

All of the identified historical during the time span required coal resource. Some physical activities,

sites could be impacted visually

to exhaust the currently

economically

impact, despite all precautions, historical sites:

during road building Antelope Springs,

may occur on the following

Minor Bozeman Trail Sites, Crazy Woman Crossing, and Suggs.

Seventeen Mile Stage Station on all historical

Increased access will increase the use pressure damage.

sites and could result in unavoidable

1-657

Aesthetics The change in scenic characteristics be avoided. reserves. railroad throughout the study area cannot coal

The major changes will take place in the area of strippable The landscape will be crossed by transmission

lines, new road and

cut and fill slopes.

Vegetative

patterns will be altered on rights-

of-way and mined areas. (plant buildings,

New vertical

intrusions will be added to the landscape

loading silos).

The change of the study area from a quiet rural setting, with wide open spaces, basically activity is unavoidable. uninhabited to a basin busy with industry and human of the

The quiet solitude and natural peacefulness

area will be changed.

1-658

Wildlife Loss of habitat of coal mining hazards, and reduction

and Fish in populations will occur as a result Increased

and utilization habitat

operations

and will be unavoidable.

permanent

losses and deteriorated

habitat will result in a 17,000 deer

loss of approximately

five percent

(850 deer) from the nearly

winter herd in the study area. including

Approximately

14,500 acres of deer range,

1,400 acres of key range will be lost. Antelope will be similarly adversely impacted. Approximately 10,000

acres of year long habitat lost, resulting

and an additional reduction

19,000 acres of winter range will be (2,700) of the base population of

in a nine percent

the study area of 30,300. In all probability, the 300 head of elk currently using the area will

be forced from the area and possibly habitat. Destruction altered

lost if unable to find other suitable

of aquatic habitat and species will occur when streams are Amount of loss is indeterminable. aquatic life. (940 to 1,250 birds) of This loss will type Water quality will

to allow mining.

be reduced,

thereby affecting

additional

An estimated

three percent

to four Percent

the base sage grouse population be associated

in the study area will be lost.

with the loss of 29,750 acres of big sagebrush

vegetative

by 1990.
Habitat permanent removal and severe disturbance will result in a direct and numbers are unknown so

loss of sharp tail grouse.

Total population

actual loss cannot be quantified. Change and elimination impact waterfowl. The temporary of ponds, streams and reservoirs will adversely

loss of this water base during mining operations

1-659

is unavoidable.

Based only upon known aquatic habitat areas where losses appear loss of 400 to 800 ducks may occur. and jackrabbit populations populations will be reduced. By 1990,

likely, an estimated Cottontail cottontail

and jackrabbit

of about 148 and 101 per square mile, (estimated 7,000 rabbits). Populations of some

respectively,

will be lost on 28 square miles

Substantial rodents

losses of small mammals will occur. least chipmunk,

such as the deer mouse, or severely reduced

and sagebrush vole will be

destroyed

on roughly

29,000 acres by 1990.

1-660

Recreation The increased demand. The increased population demand in the basin will intensify recreation throughout Powder

could cause deterioration (Little Thunder Grasslands,

and overuse

the area and on existing River Wildlife and Glendo lowering

facilities

Reservoir Tower,

and Little Keyhole,

Area in the National

Devils

Guernsey

State Parks).

The generally within

unavoidable

adverse

effect areas.

is the

of recreation

quality

the study and adjacent

1-661

Agriculture The permanent cumulative loss of 4,800 acres by 1980, 7,900 acres by land is unavoidable. The return

1985, and 9,500 acres by 1990 of agricultural of agricultural success. failure land to production unavoidable conversion

after reclamation

depends on rehabilitation

To determine and 10 percent

losses, a five percent rehabilitation to other uses was assumed. The loss and

of agricultural rehabilitation

production

during periods of mining,

construction,

cannot be avoided.

Livestock

forage Cumulative forage lost will be 1,515 animal unit months (AUMs) by

1980, 3,435 AUMs by 1985, and 5,067 AUMs by 1990. to four-tenths

By 1990, this will amount in the study area. and fences will occur.

of one percent of the total forage produced of livestock watering and alteration

Increased vandalism cannot be avoided. Separation

facilities

of ranching

operations

Drying up of livestock water sources will occur and ranchers will be inconvenienced by changes in access patterns molestation and use patterns. Increased mortality and

of cattle and sheep will take place.

Farming Cumulative amount of cropland which will be unavoidably lost is 650

acres by 1980, 1,019 acres by 1985, and 1,245 acres by 1990. Irrigated cropland will be lost due to water right conversion. acreage lost due to lack of water is 31,473 acres by 1990. The unavoidable cropland loss by 1990 would be approximately agricultural sevenTotal

tenths of one percent of the total available region.

land within the

1-662

Transportation Increased cannot be avoided. peaking during traffic

Networks facilities within the study area

on all existing will begin

The increase

in the 1975 to 1980 time period, remaining fairly constant

the 1980 to 1985 interval increases will beyond

and probably

or with very

slight

1990.

This will mean

that road maintenance

costs and frequency Temporary construction

increase

and these costs cannot be avoided. and poor travel conditions caused during

inconvenience

of such facilities These

as the rail line, coal slurry and gasification impacts will be minor to predict and occur only over a increase in train/car the in-

pipelines are unavoidable. short time span. accidents. With

It is impossible the number

the possible per day cannot

of trains required occurring

(46 by 1990), be avoided. mainline of having

creased probability

of these accidents of additional

The impact be avoided.

trains on the existing

track cannot to upgrade The in

Deterioration

of the track and the necessity with this upgrading will be similar

the track and impacts impacts associated

associated

cannot be avoided.

with upgrading

to the impacts

discussed

Part II of this statement and Gillette.

on construction

of the new rail line between

Douglas

1-663

Socio-Economic Population While impact the addition of population

Conditions

may not necessarily effects.

be adverse,

the

of population

growth may generate

negative

The residual

impacts

of population

can best be discussed introduction Powder River

by component. of intensive coal and other induce industrial devel-

The expected opment in the Eastern from 107,364 and Converse

Coal Basin will

a regional

population of

increase Campbell tion.

in 1970 to approximately will experience

167,000

in 1990.

The Counties

the greatest of anticipated Counties.

percentage regional Population

increases population

in populagrowth in

Additionally, occur

over 78 percent

1990 will

in Campbell

and Converse of 12,957

in Campbell population

County in

will rise from a 1970 level Converse

to a 1990 level of 50,400;

County will grow from a 1970 total of 5,938

to a 1990 total of 15,200.

Employment A local unavoidable agriculture, sectors. petroleum As a rule, petroleum, effect will be the attraction residentiaries sector of labor from the

and other

into the coal related labor shortages levels in

This competition

for labor will create to be filled sector will

short-term

and other residentiaries the other residentiaries

as coal employment lag behind

off.

coal because

newcomers and will

to the area will be expected construction, likely and not other

to arrive employment.

for the purpose The labor

of coal employment

loss from agriculture employment

be long-term

and it may never effect

regain

its former

stature. opportuni-

The unavoidable ties will be created opment;

that large quantities a consequence

of employment

is largely

of the decision by importing

to allow develadequate quantities

such new employment

can only be satisfied

1-664

of labor into the region. Counties economy. Housing Industrial housing. nearly Regional will be to hasten

A further

consequence

in Campbell

and Converse

the conversion

from an agrarian

to an industria]

development

will

induce new population about

that will demand housing stock. units, As

population

in 1980 will demand

46,400 regional

9,000 housing and Converse growth,

units more Counties

than the 1970 existing will be the locations in Campbell

Campbell

that receive Counties

the greatest by 1980 will

population

housing

stock

and Converse

need to expand by factors demand. Regional housing

of 2.4 and 2.0, respectively, demand in 1990 will Housing increase

to meet the anticipated to 53,500 units which grow in Campbell housing County is

16,000 more

than the 1970 stock.

demand will

from 9,500 units expand

in 1980 to 14,800 units County

in 1990, while

demand will in 1990.

in Converse

from 4,400 units housing

in 1980 to 5,100 units which

The induced

population

will demand

does not now exist. available, the adverse housing

As housing impact cannot

probably

will not be immediately having to accept

of the incoming be avoided.

population

inferior

quality

Education The impacts are unavoidable. substantial Public realize impact growth on public education as discussed in the Impacts Section a

If coal resources in population,

are developed, includes

the region will realize age children. Counties,

which

school

school districts, unavoidable existing

especially

in Campbell

and Converse which

would

increases

in student

enrollments,

in turn would teaching staffs. over

school

enrollment

capacities

and full-time

By 1990, Campbell

County

is projected

to have a 8,360 pupil

enrollment

1-665

present

capacity

and need 426 more situation

full-time

teachers.

Converse

County would Converse County

experience

a similar

although

of a lesser magnitude.

by 1990 would

have a pupil full-time

enrollment teachers.

of 1,280 over present

capacity

and need

for 91 additional

If increasing following impacts

enrollments

are not accommodated

adequately,

the

could result: classrooms ratio in existing imbalance; (mobile trailers, modular units) for schools;

1.
2. 3.

Overcrowded

Student-teacher Use of temporary classrooms

structures

because certain

of overcrowded schools

and inadequate session

facilities;

4. 5. 6.

Operating

on a double

basis;

Inter-county Reduction

bussing

of students; of education.

in quality

Health

and social Campbell

services and Converse Counties will experience an unavoidable increase physi-

in demand cians, Quality

on their health

and social nurses

services.

There will not be enough

dentists, of health

professional care would

and other social workers reduced.

to meet the demand. there may be experience expansion and

be adversely

Even though

sufficient

facilities periods

for the sick to be treated for treatment. With

in, people would population

longer waiting

the rapid

lack of sanitarians, the entire regional

public health population.

and safety hazards

may increase,

affecting

Law enforcement The impacts unavoidable. on law enforcement as discussed in the Impact will Section are

If coal is developed,

the regional

population

expand,

creating

1-666

a need for increases in full-time sheriff

in police manpower personnel

and facilities. municipal

The demand policemen

for increases

and full-time

is unavoidable.

By 1990, Campbell 50 sheriff Converse personnel,

County would

experience

a demand

for a total of personnel. personnel, would would

a deficit

of 42 based

on presently

available

County by 1990 would presently

have a demand

for a total of 15 sheriff }funicipal police departments The Gillette by 1990. department Douglas

9 over the number experience

on the force.

the same type of increased of 31 people

demand.

have a deficit a deficit

and 11 patrol vehicles

would have

of 7 people With

and 2 patrol vehicles increases

by 1990. personnel, crime incidence

or without

in law enforcement

will most variables,

likely rise. which make

The magnitude

of this rise is dependent very difficult are not provided,

upon

too many impossible.

crime level predictions personnel

and nearly intolerable

If adequate conditions

levels of enforcement could be encountered

in some areas.

Fire protection Unless pumping ability expansion is undertaken by communities, deficiencies in water

capacity will have to adequately

the unavoidable

effect of diminishing Greater

a community's structural fire

meet hazardous

fire conditions.

damage will result, diminished.

and ability

to respond

to simultaneous

fires will be

Water Water

and sewer facilities

Current demand.

treatment

facilities

will be unable

to .meet the projected of 12.2 million

By 1990, Gillette

will have a treatment

deficiency

1-667

gallons

per day and Douglas distribution Adverse

would

have deficit

of 2.2 million for both

gallons of these

per day. communi-

The present

system would unavoidable

be inadequate could

ties by 1980. water, ment

impacts

occur

(use of low quality adequate water treat-

increased

sickness,

poor health)

from not providing

and distribution

systems.

Sewer Current collection by 1980. and treatment facilities for Douglas and Gillette capaof

will be overutilized bility deficiency

In 1990, Gillette gallons

will have a collection

of 2.9 million per day.

per day and a treatment experience

deficiency a deficiency

3.3 million of 700,000

gallons gallons

Douglas,

by 1990, will

per day in its collection of the sewage facilities dumped

and treatment could result

facilities.

Overuse adverse North impact

in the unavoidable channels (Donkey Creek,

of more sewage

being

into stream

Platte

River).

Utilities Regardless able. Douglas of the degree of planning, telephone certain service impacts delays may be unavoidif it grows service to

is faced with likely

possible

the north

and it may

incur delays its large

in all types of utility locates nearby.

if a

coal gasification of Gillette number natural

plant with

employment

The Cities if a large the supposed as

and Newcastle

may be faced with are required.

a natural

gas shortage extent

of new base hookups gas shortage

The actual

to which

exists was not known

to the local distributor supplier. problem. Distributors Present

inasmuch to the

he in turn purchases other communities shortages

his gas from a regional a similar

did not express may worsen

construction increasingly

material larger

if utility

companies

must

acquire

amounts

of materials

to satisfy

consumer

service

requests.

1-668

CHAPTER ALTERNATIVES

VIII ACTION

TO THE PROPOSED

No New Development The no new development allow River mines leases any additional Coal Basin. development or no action alternative of federal would be to not Powder

coal in the Eastern

Mining

at the Belle Ayr south, Wyodak to completion

and Dave Johnston approved would

would be allowed and mining

to continue Selection

on presently

plans.

of this alternative

probably

not totally coal would

prevent

development

of new mines

in the study area; private of the energy which River Coal Basin energy

undoubtedly

be developed.

The balance Powder

was to be supplied would

by coal from the Eastern from other with

have to be supplied Impacts

coal areas

or from alternate sources

sources. under

associated energy

alternate

energy

are analyzed

the alternate

source alternative.

Impacts Coal-based would cation not be feasible and power plant Development industrial under development (gasification Impacts would and power plants) gasifiV,

this alternative.

associated not occur under

with

construction

and operation

(see Chapter

this part). tive based traffic much

of the railroad

may remain

feasible

this alterna-

upon the economics elsewhere.

of utilizing Vegetation Ambient

the line for overhead

or bridge not be as as a resu~t

generated

and soil disturbance

would

as under

the proposal.

air quality would

not be lowered

of stack emissions. Impacts soils, would on the physical on a major would resources, portion wildlife, vegetation, and

not occur impacts

of the area under throughout

this alternative. Community

Social-economic

be lessened

the area.

1-669

facilities would

(schools,

sewage and water to the magnitude of private environmental

systems, analyzed

enforcement, in Chapter

social

services)

not be impacted Development

V of this part. of small strip the entire as

coal could create a number impact scattered

mines area.

with

resulting

throughout

Reclamation

requirements

on private

coal may not be as stringent on air quality and wildlife Impacts
011

federal quality

requirements; (increased

and after mining,

impacts

(dust), water

erosion

and sedimentation), with the proposal. since

could be worse transportation would at

than the impacts networks probably Douglas

associated

may be worse be utilized or Wyodak. roads. modes

than the proposal to transport

truck transportation

the coal to the main construction

line railroad

This would

require

of new roads or upgrading is analyzed under

of existing

Impact of this type of transportation of transportation with section. mines

the alternate

Impacts The impact

associated

the three existing mine

would

continue. III,

of continuation

of the Wyodak

is analyzed

in Chapter mines

Part VI of this statement. similar. If energy demands ment of federal regions.

Impact at the other

two existing

would be

are to be supplied

by coal, suspending to other

developcoal or

coal in the study area will coal from another create some impacts

shift impacts

Utilizing would

area such as Illinois, in those areas similar

Kentucky,

Pennsylvania occur need

to those which

in the study area if coal development to be opened or production expanded would

is allowed.

New mines would Since most of the

at old mines.

coal is mined

underground,

recovery

be less ~han the 90 to 95 percent

1-670

projected

for the study area.

Additional

transportation

would

be required of new or magni-

and since these areas expanded transportation

are more heavily facilities

populated,

construction

could have an impact Much of the eastern

of greater

tude than within sulfur mining content; methods

the study area. air pollution

coal is of higher

could become worse. there would Any surface or impairing

Even though underground surface

were utilized,

still be the potential disturbance

disturbance

from subsidence. of destroying,

in these areas has or

the potential potentially

the use of, more productive

producti~e

farmland.

Implementation Implementation action. of this alternative would require Congressional

1-671

Restrict Delay pending new technology reclamation

Development

Although handling species

methods

are being

improved,

techniques

of of plant are

soil, methods need

of planting,

preparing

the area and selection Native

to be developed

and tested for this area. quantities

seed sources

necessary

to supply Research

seed in sufficient into and testing

to be used in revegetation. control devices are

of new emission

proceeding proved clean

at a rapid pace.

Efficiency Methods

of utilization of conversion developed

could also be imof coal energy and perfected. into

within energy

the near future. (gasification)

are also being

Impacts If development of federal coal is delayed, Impacts it is probable private are

coal in the study area will be developed. discussed under the "no new development" development

of coal development

alternative. coal, it is doubtful federal coal. if the the sulfur

Even with companies utility Eastern can meet

of private without

their contracts

Therefore,

plants Powder

in the Midwest River Basin

and South that were

to receive

the lower

coal wouLd

have to obtain

coal elsewhere. increase

Conthe in

tinued utilization impact ambient

of high sulfur at the point

coal at these plants will of utilization. could seriously

on air quality air quality

A continued

decline

in these areas

impact vegetation

and health

1-672

conditions,

especially

during

inversion

periods.

Another

possible

result

of unavailability standards

of low sulfur

coal and the requirement have to reduce reduction

to meet air quality capacity. This and

is that these plants would in blackouts, brownouts, demands.

generating

could result inability

in economic

development,

to supply

consumer

If development ly for sulfur dioxide, at the point companies

were delayed

until new pollution or perfected,

controls,

particular-

were developed would

the impact

on air quality utility

of utilization

be decreased.

At that time eastern cheaper

could utilize would

eastern

coal which

is economically

for them. coal.

This possibly Improvement quality

prolong

development

of Eastern

Powder River the impact within

Basin

of pollution

technology

would

also reduce

on air

from the development Whenever

of power

generating

plants

the study area. as However,

the coal is developed

in the study area, will

impacts

described

in Chapter

V, Part I of this statement impacts would be reduced

still occur.

the unavoidable tion techniques developed

adverse suitable

if reclamation

and revegeta-

for the climatic

condition

of the study area are

and perfected. If revegetation methods were perfected, adverse increased vegetation forage supplies long-term to 10 to 15 and of

success and correspondingly wildlife native impacts years under habitat

lessened

impact

on livestock of adequate survival,

may be expected.

With development

plant

seed sources

and techniques

for insuring

on wildlife

habitat

may be reduced The projected

from 20 to 50 years productivity

or possibly current

even less.

loss of 50 percent loss.

techniques

possibly

could be lowered

to 15 to 25 percent

A decrease

in the time required would reduce

to revegetate, the amount

and an increase

in the amount

of cover returned,

of erosion

and sedimentation

1-673

which

takes place after mining. which occurs after mining

This would

reduce

the adverse

impact on water

quality

is completed. efficiency could possibly reduce spread the the

An increase amount impacts of coal mined over a longer

in utilization per year.

Mining

less coal per year would for recovery prior

time period,

allowing

to additional

disturbance.

In phase and staged with

socio-economic action

development program, an alternative in policy program could

In lieu of the proposed be undertaken existing that represents modes

a marked

departure adhered

framework

from the

management

historically

to by the Bureau would

of Land a

Management natural Powder

and Forest

Service.

This alternative development,

be to develop program

resources River

management,

and utilization with

for the

Basin region development With respect by utilizing

that would

be coordinated

the rate of social within could be planning all of the

and economic the region. implemented systems various

that could be sustained to the federal the existing sector,

by the communities this alternative Service

Bureau and Forest

to develop resource

and maintain

land use plans while lands.

considering

uses for federal

The local government or guarantees required borrowing

sector would would

have the problem

of assurance

that coal development facilities would

in fact occur and that revenues timely. Bond or other

for public

be available

can not be based Implementation

on development

speculation. would be purposefully with directed

of this proposal development

toward

coordinating

community

capabilities

the rate of and

coal production. accommodated

New or expanded

coal developments

would

be allowed

only to the extent

they were mutually

compatible

with community

1-674

ability

to meet

social

and economic

needs

and demands

placed

upon it by the phase

additional

development

and employment. the quantity

The proposal

is to methodically

in, over a period be allowed housing, after

of years,

of new coal development

that will needed than The

in order

to enable

the community services

to plan for and develop of need rather

educational

and social have

in advance inundated

these facilities

already

become

and overcrowded.

total requirement but the increase thereby, demands allowing

for needed in demand

facilities

might

not be lessened over a longer

appreciably, period of time; employment

for them would to respond

occur more

communities

effectively.

Certain

(particularly

construction)

could be reduced

at anyone

time to

allow more

even utilization This alternative

of those services itself would resources for future etc.)

over a longer

time period. or magnitude water,

not lessen

the intensity

of impacts

on the physical allow

sectors

(agriculture,

wildlife,

etc.), but it might restoration,

technological

improvements Future

(in vegetative implementation resources. the in-

pollution

control,

to be developed. to lessen impacts

of technological

advances

could serve

on physical in coal,

With respect practicability ability

to the existing

contractual

interest

of this alternative staging

is limited

by the Federal special

Government's Congressional to suspend

to implement

or development

without does have

authority. operations suspension

The Secretary and production must be limited

of the Interior of leases

authority

in the interest periods. delayed

of conservation, Development

but such

to reasonable

of coal leases periods unless to to

in the study area cannot be selectively authorities buy back privately and funding are provided interests.

for extended the Federal controls

that allow

Government not apply

the leasehold owned

Development

would

coal unless

implemented

by state government.

1-675

Control

number of producers The alternative of controlling would require strives resource special depletion through controlIn the American

ling numbers

of producers

legislation.

free-enterprise resources supplier company,

system, industry

to meet demand.

The demand for coal of one to one to

is real and will be met or by several hundred a monopoly is created.

(if possible)

by production

suppliers.

If production limitation

is limited

Governmental number

of production

four, six or any other particular entanglements

of companies to meeting

would

create legal

which would be detrimental

demand.

Impacts The impacts all the coal produced although operators. would associated with having one or a few producers supply

in the basin would be the same as discussed in areas controlled

in Chapter V

all impacts would be concentrated Coal mining in producing work

by the few which

areas would have to be accelerated in a shorter time.

allow reclamation

to be completed of workers

This would socio-economic time

produce

a high concentration

and increase

associated

and safety effects. period, the economic

As a result

of completion

of mining

in a shorter

effects would be more pronounced.

Control location of depletion by designating area for production Other areas in Wyoming rather than the Eastern or the nation could be developed for coal of

Powder River Basin. would require

Administrative

designation

areas for coal development The state might coal mining

enactment

of special

legislation. to enhance

look favorably

upon special

legislation

designed

in other areas of Wyoming

so that reserves

in these areas

1-676

could be fully mined Powder River Basin.

in an orderly

manner

before

mining

was permitted

in the

Impacts The possibility legislation procedures. pending is speculative. Rights granted right of enactment of this type of mineral would impact and land use leasing and would

Such legislation under federal

customary be denied

coal leases would

preference

leases might lease

not be granted.

Existing

permits

be cancelled plants

and competitive operating

sales for coal would to continue

be deferred. operation,

Power

presently would

would

be allowed

but a Mining The and

moratorium attendant Eastern

be declared would

on plans

for expansion

of capacity.

activity

be held at approximately

the present

level.

Powder River

Basin would

not be industrialized

to the levels described

in this impact

statement. of this alternative under in the Eastern Powder River Basin

The impacts would be similar

to those described

"No New Development" to mining where

in this chapter. private

Private holdings

coal lands would exist. Excavation

still be amenable

suitable

for coal in another of mining

Wyoming

coal basin would

effectively Mining

transfer impacts

the impacts

and industrialization resources

to that basin.

on land and associated thickness

could be greater

or less, depending Thin coalbeds larger machinery thus increasing on water might

on coalbed mined

at the alternate

locality would

or localities. likely require

by surface

or underground depth

methods

to strip to maximum impact

and greater

numbers

of employees, Impact

in the industrial

and socio-economic

frames.

1-677

be less, given an adequate major stream of partially Areas currently

supply of water unappropriated

of sufficient

quality

such as a

water. resource values that are

of particularly

high or unique

not under permit

or lease by mining

that would be subject could be permanently

to serious set aside thus

enviroIlmental degradation mitigating potential

impact. with long-term contracts (30 to 40 years) were demand could drive be slope

If companies compelled prices created up.

to rely on private Under

coal to meet commitments, islands of federal

such circumstances

coal would

that could result at ownership

in coal resource boundaries.

waste

because

of highwall

requirements

I-677a

Complete This alternative state for processing. considers

Exportation of the coal out of the utilized for analysis still be (2) coal prodevelopment by the

the exportation assumptions were

The following

of this alternative: constructed duction will Slnce

(1) the 330-M}J power plant approved

at ~vyodak will construction;

the state has already of mines

levels

and number

as analyzed acreage

for the proposed

remain

the same;

(3) additional

will not be required (4) the amount will

railroad

(according

to a railroad the same; power

spokesman);

of powerlines still be built;

and roads will and

remain

(5) the slurry pipeline or gasification

(6) no additional

plants

plants

will be constructed.

Impacts The impacts jected impacts will be analyzed as of 1990 and compared as detailed with the pro-

of the proposed

development

in Chapter

V, Part I,

of this statement. Acreage for the proposed area would disturbed action. by mining and reclaimed would remain the same as

However, 24,300

under acres,

this alternative, a 16 percent

the total disturbed reduction from

be an estimated project.

(4,700 acres)

(

from the proposed production what would reduce would

The area estimated a 49 percent

to be permanently (4,700 acres) These

removed

be 4,800 acres, under

reduction reductions

from would

be removed

the proposed

development. wildlife

the impact Under

on air quality,

recreation,

and agriculture. of decrease 1.

this alternative under

the 1990 emissions development

and amount

from the emissions

the proposed

are shown

in Table

1-678

Table 1 1990 Exportation Type Particulates Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen Oxides *rncludes train emissions. Alternative Amount 5,775 47,840 46,594 Emissions* Decrease

65% 70% 59%

The reduction substantially

in ambient air quality under this alternative However,

would be

less than under the proposed development.

the amount

of train emissions will increase over what will occur under the proposal. The number of trains required Under this alternative resulting 29 percent an estimated to transport the coal would increase.

21,818 trains per year would be required, This is a yearly increase of

in an average of 60 trains per day.

and a daily increase of 30 percent over the number occurring under

the proposed development. Without development plants, water requirements the estimated 31 percent ment. of additional power plants and gasification Under this alternative or

would not be as great.

1990 yearly water requirement

would be 62,850 acre-feet

less than the projected water demand for the proposed developthe probability of having to import water, as well as which would occur under the proposed

This reduces

reducing

the impact on agriculture action.

full development

Recreational several reasons:

impacts under this alternative

would be less for the number and removed of the region

population

increase would be less, reducing facilities; acreage disturbed the aesthetics

of people requiring

recreation

would be less; and fewer intrusions would be constructed.

impacting

1-678a

Adoption adverse impacts

of this alternative in most

would

result

in a lessening

of total change occurs

on wildlife

cases.

The most recognizable "nonconstruction,"

in the amount 4,700 acres.

of total habitat

saved through

an estimated County projections

It has been estimated impacted be reduced under

that with exportation, development)

Campbell

(most severely by 1990 would estimates

the proposed people.

population

by 13,900

The reduction

of population reduce the amount

by nearly wildlife

14,000 people habitat which

by 1990 would would result

significantly

of impaired hunter Even

from such factors habitat

as increased

and other recreational the general

demands

and miscellaneous involving

disturbances. and

though

cumulative

impacts

loss of habitat

reduction activities intensity

in population remain

as the result

of coal development for the proposed be reduced be somewhat under

and associated projects, the

the same as described on wildlife would would

of impacts

this alternative. this alternative Construction on

Impact on agriculture as compared

less under

to the impact as analyzed of facilities 24,300 acres. removed

for full-scale would result

development.

and development approximately would Wyodak

and mining

in land use changes or 19.8 percent

Of this amount, from production

4,800 acres

be permanently power plant,

by construction increase.

of the railroad, Table 2 provides

slurry plant,

and population

a comparison development.

of the impact

of this alternative

with proposed

full-scale

Approximately

.56 percent

of agricultural change

land would

be disturbed conlivealso

and lost to production--not sidering use of coal within (16 percent

a significant the basin.

from the projections loss of annual would

The projected

stock forage change very

- 822 AUMs

less) and crop production that land affected the same.

little due to the assumption would remain virtually

by coal mining

and reclamation

I-678b

+-J

o ,...J
1-<'"0 QJ .:

-

.w
u
,'! J), J

an
9!>()

u ui! of ihc Fvccu ti : I' Branch
/0 ad iisc the' Prcsi.lrn! and in t b:

of Ih" Feder»! GOI'cr/IIIl,,1/1 (If [[j-,toric l'rrscr iet ion,

by tbc Acl of

1-879

604 East 25th Street.

Cheyenne. Wyo.

82002

Telephone: Area Code 307 -

777-7695

MARVIN HARSHMAN
Pr •• ldent

STANLEY

K. HATHAWAY
Governor

PAUL H. WESTEDT
Director

COMMISSION OFFICERS ALBERT PilCH.
1800 Merse t, •• IIlvonBton 82930

May 8, 1974
Vic. Prosldent

BILL NATION. Tr ••• urer
2221 Van Choy.nn. Lennon Avenue 82001

MEMBERS
Floyd Bartling P. O. Box 172
Couglo. 82633

Lyle Bentzen 1001 Pioneer
Sheridan

Rood

82801

Konneth
Sundance

Canfield
82729

Mr. Daniel P. Baker, State Director U. S. Dept. of the Interior Bureau of Land Management P. O. Box 1828 Cheyenne, Wyoming 82001 Dear Mr. Baker: I have been furnished with certain sections of the preliminary draft of the forthcoming Environmental Impact Statement dealing with the development of energy resources in Wyoming's Powder River Basin. And, as the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Officer, I have been requested to comment thereon. As the easiest and most practical way of fulfilling a part of that request, both for myself in commenting and for whoever must take note of my observations, I have made a few direct notations here and there on individual pages of sections dealing with history and archaeology. Those sections are, therefore, returned herewith. I have at this time no further comments to make regarding any individual places, features, facts or factors cited in any of them. It is evident that members of the team drafting this statement were familiar with the laws, orders and implementations governing the proposed industrial developments and protecting the indicated cultural values. While their familiarity with the subject area-both surface terrain and subsurface deposits; both natural features and man-made materialities-is at best sketchy they have, within the allotted time, made a concerted effort to attain greater understanding. Thus, the information they have incorporated into these sections of the statement is almost certainly as good a summary of presently known facts as can be compiled. However, these sections of the Powder River Basin Energy Resources Environmental Impact Statement are really only improvisations. Tragically, the event of industrial development is already upon the

Mrs. Robert Frisby
2007 Newton Cody 82414 P, O. Box 216 Thayn. 83127 Avenue

Jack D'. Osmond

Duane Redman Cubol. 82513

1-880

Mr. Daniel P. Baker, State Director Bureau of Land Management May 8, 1974 page 2

the scene; it is a necessary event and it will continue along its course. Given that condition, there is no alternative other than making the best use possible out of an improvised contrivance. But, since exploitation of Wyoming energy resources will foreseeingly continue on an expanding scale, there is no justification for duplicating time and again procedures based on inadequate and inferior knowledge--to be forever reacting to a circumstance rather than assimilating the factual understanding whereby guidelines can be established providing for control of future circumstances. It appears relevant then, within the framework of comments directed on this milepost environmental impact statement, to briefly consider the fundamental reason behind its evident deficiencies. Historically civilizations have outrun concern for their own heritage. Thought for historic and archaeologic cultural values has lagged many years--even decades and centuries--behind attainment of other benefits. When recognition of such worth has come it has traditionally been the task of the private sector to seek out individual treasures and effect their preservation. This has been voluntary work, always slowed by its very costliness. In fact, even once well started such work by the private sector may well continue to lose ground against the more rapid advance of other factors in the continuing civilization. Against that general background it is not surprising that historic and archaeologic values of the Powder River Basin, a wilderness a century ago and barely an established frontier fifty years ago, are largely unknown or unrecognized today. The same condition holds true for almost all of the young State of Wyoming. However, this traditional view of any civilization's concern for its cultural heritage is currently undergoing change. Everywhere governments are demonstrating an interest in assisting academic institutions, private societies and individuals in the work of determining and protecting records of the past. Here in America The Congress has enacted two new laws--The National Historic Preservation Act and The National Environmental Protection Act--and the President has made proclamation--Executive Order ll593--designed to strengthen the work of historic preservation in all of its several manifestations. The State of Wyoming has responded by enacting legislation enabling its participation in the national movement. Under these circumstances it is logical to assume that the work of historic preservation (in all that that term signifies) should by now be well established on a wide basis and already producing significant results. It might even be assumed that those results should have included volumes of data pertinent to the Powder River Basin wherefrom a well founded environmental impact statement might have been expected.

1-881

Mr. Daniel P. Baker, State Director Bureau of Land Management May 8, 1974 page 3 Unfortunately, laws, orders and regulations are only the first step in a change and cannot in themselves effect that change. The next step is providing appropriations to meet the expenses of the work. That is the part of the currently undergoing change that hasn't as yet progressed very far--with the result that the compilers of the environmental impact statement here in question were hampered by limited data. Here, finally, I reach the point to be stressed, a point which is pertinent to the purse string holders of both Federal and State Governments. That is that the very energy resources whose industrial exploitation threatens cultural values is easily capable, almost without noticing, of paying the costs of historic and archaeologic preservation. For many years Federal royalties from the production of energy resources out of Federal lands in Wyoming have been astronomical; State revenues from taxes on production of energy resources have also been significantly important. Now, both Federal and State revenues from this source give evidence of constant and exceptional increases. Under these circumstances I submit that both Federal and State Governments would be well advised to provide appropriations sufficient to carryon a truly significant effort toward discovery, investigation and protection of our cultural heritage. Sincerely,

RulJ~~r
PHW:mr

Paul H. Westedt Director and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Officer

1-882

Other participation During were extremely natives. Richfield, Panhandle the formulation of the draft statement, many participants basic input data and recommending information Metals alter-

helpful

in providing

Mining

companies

furnishing American

were Sun Oil, Atlantic Corporation, Corp.,

Wyodak Resources, Eastern

Climax, Kerr-McGee

Gas Company,

Peabody Coal Company, American

Nuclear

Wyoming Water, Basin Electric Consolidated Resources, Coal, Cleveland Homestake

Power Corp., Black Hills Power and Light, Cliffs Iron, Decker Coal, Exxon, Gulf Mineral Mobile Oil, Montana

Mining, Humble Oil and Refining, Natural Gas, Pacific Transco

Dakota Utilities, Mining, Western

Northern

Power and Light, Reynolds

Shell Oil, Teton Exploration, Standard

Energy, Union Pacific Mining, Continental

Corp., Woodward-Envicon,

Inc., Cameron Engineers,

Conveyor,

Ohio Farm Bureau Federation, Corporation. companies

EI Paso Natural Gas, Carter Oil, and

Bechtel Engineering

Transportation Inc., Burlington

contributing

were Energy Transportation, and Union Pacific Railroads. of Wyoming History,

Northern,

Chicago North Western,

Institutional

input was received

from the University

(Black Thunder Project Research Esso Research and Engineering,

Team members), Denver Research

American Museum Natural Institute,

Sernco of Denver, Services,

Stoltz, Wagner and Brown, VTN Consolidated, and Dames and Moore.

Western

Interpretive

1-883

Coordination and Review of the Draft Environmental Statement leading to preparation of the Final Environmental Statement Copies of the draft statement were made public on June 1, 1974. Comments were solicited as well as the public. received from federal, state and local governmental A listing of the entities agencies

from which comments were A

is part of the summary located in Volume I of this statement. comments is contained in Volume VI.

further listing of written In addition

to the written

comments received,

five days of public

hearings were conducted beginning as follows:

on June 24, 1974.

Hearings were conducted

6/24/74 - 7 p.m. - Cheyenne;

6/25/74 - 9 a.m. - Cheyenne; 6/27/74 - 7 p.m. -

6/26/74 - 1:30 p.m. - Casper; 6/26/74 - 7 p.m. - Casper; Gillette; and 6/28/74 - 9 a.m. - Gillette.

Due to the volume of comments received both at the hearings writing, a separate volume was required thereto. in order to portray adequately

and in the

comments and responses

The comments and responses

are located in

Volume VI of this statement.

I-883a