Coal Diver Everything you wanted to know about coal, but were afraid to ask.

This is a text-only version of the document "Eastern Powder River Basin - Final Environmental Impact Statement - Vol 1 of 5 - 1973". To see the original version of the document click here.



















Prepared by Department of Agriculture Interstate Commerce Commission Department of the Interior (October 18, 1974)

( )




Final Environmental


Director, Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Hanagement Washington, D. C. 20240

1. 2.

Type of action: Brief description



( ) Legislative

of action:

The statement covers the probable impact of the possible development of 11 new coal strip mines, 4 new mine mouth coal fired generating plants (1780-megawatts), 2 gasification plants, and a l13-mile long mainline railroad by 1990 within the Eastern Powder River Coal Basin. In addition to the regional portion of the statement which analyzes all of the above stated development on a regional basis, the statement also analyzes on a site specific basis, development or expansion of four mines (Wyodak, Carter, A.R.Co. and Kerr-McGee) and the l13-mile railroad. The Federal Government has been asked to approve the mining plans of these four companies and to grant the necessary rights-of-way for construction of the railroad. 3. Summary of environmental impacts (by 1990) A. Ambient air quality will be lowered B. Altitude of land surface will be lowered where coal is removed C. Vegetation will be destroyed from mining and construction of attendent facili ties D. Soil structure and parent material will be disrupted and altered on the area to be strip mined E. Valuable energy resources will be made available for utilization F. Water utilization and consumption will increase for industrial uses, possibly reducing amount available for other uses (agriculture, wildlife, recreation) G. Unknown archeological and paleontological values may be destroyed H. Scenic views will be changed and altered I. Wildlife habitats will be altered and some populations will be reduced while others will increase J. Recreation use will be intensified K. Livestock forage will be reduced during mlnlng operations L. Possible overall reduction of the productivity of the mined areas even after reclamation M. New transportation networks will be created N. Population in the study area will increase O. Employment in the study area will be increased P. Tax and royalty income will be increased in the study area Q. Income levels will increase within the study area R. All infrastructual facilities will be impacted i


Alternatives considered A. No new development B. Restrict development C. Complete exportation of all coal mined D. Different extraction methods E. Various reclamation objectives F. Alternate to private industry development G. Different modes of distribution H. Different utilization methods I. Alternate energy sources on the draft were requested Protection Agency from the following:



United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Bureau of Outdoor Recreation National Park Service Bureau of Land Mangement Office of Oil and Gas Geological Survey Office of Coal Research Bureau of Mines Office of Land Use and Water Planning Office of Water Resources Research Bureau of Indian Affairs Office of Environmental Project Review Office of Solicitor Bureau of Reclamation Northern Great Plains Resource Program

United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Soil Conservation Service Federal Power Commission United States Department Interstate Commerce of Health, Education and Welfare


Atomic Energy Commission Department of Transportation

State of Wyoming Offices Governors Clearing House Attorney General Agriculture Economic Planning and Development Education i-I

State Engineer Environmental Quality Game and Fish Geological Survey Health and Social Services Highway Department Occupational Health and Safety Public Lands Public Service Commission Recreation Commission State Archeologist State Historic Preservation Office University of Wyoming Board of County Commissioners Campbell County Converse County Johnson County Weston County Niobrara County Natrona County Crook County Sheridan County of

Other Organizations Advisory Council on Historic Preservation Wyoming Outdoor Council Sierra Club, Northern Great Plains Office Wyoming Environmental Institute Wyoming Audubon Society Izaak Walton League -
 Wyoming Division Wyoming Wildlife Federation Powder River Basin Resources Council Western Region, Wilderness Society Rocky Mountain Center on Environment The Wildlife Society Wyoming Geological Association Society for Range Management Wyoming Stock Growers Association Wyoming Wool Growers Association Wyoming Archeological Association Wyoming State Historical Society Northern Plains Resource Council Wyoming Mining Association Petroleum Association of Wyoming American Association of Petroleum Geologists American Institute of Mining Engineers Comments were received from: Department of Interior National Park Service Bureau of Reclamation Office of Coal Research Bureau of Sport Fisheries & Wildlife Bureau of Outdoor Recreation i-2

Bureau of Mines Department of Agriculture Environmental Quality Activities Forest Service Office of the Secretary Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station Department of Commerce The Ass't Secretary for Science Department of Health, Education

and Technology

and Welfare

Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Atomic Energy Commission Protection Agency

Environmental Federal

Energy Administration (Governors Clearing House)

State of Wyoming

Board of County Commissioners Niobrara County Other Organizations Cheyenne High Plains Audubon Society Burgess and Davis, Attorneys -
 Landowners Wilderness Society Wyoming Farm Bureau Federation University of Wyoming (Black Thunder Project) Environmental Defense Fund Wyoming Sierra Club Group Wyoming Chapter, Wildlife Society Sierra Club Institute of Ecology National Resources Defense Council, Inc. Upper Snake River Group, Sierra Club Geothermal Energy Institute Industry Amax Coal Company Middle South Utilities Central Louisiana Electric



Getty Oil Company Panhandle Eastern Pipeline Company Southwestern Public Service Company Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company Texas Utilities Services, Inc. Atlantic Richfield Company Carter Oil Company Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation Black Hills Power and Light Company VTN Mineral Development Corporation Nebraska Public Power District Gulf States Utilities Company Gulf Energy and Minerals Company Individuals Bob Rourke Homer A. Robinson Thomas E. Horobik Otis C. Copeland Barbara Gilfillan Faye C. Hart John E. Mooney R. Marrimer Orum John R. Swanson Mr. and Mrs. Richard Eileen Dunnebecke Leland J. Turner Pat Ford

J. Ball

Date draft statement made available May 31, 1974 Date final statement made available October 18, 1974

to Council on Environmental


to Council on Environmental



CONTENTS This is Volume analysis. I. I t contains Chapters I through IV of Part I, the regional

SUMMARY This environmental Part I: statement

TABLE OF CONTENTS in six parts as follows:

is presented

Regional Analysis - A consideration of the Eastern Powder River Coal Basin, its environment, and projected development through 1990. Chapters I - IV. Introduction, Potential Development, Development and Distribution Models, and Description of the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapters V - XI. Probable Impacts, Mitigating Measures, Unavoidable Adverse Effects, Alternatives, Relationships Between Short and Long Term Uses, Irreversible Commitments and Coordination ....







Proposed railroad construction by Burlington Northern Inc. and the Chicago and North Western Transportation Company . . . . . . . . . .. . Proposed Company Proposed Company mining and reclamation by Atlantic Richfield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mining and reclamation by Carter Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



Part III:

Vol. III







Proposed mining and reclamation by Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Proposed mining and reclamation Development Corp. . ..... Appendices Comments received and respons es . at public hearings and by mail by Wyodak Resource





Vol. Vol.


Vol begins on the following page.


A detailed

t~ble of contents

of this volume



Chapter I. INTRODUCTION . Specific Applications Institutional Arrangements Geographic Area Relationship II. POTENTIAL DEVELOPHENT. . Coal Development . . Exportation of Coal Hine Houth Power Generation Gasification . . . . . . Other Industrialization lfudes of Distribution Water Requirements . . . Assumption and Analysis Guidelines DESCRIPTION OF DEVELOPI1ENT, ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEll HODELS. . . . . . . 11ining Operations. . . Utilization Processes. Distribution Systems . Waste Disposal Systems DESCRIPTION OF THE EXISTING ENVlROilllENT. Climate. . . Air Quality. Topography . Soils .... Hineral Resources. Water Resources .. Vegetation . . . . Archeological and Paleotological Values. Historical Values Aesthetics ..... Wildlife and Fish Recreation Resources Agriculture . . . . Transporation Networks Land Use Controls and Constraints. Socio-Economic Conditions ..... AND DISTRIBUTION


I-I 1-7
1-16 1-21 1-21 1-35 1-38 1-40 1-42 1-45 I-52 I-56


1-61 1-61 1-91 1-105

r-t u
1-115 1-115 1-127 1-137 1-142 1-156 1-195 1-268 1-278 1-292 1-312 1-320 1-347 1-369 1-381 1-388 1-392



P~F~E This statement the environment Basin of Wyoming represents an analysis of broad cumulative impacts on

of coal resource development and analyses of specific

in the Eastern Powder River Coal

impacts of pending applications

before the Federal Government. A number of companies holding in the Gillette-Douglas, Wyoming, leases on federally owned coal deposits

area have submitted proposed mining and reclaleaseholds to the U.S. Geological Survey for Some of these of present of

mation plans for their respective approval in accordance

with existing federal law and regulations.

plans cover totally new mines to be opened; others cover expansion mines onto existing federal leaseholds.

A number of similar submissions

mining and reclamation

plans on other leaseholds

in this area can be antici-

pated in the near future. Burlington Northern Inc. and Chicago and North Western TransportaCommerce Commission for a and

tion Company have jointly applied to the Interstate certificate operation of public convenience and necessity


the construction

of a new railroad which would

link an existing

line near Douglas, a transportation Short spur

Wyoming, with one near Gillette, Wyoming,

thereby providing

facility which could be utilized by anticipated

mining activity. in some cases.

lines to the various mines would also be required Federal of Land Management, ment of Agriculture, land holdings Department

in the area require authorizations of the Interior,

by the Bureau

or the Forest Service, Depart-

for the occupancy or use of federal lands.

Other actions zations. generating operations, ness






the federal

approval authoripower

ensue, many

of which mayor development

may not require of electric



For example, facilities, roadway

powerlines, water

mine mouth

coal gasification



for various and busi-

and other communication facilities

facilities, of all kinds

new residence in existing


and increased


may occur. The four federal ing applications significant would agencies have determined constitute of human that approval federal of the penda


a major

action having


on~ the quality

environment. interests most

Therefore, effectively

the agencies and to Policy of

have determined meet

that to protect

the public

their individual



the National


Act of 1969 most efficiently, a single impacts primary environmental of the several and secondary, Further, it is necessary potential the Powder River impact

they should statement


undertake consider

the preparation not only the

which would


but also the collective,



of the development the intent the general

of the coal resource

in the area. fashion, and

to meet

of the Act in the most productive geographic area of the proposed consideration eastward

to examine

actions. River

The geographic

area for basic

is that part of from the Powder north of in of

Coal Basin

in Wyoming

lying generally

to the outcrop to a point

line of the coal resource somewhat south of Douglas.

and from somewhat


The area deliniation activity, differing

is based quality somewhat

part on present

and anticipated different techniques

levels of mining arrangement

the coal resource, different ments. social mining

physical required having factors,

of the coal beds, physical

and differing a broader scope

reclamation impact

requiresuch as and


considerations economic

of geographis water





recreation area.


are treated

on a larger regional the existing


than the primary evaluates


This statement



the collecof

tive impact potential statement federal

of the proposed


and, insofar

as now possible, area described activities

the impacts above. This


coal mining within in detail

the geographic proposed

also examines


for which


are required.




Figure 1 Basic Study Area Location





INTRODUCTION Involved several industry agencies of the Federal (Map 3, Appendix Government A). have pending before them out-


The proposals for analysis in Parts

are briefly

lined in this chapter Each proposal

to provide

a perspective

of regional


is the subject

of a detailed


II, III, IV, V, and of the roles development of

VI of this report. the several involved

This chapter federal

also includes

a brief



in authorizing



Specific Railroad Initially, Transportation opment Burlington planned


Northern separate

Inc. and Chicago rail lines

and North Western coal devel31, 1974,


to serve planned on January

in the Eastern

Powder River

Coal Basin. Commerce


the companies to build

filed with

the Interstate main


a joint application (respectively coal mine

one line from the present east of Douglas) southeast

line at Fisher

and Shawnee

15 and 19 miles about 15 miles

to the vicinity

of the present


of Gillette.

Total distance

of mainline

construction p~rt of of

will be 113 miles; the respective land managed

there will be additional operations.

spurs which route

are considered about


The proposed


2 miles

by the Bureau

of Land Management,

21 miles

of Forest

Service managei must A. be

lands, and 7 miles filed with

of land owned by the State of Wyoming. The proposed route


these agencies.

is shown on Map 3, Appendix




Company Richfield plans Company has submitted to the Geological Survey sur-

The Atlantic mining and reclamation


its proposal

to open a conventional

face coal mine (Figure 2).

on federal

coal lease Vl-23l3 about plans to start production Oklahoma,

40 miles

south of Gillette

The company

in 1975 and to ship the and Texas. Ownership in

coal to electric acres


in Nebraska,

of the lease area is shown below. Surface United States 3844 -/, 640 2040 6524 Service Coal 5884 640 0 6524

State of vJyoming Private Total


Target million


for the mine,

to be known

as the Black Thunder by opening


is 10

tons per year by 1979. area at the mine.

This could be doubled

a second



Oil Company Carter Oil Company has also submitted mininf and reclamation plans coal the tons


its proposal about mine,

to open a conventional north


coal mine on federal at this mine,

lease W-5036 North Rawhide

eight miles

of Gillette.


is scheduled Present plans

to begin

in 1976 and rise

to five million of 11 million Power

per year by 1978:

are for a full production


Coal will be exported Ownership of this mine

from the basin

to the }1ichigan-1ndiana


area is as follows:


79W T58N T57N






-- --- --- -r-r;--- ,...----,--r--~-'---

R l3W

RR R 72W 71 W lOW



R 67W









-''W'V D"MIN G - -



T 56N T55N




T54N T53N

-t-- -


r\[ I ,



-;, '"







--1. -i ,) '''-.


I I ,

>" ....,













0>"&.•.. .-:::

-~o-:> "x




I ,

l-AM \X N ORT~ l!YO[ AK I Jit'V I ..,. rett"

-- ~~ ~








: I


SUN :01 l





T 46N




I ,






~ /BNI





I I , ,I

EN/Ct W Itern te

ro utI


..•..K'E RR MeG EE I .:ARC 0


T42N T41N






- --

-- --.,.. 1_ -- --- -- -- r-~


-~ kill ~-" 'l\I ,

\ t


T39N T38N





I ,I

c p u V ER














T34N T33N T32N


~ ~


Co sper "'""

I I ,

I -'I'l"""<















• D puglo

















50 Kilometers

Figure 2 Index Map Showing Locations of Some Federal Coal Leases in the Eastern Powder River Basin, Wyoming 1-3

Surface United Carter Other private Total *Bureau of Land Management States 40* 960 4457 5457

Coal 5417

40 5457


Corporation Mining and reclamation plans submitted by Kerr-McGee Corporation set

forth its plans to develop a conventional W-23928

surface coal mine on federal leases This mine, Beginning of electric calls

and W-247l0 about 40 miles to the south and east of Gillette. tons per year by 1982. for production

the Jacobs Ranch mine, will produce 15.9 million in 1977, coal will be shipped to Arkansas power. An accelerated schedule,

and Louisiana


on completion

of the railroad, in acres is

for delivery shown below.

of two million

tons in 1976.

Lease area ownership

Surface United States Kerr-McGee Total 'IcForestService 640* 3712 4352

Coal 4352


Wyodak Resources


Corp. Corp. has submitted plans to expand on U.S. Highway

Wyodak Resources


its present mining operation 14-16.

about five miles east of Gillette

The company plans to commence operations surface mine.

on federal coal lease W-073289. Production last year was About 1.5

The Wyodak mine is a conventional

725,000 tons; this will be expanded

to five million

tons by 1982.



tons of this will be burned

in a new power plant

to be built

at the elsewhere

site and to go on line in 1977. in the Black Hills region. Nine

}fost of the balance area ownership

will be consumed

in acres

is shown below.

Surface United VJyodak Other Private Total States


1920 160 2080


160 2080


future Having

actions made the decision to prepare the present environmental state-


and initiated


data collection

and evaluation, parts

an administrative of this statement above and to enable the


was made

to include

in the site specific and reclamation sufficiently analysis. limits

only the railroad already

and those mining and which



then in hand,



and complete


and substantial

environmental manageable

This determination


scope of the statement


at an early

stage of preparation. of which knowledge be

At the same time, it was determined was available, included or which

that all potential inferred


could be reasonably regional

or projected,


in the comprehensive statement,

analysis done.

(Part I) portion

of this present


and this has been

Subsequent E1S, five additional intent to mine

to the administrative mining and reclamation

definition plans,

of scope of the present indicating an Survey.

or letters

coal in the near future, paragraph,



by the Geological information concerned

As indicated documents

in the preceding

all pertinent

from these have been fully

and available


data from the companies


utilized analyzed

in Part I of this statement~ on a site specific basis.


these later proposals

have not been

The five later proposals for the Belle Ayr South mine coal gasification Eastern Fourche complex



and reclamation mine

plans and

(Amax Coal Company)~ Coal Company and other Letters

the Rochelle

(Peabody complex

to supply

the Panhandle

Pipe Line Company mine


and the Belle coal at the Belle (Pacific

(Sun Oil Company).

of intent

to mine

Ayr North mine Power and Light pending

(Amax Coal Company) Company) receipt

and at the Antelope


are also in the hands of formal mining

of the U.S. Geological plans. to produce mine 11 million


and reclamation

The Belle Ayr complex more than 35 million

of Amax Coal Company

is scheduled the Rochelle tons by 1981.

tons of coal per year by 1982~ Fourche mine 12 million

tons by 1980~ and the Belle mines are scheduled to begin

All proposed


in 1977 and 1978. study and environmental the Department analyses of the

These plans are being Interior prepared. will

are now under After


completion additional

of these analyses actions

decide what Policy

are required

by the National


Act of 1969.


Institutional A number posed development responsibility Commerce of federal actions agencies

Arrangements have responsibility for authorizing with primary Interstate pro-


in this report. Bureau


are the Forest


of Land Management, Other federal,

Commission, agencies

and Geological


state and local

governmental portions

have a secondary

responsibility once authorized.

in that they administer

or phases

of the developments

Authority Authority laws for management of public lands is contained in a great many with are the

(Public Land Law Review or actions involved,



Many deal

specifically while here. 932-939, others


e.g., grazing,


more broad.

Only a few of the key acts will be mentioned 3, 1875 Act)

The Act of March the Railroad through Right-of-Way

(18 Stat. 482; 43 U.S.C.



grants rights-of-way States.

to railroad

companies lands in


lands of the United are granted


on acquired

the National


under authority 1010-1013).

of the Bankhead-Jones

Farm Tenant Act

(50 Stat. 525; 7 U.S.C. authority

The statutory deposits Leasing is contained Act of 1920" Lands include lands

for leasing

all federal




in the Act of February

25, 1920, known 30 U.S.C.

as the '~ineral

(41 Stat. 437, as amended; from operation

181 et seq). Act of 1920 and monuments, under other the


of the Mineral

Leasing parks

in incorporated naval petroleum


in national

lands within Appalachian authorities.

and oil shale reserves, acquired

those acquired States under

Forest Act and Lands

by the United

Lands deposits


of with reservations

of coal

(and/or other mineral) of the Mineral

to the United

States are also subject

to the provisions



Act of 1920.

Coal is subject

to disposition

by leasing needs.

only, with

the exception

of permits

to take coal for local domestic coal on federally

Authority the Act of August Lands,"

for leasing 7, 1947, known


lands is contained


as the 'Nineral Leasing 351-359). Lands

Act for Acquired from the Act include lands within

(61 Stat. 913; 30 U.S.C. specifically


those acquired incorporated Acquired National

for development

of mineral national

deposits, parks


and lands within

or monuments. Basin

lands considered Grasslands.

in this report


portions leasing

of the Thunder provisions

For the most part,

the basic

and condiAct for admin-

tions under both leasing Acquired istrative Lands requires

acts are similar. consent


the Mineral agency

Leasing having

of the head of the federal a deposit


over the lands before to the United

is leased.

If coal or transfer of

other minerals

were reserved


in the original States,

title and the land was later reacquired Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 apply.

by the United


of the

Both laws give the Secretary rules and regulations Secretary necessary

of the Interior



to make The

to carry out the mineral to issue leases



has delegated

his authority

to the Director,

Bureau of

Land Management, Directors. operations

and the Director

has redelegated has delegated

his authority his authority Geological

to the State to administer

Likewise, conducted Regulations

the Secretary under leases

to the Director,

Survey. under


the leasing

of Federal

coal and operations

such leases

are found in Title 43 Code of Federal 30 CFR Part 211. authority for construction


(CFR) , Parts 23

and 3500 and in Title

The statutory of railroad is contained

and operation

of a new line Act (49

in Section

1(18) of the Interstate of public


Stat. 543; 49 U.S.C.

~ 1(18).

A certificate


and necessity



by the Interstate Spur,



is required


the start


construction. within


team switching,

or side tracks

located wholly

one state are exempted

from the act.


agen£ies The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) classifies according and manages national


lands and their related yield,


to principles

of multiple

use, sustained program,

and environmental

quality. exercises leasing

In the federal the Secretary acts

coal leasing

the Bureau

of Land Management under

of the Interior's whether or



the mineral

to determine

not leases, permits, leases

or licenses

are to be issued. non-mineral

It is responsible resource With protection respect

for issuing and to federal

and for formulating requirements where

the surface,

rehabilitation coal deposits surface

to be incorporated

in them.

BLM has surface management coal, BLM determines aspects

responsibilities the adequacy

and on private



of environmental plans. BLM also


and rehabilitation for compliance operating areas.

of all mining


is responsible lands beyond


on prospecting


or license

In addition mining laws applicable lands,

to managing

the national lands,



administering surveys of land

to all federal

and conducting


all federal status

the Bureau

of Land Management for all federal

also maintains

the official


(title records) Survey

lands. federal agency concerned earth land, with

The Geological preparing science mineral,

is the principal features

maps of the physical essential resources.

of the country

and providing of the nation's

information and water

to use and conservation


The Conservation geologic, leasing leases which engineering,


of the Geological value


is responsible for federal

for coal

and economic

determinations on federal


and for supervision issued by the Bureau

of coal mining

lands under

the terms of plans

of Land Management. leasing

It approves




of the mineral environmental

acts, regulations,

and lease terms It and

and conditions, makes compliance


and rehabilitation under federal

stipulations. mineral leases


of operations of lessees,



of operations Service


and licensees. and national grass-

The Forest lands. with


the national jurisdiction


All lands under



are managed yield,

in accordance in the In

the principles

of multiple

use and sustained (74 Stat.

as expressed

Multiple-Use addition, forestry

Sustained-Yield Service

Act of 1960 conducts

2.5, 16 U.S.C. programs


the Forest


of state and private program. subject to

and an extensive Historically,


and forest



lands managed

by the Forest


have been


exploration developed

and mining. in multiple

Coal leasing use planning.

is subject A summary

to the constraints of Forest Service C.


direction objectives

and procedures The Interstate

concerning Commerce

coal leasing

is found

in Appendix


(ICC) is an independent transportation


tory agency which the Interstate by requiring operations

implements Act.

the aims of national It regulates


Commerce prior

the surface




for the institution or consolidation inherent

of expansion

of existing

and for termination to recognize

of services. advantages conditions unnecessary

It administers modes com-

its programs

and preserve

of different by fostering

of transportation petition among

and to promote

sound economic and avoiding



and duplicative that the


The ICC predicates

its findings

upon a determination


present proposed

or future public service


and necessity


or will



or operation. Protection Pollution Agency (EPA) administers Act. both the Clean

The Environmental Air Act and the Federal that any entity generators)



The Clean Air Act requires (fossil fuel-fired complies stearn


a new industrial certifying These


must obtain

a permit standards.

that the plant

with EPA's separately for

new source performance each category system which waters whether systems of plant. requires


are established program

The heart

of the water


is also a permit

any entity



that may enter navigable determine both permit

to obtain

a permit. permit

EPA effluent

guidelines Authority

and standards for handling

any specific

may be issued.

may be delegated In carrying Department

by EPA to the states~ out the permit

but neither however~

has yet been delegated EPA works closely with

to Wyoming. the Wyoming

programs~ Quality.

of Environmental Power Commission

The Federal struction interstate requirements

(FPC) issues natural


for the conand include

and operation power

of interstate lines.

gas pipeline



Its standards

for such construction

for protection transmitting standards

of the environment. only manufactured for natural

FPC has disclaimed

jurisdiction from coal. by the

over pipelines

gas~ such as gas derived are administered Gas Pipeline under

Safety Department

gas pipelines the Natural

of Transportation

(DOT) under

Safety Act.

The DOT also has jurisdiction tation of Explosives Act.

over liquid pipeline Federal


the Transporis

The Department's federal Highway

Railroad with

Administration safety.


for administering The DOT's Federal

laws concerned


Administration to the states


the federal

aid highIn

way program

of financial


for highway



the allocation of federal matching funds for highways, it establishes and administers standards for highway safety, design, construction, and maintenance. The Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration of the Interior enforces federal health and safety standards on all mining operations.


State agencies A number of state agencies also development described in this statement. have control over some of the

The vJyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) has enforcement authority concerning air quality standards, water quality standards, and mined land reclamation. The Wyoming Environmental Quality Act grants authority to DEQ to institute permit systems in air, land and water quality matters. Permittees must comply with both state and federal standards. The DEQ is active in both air and water quality, particularly with air pollution enforcement and is working to obtain full delegation from EPA of authority to administer both programs. Any facility that may cause air pollution emissions must obtain a construction permit from DEQ. In addition, operating permits are required for all mobile sources and permanent sources after an initial l20-day start-up period.

The portions of the vJyoming Environmental Quality Act pertaining to mined land reclamation apply to all solid mineral prospecting and mining activities except those conducted by government agencies or their contractors and certain noncommercial or minor operations. The Land Quality Division issues permits and licenses to mjne, or to explore for minerals by dozing, upon its approval of a mining and reclamation plan submitted by the applicant. Each mining permit applicant must post a performance bond with the state to insure mined land reclamation. Licenses to mine may be revoked or suspended for substantial violation of their terms. Regulations under the Act, which became effective July 1973, have not all been issued. Air Quality Standards and Regulations became effective June 3, 1974, and Land Quality Regulations are in the public hearing stage. The Wyoming Inspector mining operations, particularly employees and the protection of relates to laws and regulations of Mines also has some jurisdiction over for assuring safe working conditions for mine public safety. The latter responsibility covering abandonment of mines.

All public utilities in Wyoming are regulated by the vlyoming Public Service Commission. Its jurisdiction extends to rate, safety, and environmental aspects of powerlines and facilities, telephone lines and facilities, gas lines and facilities, and railroads. Interstate natural gas lines and rail lines which are regulated by federal agencies do not fall under the Public




jurisdiction. Rules which

The commission apply

had adopted electric

Utility generating or more, per square

Environmental plants,


to proposed



lines and substations for pressures significant

of 69 kv capacity than 125 pounds

gas transmission inch, railroads,

lines designed and certain



facilities. State Board of Control

The Wyoming administer state water

State Engineer laws which

and the I~oming


use of surface righks

and ground waters the State the State

of the State. Engineer Engineer rights.


for new water

are filed with water

and petitions or the Board Requests

for transfer of Control

of existing

rights with


on the status of the existing that approval

are normally prior water

approved rights.

if it is determined

will not jeopardize

The act admitting certain lands for support


into the United schools.



the state to

of common

The lands granted

are referred of Land (such as Rights

as public

lands of the state and are administered which is responsible

by the State Board of rights-of-way on these lands.


for the granting and mineral leases

may be required

for the railroad)

to coal on the state public Counties regulate

lands may be obtained

by lease only. under state law to

and cities

in vlyoming have authority planning

land uses by comprehensive

and by zoning.


with private

interests private Basin, and federal resulting ownership property interests occurs federal

Interaction frequently practice States

between River

in the Powder

from the historical with reservation The Acts

of conveying

land to private

to the United

of some or all minerals


the land.

of June 22, 1910


(30 U.S.C. federal


and July 17, 1914 calling

(30 U.S.C.



the earliest required by


for this reservation. to specific minerals, of coal,

The reservations most commonly

those acts were


oil and gas or coal.

In the case of reservation that any person occupy damages having rights

the Act of June 22, 1910, provides the coal may enter and for

to prospect He must

for or mine

the land for that purpose. caused by his operation By far the most

first pay the surface to cover


or post a bond

those damages. occurs with lands which 29,

common reservation under

of minerals

passed 1916

to private


the Stockraising Section


Act of December that to for, the

(39 Stat 862; 43 U.S.C. of land under


9 of that Act provides a reservation to prospect

all conveyances the United mine,

its provisions together

shall contain with the right


of all minerals, them.

and remove rights

In addition,

the law spells out in some detail of mineral rights.


of the surface for posting

owner and the holder of bond by the holder owner


there is provision

of any mineral with


(lease) for the benefit owner cannot be reached. to damage

of the surface Liability

if agreement

the surface is

of the holder forage)

of mineral


limited Damages

to crops


or other


improvements. pursuant

for reduction

in the value

of land for grazing

can be awarded

to the Act of June 21, 1949 Bonds posted Management landowner, (BLM). under

(63 Stat 215; 30 U.S.C.

54). the Bureau of Land by the

the above Acts are filed with of the bonds are protested

If amounts

as inadequate

BLM must decide In recent years,

the proper

amount. concerned itself with protecting

BLM has further when when

interests consulting leases.

of surface with


it proposes preparing

to issue new coal leases by for inclusion ranching in the

the landowners



of facilities


to the landowners' make similar

operations landowners

is of particular


BLM field offices

contact with


when reviewing Geological

lessees' proposed mining plans which are submitted

to BLM by

Survey for comment and recommendations. The Wyoming Environmental Quality Act also has provisions the surface and mineral for considestates

ering interests are split.

of surface landowners where

In such instances,

a mining permit may not be issued without of a bond for the surface owner's to the crops Under both

consent of the surface owner or the posting benefit to secure payment of any damages

"to the surface estate, of the landowner. damages

and forage, or to the tangible improvements"

federal and state laws, if the extent of compensable on by the parties, Private railroads the landowner must sue for damages interests

cannot be agreed

in court.

do not have any legal control over location of facilities in Wyoming, for such utilities

or other public utility

are authorized

by state law to condemn lands where needed for their purposes, for the market value of the taking.

subject only to compensation

Geographic The Powder in Wyoming. River Basin

Area Relationship is the western extension of the great plains Wyoming and parts by the

The basin

covers nearly

half of northeastern or geologic basin

of southeastern Bighorn Mountain north. acres.


The structural

is bound

Mountains Range

on the west,

the Black Hills

on the east,

the Laramie in Montana on the

on the south, portion

and the Cedar of the basin

Creek Anticline

The Wyoming




The basic

study area, the "Eastern County


River Coal'Basin," County north acres.


tains all of Campbell Platte River

and that part of Converse

of the Gillette and Concommunities gaso-

as outlined the major

on Figure


It includes


and Douglas, verse, located

communities, Glenrock,

are the county

seats of Campbell are other country small

respectively. on edges


and Arvada

of the study area. schools,

Rural post offices,


line stations, at places etc. Large 25 miles north


and oil camps are scattered Horse, Recluse,


the area

such as Weston,


Reno Junction,

Bill, Hilight,

tracts of land are leased of Gillette 22 miles to 70 miles

for coal development of that city.




An additional of the

area approximately Douglas extent

long and located leases.


32 miles northwest

is also covered of coal leasing

by several

Map 5, Appendix and Map 6 shows

A, illustrates

in the study area,

the mines


to be developed

by 1985. indications are that there will be two centers although of coal that

Present development most

in the time frame of this report leases will eventually

it is probable

of the large

be developed.

The first of these


centers Wyodak

is the Gillette mine about


Tv70 mines

are now active

near Gillette,


five miles

east and the Amax mine about plans to develop that before a mine

14 miles southeast.
eight miles north

In addition, of Gillette. be developed


Oil Company


Finally, north

it is expected

1985 a second Amax mine will
will develop a mine about mine

of Gillette

and Sun Oil Company

17 miles to the southeast.
are examined centered in detail

The Carter mine

and expansion

of the Wyodak These mines,

in Parts will

IV and VI of this report. create a population



and activity

center with

that city as nucleus. A second of Reno Junction, Atlantic Richfield center of mining activity will be about

12 miles

southeast leases of for is by

the Junction Company Also

of State Highways

59 and 387.

and Kerr-}1cGee Coal Corporation the lease of Peabody

are scheduled Coal Company to be built

early development. to be developed Panhandle

in this area, with

in conjunction Location the mine.

a coal gasification



of the plant Lying just

site has not been announced, to the west of the Peabody Power

but it and and

could be at or near Atlantic Light prior Richfield

lease is a large

lease block

held by Pacific Power

Company. to 1985.

Development Commuting

of the Peabody distances

and Pacific


is expected and choose

are about

50 miles from Gillette
some employees time.

80 miles from Douglas.
to settle closer


of these distances, in order


to their work vicinity

to cut down commuting

The Douglas principal alternate

may be a third development Eastern


The second plant is

site for the Panhandle some employees may choose

coal gasification

near Douglas. Pacific longer

In addition, complex

of the Altantic-Kerr-I1cGee-Peabodyin spite of the

Power mine commuting

to live in Douglas



Certain Powder River



of coal development


the Eastern

Coal Basin

are not confined

to the study area.

Considerations transportation, and climate area of

of socia-economic history,


land use controls

and constraints, water


and paleontology, basinwide Natrona,

air quality,


have been analyzed Sheridan, Counties. proper Johnson, Analysis

(Figure 3) and include Campbell, Converse,

the eight-county

Crook, Weston, beyond

and Niobrara River Basin

of recreation South Dakota, available



the Powder

into Montana,

and eastern to residents

vJyoming so that major, of the basin


recreation fied.


could be identivegetation,

Such analyses

as topography,

soils, minerals, confined


wildlife, such minor geographic

and agriculture exceptions basis. Ownership

are primarily

to the basic aggregated

study area with on some other

to accommodate

data sources

of land within


and Converse


is shown

in acres below

(State of Wyoming

1973): & Local
Private Total

County Campbell Converse



384,647 (12.7%) 344,327 (13.0%)
Federal lands within

199,759 (6.6%) 260,638 (9.8%)

2,450,205 (80.7%) 2,048,319 (77.2%)

3,034,614 2,653,284


and Converse


are principally Service.


the jurisdiction

of the Bureau

of Land Management within

and Forest

The Bureau Defense

of Reclamation

has small holdings within

each county and the County. In Campbell by the Bureau Campbell resource County


has small holdings




are national
BLM managed


lands administered

of Land Management. County, lands

lands are scattered a large block

and no area could be considered (Map 1, Appendix A). Forest

of national

Service managed

lands in Campbell

















---L -r'--"---Midwest




I ,I







Orring ton

l~ t




(158,484 acres) Grasslands holdings

are confined


two portions parts

of the Thunder of the county.

Basin National Forest Service but

in the northeast blocked

and southeast

are more

than those of the Bureau of private restricted land within to sections Government County.

of Land Management, the Grasslands'

there are large inholdings State ownership is largely


16 and 36 of each township the minerals on about

throughout 85 percent

the county. of the lands In Converse

The Federal in Campbell



the Bureau land.

of Land Management

administer are located in

of the 370,010 the northwest of significant the Thunder Bow National holdings Management in Campbell however, and south 75 percent

acres portion size.

of federal

Most of the BLM holdings any solid blocks acres

of the county but without Forest Service holdings

of ownership

of 257,523

are within and Medicine

Basin National Forest


in northeast



in the southern better

portion blocked

of the county.

Forest Service of Land As

are again relatively but are nevertheless County,

than those of the Bureau with large private in sections


holdings. 16 and 36;

state ownership

is principally

the state does have more of Douglas. of the lands Counties The Federal


and solid holdings owns the minerals ownership

south of Glenrock on approximately in both Campbell

Government County.

in Converse


and Converse

is dominated

by the private





POTEl~TIAL DEVELOP~lE~n Coal Development In order mining to appraise Powder the environmental impact of proposed coal

in the Eastern

River Basin

in Campbell

and Converse


Wyoming, indicate projection

it is necessary likely

to summarize patterns, The number

the importance and arrive

of the coal resources,


at a coal production of coal leases,

for the future.

and total acreage

lease applications,

and permits

for federal

coal are given below. Percent of County Study Area Area 1.6 1.7 1.1 4.4 2.7 7.1 1.9 1.9 1.3 5.1 3.2 8.3

Action Issued Federal Preference Outstanding


Number 42 44 28 114 20 134

Acres 93,075 96 ,517 64,252 253,844 157,861 411,705

Coal Leases Coal Lease Applications Permits


Coal Prospecting

Subtotal Competitive Total Coal Lease Applications

Table shows locations

1 lists holders of leases

of these coal interests,

and Map 5, Appendix


and applications. leases have been issued of included Powder is immediThe

Of this land, only that for which ately available importance for commitment

and development of the Eastern

coal reserves. Basin

of the coal resources by the estimate coal reserves


in VJyoming strippable

is indicated recoverable

that 12.4 billion

tons of economically Counties,

are in Campbell Great Plains

and Converse

that 13.3 billion tons of

tons are in the Northern

of VJyoming, and that 36.5 billion 1-21

economically Great Plains strippable be about discovery portion

strippable of Nontana,


coal and lignite South Dakota, by the U.S. reserve


are in the Northern The national

North Dakota, was estimated

and Wyoming.

coal reserve


of }lines in 1971 to by new coal

45 billion


The national

has been increased contains

since 1971.

The Eastern economically

PO,vder River Basin recoverable and resources

a significant

of the Nation's The immense


coal reserves. Powder methods River dependare

coal reserves

of the Eastern


can be mined


by both opencast

and underground

ing upon coalbed sufficient


and the thickness

of overburden.

Coal resources

to satisfy

future mining

and coal demand with

due regard

for economic

and physical


The relatively thick coalbeds are overlain by thin overburden in many places. Thus, large tonnages of coal can be exposed and mined near the outcrop with little overburden handling. As the working faces of active mines are advanced basinward down the dip of the coalbeds, the overburden increases in thickness and becomes thicker than can be economically removed by surface-mining methods. At this point the coal must be mined underground if it is to be recovered. Portions of coalbeds in excess of about 12 feet in thickness cannot be recovered by underground methods. Thus, underground methods employed in thick coalbeds lead to poor recovery and resulting waste of coal resources. Ongoing underground mining research by industry and government is directed to the development of new mining techniques and methods to recover a much higher percentage of coal than is possible with present methods. Coal production from the Eastern Powder River Basin in the next few years will most likely be entirely from the development and expansion of strip mines at land surface where full economic advantage of thin overburden occurrences can be realized. Present plans of mining companies include only surface mining. Underground mining can be expected in the future but only as areas amenable to surface mining are no longer available.


Table 1 Coal Interests Campbell and Converse Counties North of Platte River Issued Leases Atlantic Serial Number W-23l3 W-3446 W-36094 Richfield Acres 5,844 5,800 40 11,684

Wayne Brannan B-03l719

The Carter Oil Company

W-3397 W-5035 W-5036

5,251 4,782 5,457 15,490

Concho and J. W-0256663 W-02205l6

C. Karcher 756 1,571 2,327

Farmers Union Central W-0325878 (Continued)






1 (Continued)

Humac Company Serial Number W-0l36195 w-0136196 W-0l36194 Acres 1,477 1,560 322 3,359

Kerr-McGee W-23928 W-24710 W-0311810 W-0312311 W-0313668

Corporation 4,192 160 1,263 880 2,200 8,695

Meadowlark W-0313773 W-0317682

Farms, Inc. 3,520 2,440 5,960

Mobil Oil Corp. W-23929 4,000

Pacific W-038597 W-038602 C-054769 W-041355 W-0244167 W-0312918 -W-0322255 'W-0321780

Power & Light 1,400 2,000 120 560 1,803 3,780 1,869 2,980 14,440



Table 1 (Continued Peabody Serial Number W-37829 W-0271199 W-0271200 W-027120l W-0313667 W-0321779 Coal Co. Acres 40 640 760 2,180 2,560 11,101 17,281

Summit Exploration W-03l0712 W-032470l

& Development

Co. 40 680 720

Sun Oil Company W-8385 6,560

Wyodak W-073289 \W-011l833 W-03l3666 B-037423



Corp. 240 80 1,560 40 1,920

Issued Leases 42 (Continued)

Total Acres 93,075


Table 1 (Continued) Preference Right Lease Applications Peabody Serial Number W-916 W-917 W-25717 W-25718 W-26198 W-26199 W-32061 W-32062 W-32063 W-32064 W-32065 W-25719 W-32506 W-32067 W-32068 Acres 3,318 320 200 160 2,508 640 80 160 520 1,560 280 680 835 80 240 11,581 Thomas Woodward Serial Number W-8307 W-8308 W-8309 W-8310 W-8311 W-8312 Acres 4,756 3,224 2,229 3,400 3,966 1,575 19,150 (Wold) 240 80 320 Peter Wold W-11128 E. L. Lockhart Eugene Stevens W-1595 W-1596 W-1597 W-1598 W-1599 W-2273 W-2274 W-2275 W-22 76 w-4996 w-4997 W-4998 W-16313 5,120 2,520 3,592 4,200 5,nO 2,443 4,274 4,958 3,815 2,616 2,668 1,737 2,205 45,258 Corp. 2,557 Total Acres 96,517 W-12767 W-14355 W-14390 ~!-14392 1,281 4,352 3,928 3,655 13,216 Nuclear Corp. 800 2,276 3,076 1,359

J & P Corp.

W-9033 ~!-9036

Pioneer W-21515 W-21516

Coal Conversion w-4995


Right Lease Applications





A IS-year purposes. effect

time interval,



1990, is used for projection to include the total of some this IS-year time intervals

This time interval industry

is sufficiently although


of known


the operations 1990. Also,

individual period


have been projected discussion



for convenient

by multiples

of S-year

and at the same time extends most events which might by year

into the future Figure


to encompass coal


3 shows

the total projected

production coal mines

from 1970 to 1990 for the three active information is now available increase

and seven proposed sources. after The 1983. for further

for which

from industry

curve in Figure The flattening full production mine development associated new mining 1990.

3 shows only a slight of the curve not later beyond illustrates

in coal production

that the ten mines

are scheduled

than 1982 and that industry Therefore, to estimate

has not projected coal production



industrial operations,


to 1990, it is necessary and gasification

to add to the model from 1983 to

power plants,


Although development, 7S percent Eastern

these projections

are considered these

the most


level of


could extend beyond

levels by 1990. Great Plains persists

Approximately in the 1995,

of the coal resources River Coal Basin. almost

of the Northern If a growth exceed

are found through




levels will Projected


those projected

for 1990. at S-year


coal production

and number

of operations

intervals Guidelines are based

from the present

to 1990 are shown in the Assumptions Items listed

and Analysis and 1980 listed after on

at the end of this chapter. solely upon known

for the present Items

plans and projections upon modest industrial

of industry. and mine beyond

for 1985 and 1990 are based 1983. Changes in the annual


rate of coal production 1-30

1983 are based


o m

r"'" I'-


f'I"l I'(f)


--\ ,
en I.? en

~ ~



u 0:: 10 00


« ~


;::) 0



0 1.1.1


;::) 0



\~ \
Z CD ...J 0 U

o 00 m



!J) (1)


\ \

0:: w


0:: 0::

W 0




0 a..


:::J ~



0 0 0

o c- ~





c fI) o c
o CD

"0 0 (1) 0



u '0
(1) ••••

c- > CL 0::


0 0 8 0 0 8 0 •.. 0'" 0 8 m 8... 0




0 0 0



0 0 0



0 0 0


0 0 0



0 0 0


0 0'" 0




a modest 1983. energy

rate of increase


three and four percent the national the most

per year after


This rate is designed demand

to recognize

trend of ever increasing recent projections of

and at the same time stay within studies. plants Further,


Great Plains

the probable plants


in the number in the

of coal-consuming "Assumptions" Northern Great


and gasification

is included forecasts

at the end of this chapter. Plains Region (Great Plains

Development of Montana,

for the

North Dakota, from Wyoming Great

South Dakota, Plains might

and Wyoming) be as much


that coal production

as 153 million

tons per year in 1985 and 387 million Resource Program unpublished indicates

tons per year in 2000 draft,


Great Plains

Table E-l, p. 11-110).

The most probable



75 million 2000

tons per year of coal by 1985 and 110 million Great Plains Resource Program unpublished

tons per year by draft, Table 6.1


p. 11-87). Campbell Resource statement forecast


of annual Counties,

coal production Wyoming, 2.

in millions

of tons for Great Plains in this extensive exceeds

and Converse Program exceeds

made by the Northern Coal production

are shown in Table the most probable

projected the most


but is within

thus far derived by counties forecast

for the Wyoming (Table 2) until

Great Plains. sometime 2000. after

The projection

the forecast the extensive figures

1985 but is within Great Plains in

well before

the year

Northern only.

are included


for comparison


They are not used


the analyses

in this statement.


Table Forecasts


of Annual Coal Production for Campbell and Converse Counties, Wyoming (millions of tons)

Host Probable Year 1980 1985 2000 Annual Production 34 58.5 72 .2

Extensive Year 1980 1985 2000 Source: Modified from Northern unpublished draft. Great Plains Annual Production 34 122.7 285.7 Resource Program

Projections technological production


are subject

to serious


by possible of coal

trends and administrative

actions. mostly


expansion demand

from 1974 to 1983 reflects and projected

the present

for low-sulfur

coal to fuel existing desulfurization

coal-fired removal

power plants. of sulfur

The successful from the stack western coal

of coal or successful could greatly


gas of power plants which might


the demand

for low-sulfur coals. Further,

then be displaced

by use of midwestern

the immense


fuel consumption

of large power plants might yield from stacks sufficient that even low-sulfur fuel.


tities of sulfur compounds determined

coal would be administratively

to be an undesirable

The extent to which nuclear power is energy upon the and rapid

used and the rate at which nuclear power is phased into the nation's supply is of direct consequence future coal production development

to the coal industry and bears directly Extensive

from the Eastern Powder River Basin.

and use of nuclear power plants would decrease of the basin. Conversely,

the rate of developcoal before trans-

ment of the coal resources port is available large quantities


more cheaply than coal from the midwest for conversion

and might be used in as domestic and

to gas and liquid, especially in the future.

foreign oil and gas is depleted


Exportation Most satisfy coal produced utility

of Coal from the basin largely to States.

will be exported in the midwest acquired



and south-central its first lease,


In 1965, Amax Coal Company conditions improved

and when market 14 miles southon

in 1971, development Reserves

of the Belle Ayr mine of 350 million of private

east of Gillette 2,440 acres

was started.

tons are located Initial

of federal

land and 640 acres in 1973 was


production three

of the Belle Ayr mine to four million mining shipped method

1.3 million

tons, but plans tons in 1976.

are to mine

tons in 1974 and ten million Of the initial Service

The quarry


is used.

production, Company

one million

tons were

in 1973 to the Public Present plans

in Pueblo,

Colorado. to power plants The I

are to export

coal out of the basin

as far south and east as the Gulf Coast and central production schedule 3. through Also 1985 for four operations

}lississippi Valley. indicated in Chapter

is shown in Table

shown in this table are the quantity production. Some production not yet firm.

and destination scheduled is

by state of the scheduled for future not known, expected contracts

is presently

or for destinations organization River


destination are

the receiving

is given.



to be mining Table


coal in this time period. amounts of coal mined and approximate

4 presents

the cumulative



out of the region.




o on
(jJ If) If) If)







;l '"d

r-l r-l

o o
If) If)


r-l r-l




H p" r-l Cll U



o o
If) If)

N r-l




N oW


o o
If) (V) If) If) If)

o o




E-< 0

o ,c P :>-. P c,
Cll,c Ul H 0




r-l 4-l




oW Cf)
If) If)

o o r-l
0 N N
(jJ If) If)

P o 'n
;l '"d

S 00 uo


~ o on ,-...
If) If)


If) If)




o o r-l o
H c,





~ on
oW oW Ul oW

Cll ~ 0


:>-. u:

H bIJCll

(lJ ~
(V) (Jj

H 0 ,c Ul Ul H Cll
(jJ If) If)



o o r-l
If) If)


~ on

r-l ;l


-r-i r-l ;l







Cll E-<

'"d ~ Ul Cll ~


U 0

If) If)



4-l N N


o on

r--If) If)

S'"d H (jJ on r-l 4-l ;l N r-l

on e--i

~ on S

-e oW (jJ u,c
r-l r-l


Po< '--"


r-l Ul

U H ;l

N r-l
If) If)

(jJ (jJ




:>-.,c (jJ ,c






(lJ r-l ;l '"d (lJ







~ Cll

'n ,c u 'n



0 U


P u

~ ~
Cll ,c u: H Cll Cll .0 r-l Ix:
(jJ ~ (jJ


Ul 0

o p u

Cll H Cll oW Cll (jJ H 'n r-l (lJ'"dj:J::j


r-l ;l P '"d 0 (lJ on





Cf) ;l '"d r-l 0 Cll H




Cll U




Table 4 Cumulative Coal Hined and Exported 1980 Total Hined Exported Percent Exported *Based on total projected 296 237 80 (Hillion Ton)~'~ 1985 858 666 78 1990 1,543 1,170 76 in the study area

coal development


Mine Mouth Large River scale mining 1956.

Power Generation generation did not begin Corp., in the Powder

for power

Basin until Hills


Resources Company, mine


a subsidiary east of at the and

of Black Gillette.


and Light the Wyodak



six miles

Coal from Power

in Donkey plants

Creek Valley

is burned

Black Hills

and Light


at vlyodak and Osage, was added


Kirk and Rapid Simpson cooled Station


South Dakota.

In 1969, Unit No.5

to the Neil the first air Hemisphere. of 330expansion


to the Ilyodak mine. turbine generating A major

This unit features plant


on a steam

in the Western power

It has a capacity megawatt capacity

of 21 megawatts. is planned

new air cooled

plant with

to be on line in 1977 in conjunction

of the Wyodak

mine. Power and Light Company(PP&L) was issued a coal prosof a preference ground break-

In 1955 Pacific pecting right permit which

proved 1956.

successful Six miles

and resulted

in the filing

lease in April

east of the Town of Glenrock, steam-electric added during plant began construction

ing for the 100-megawatt with an additional

Dave Johnston being

June 30, 1956, in 1958. The

200 megawatts


of the Dave Johnston thick Badger

coal field is about

20 miles


of Glenrock. thick and

The l8-foot School

Seam is separated

from the underlying


Seam by an interval

of 100 feet in the northern

part of the field

180 feet in the southern

portion. was built to haul coal from the mine 200-megawatt to the power capacity. force

In 1964 a railroad plant and construction began

on an additional 1,140,000


By 1965 mine production

had reached

tons per year,

and the mine



of about

35 men.


all coal mined

in Converse



the exception

of the Best Coal }line, was destined

for the Dave Johnston began

power from

plant, but in 1968, Food }lachinery and Chemical PP&L about 1,000 tons per year of outcrop This continued An additional


to purchase

coal to be used in the manufacturing 1972 but has never become were installed methods at the was a

of fertilizer major

material. market.



330 megawatts change

Dave Johnston planned


in 1969, and a major

in mining

to increase


for the additional

power units. tons per year,

Coal production and the work


from 1.8 million to 92 men.

tons to over 3 million Electric generating

force increased megawatts.


is now rated at 750 104

A total of 864 acres was disturbed last year.

from 1958 to 1973; about

acres were disturbed Although to the Wyodak and another million occupy

no plans have been announced it is projected

for new power


in addition


that one plant will be built by 1985 plant requires annually. about 2.25

by 1990.

A 500-megawatt

water-cooled of water

tons of coal and 5,500 acre-feet about 1,000 acres Transmission and require

Each plant would about 20 acres

mining about

which would


each year.

lines require

23 acres per mile.


Gasification Plans project for one coal gasification of Panhandle plant have been announced. Eastern Pipeline Company This

is a joint venture The mine, is located

and Peabody

Coal Company. Coal Company,

to be operated

by a subsidiary

known as Rochelle A plant site has is

about 48 miles north

of Douglas.

not been selected; near Douglas, mine. about

two principal 30 miles

sites are being

considered. and the other

The first is near

south of the mine, be operated

the known

The gasification

plant would

by a subsidiary


as Wyoming

Coal Gas Company.

Mine The coal reserve tons underlying under dedicated to the gasification plant is 550,000,000

6,800 acres.

The firm has 694,951,400 8,588 acres. road are planned

tons of coal reserves

lease or option Twelve miles

underlying of access

by the company,

and a rail-

road spur will be constructed Northern/Chicago supply North Western

to the proposed railroad.


of the Burlington are expected at the mine. to An

Deep water wells requirements

1,200 acre-feet power

per year to meet water

electric struction


line will be constructed and other operating

to supply power needs.

for con-

and for mining


Plant The gasification additional acreage plant will require roads, railroad 1,000 acres for facilities, spur line, and pipelines. and will require 5,000 plus It

for access

will process


tons of coal annually

to 10,000


acre-feet Btu/cu.

of water.

From this, 250 million


feet per day of 960-970 be 8,000 barrels of

ft. gas will be produced. products



liquid petroleum

and 100 tons of sulfur per day. constructing a power plant of 60-megawatt

The company capacity to supply

has proposed needs


of the plant.


plants One other firm, Carter Oil Company, has proposed a gasification

plant but no location be of a size comparable likely that the Carter

has been announced. to the Panhandle

It is assumed Eastern-Peabody

that the plant will plant, and it is very mine six

plant will be in the vicinity Other gasification plants

of the Carter

miles north confirmed.

of Gillette.

have been rumored

but not



of the gasification analysis


are not included


this study; an environmental gasification federal projects would

will be prepared

at the time specific of applications by

are proposed constitute

to determine major federal

if approval action




the quality

of the human



Other Other industries

Industrialization in a variety impacts will

in the study area will be influenced activities. Construction agriculture industry

of ways by coal development relate directly to basin

growth while

will be indirectly


Development affected

of other



such as uranium, goods,

oil, and gas will be services, and

in the sense of competing

for high demand

resources. The construction the short term industry will experience enormous growth during

(ten years) with a subsequent

leveling power

off in rate of expansion. generating plants requires


of coal gasification and heavy

and electric

large labor forces for housing




construction growth


and related



to accommodate

in the basin growth Many

will be sustained in the industry million Because

for a much

longer period

and thus provide facilities



the peak energy


are completed. for concrete

cubic yards

of sand and gravel will be required are limited in the area, source. for wood products.

structures. to

these materials

large quantities

will have

be imported

from the nearest

economic prevails

The same situation harvested in the northeastern required

vfuile some timber the


part of the area, yields will not approach and industry source. development.

high demands imported

for community economic

Timber will be

from the nearest base

vJith respect

to employment, 6,800 by 1990. in view in percent in the basin Doubtless, of

the present

of 3,200 is projected

to reach

an estimated

The outlook a ten-year historical

for the agricultural perspective,


particularly decline

is one of continuing area. Energy

of the total economy will compete with

of the impacted



for both water

and employment.

these resources

will be attracted

away from agriculture


by higher present





will drop from the

level of 3,800 to 3,300 by 1990. Oil and natural gas reserves in the basin will become increasingly the ever oil and

depleted present

by present problem


and this industry

will be faced with a highly active

of resource program



gas exploration discovery

is continuing In fact,

to add new fields and zones activity

to the in

list each year.


for new fields

1974 is again dented prices

at an all time peak owing being

to the energy Future


and the unprececan be and producing resulting for at

paid for new oil and gas. in discovery of many more will


expected zones.

to result

oil and gas fields ultimate

Also, new recovery



production, in the basin

in extension least another employment

and continuation 50 years.

of oil and gas operations increased exploration



the current 5,150 by 1990. at

level of 5,000 will probably Uranium mining and milling


only an estimated conducted Company,

are presently Drilling

in the basin

the Exxon mines. Economic




and Kerr-McGee Department of

Industry Planning



by the State of Wyoming

and Development

and the Bureau of Land Management uranium operations

have in

identif-ied four more prospective the basin. The Northern Great

that may be developed







"Assuming that these plant developments are operative by 1980, employment in uranium mining and milling in 1980 should be approximately 1,472. The assumption is made that uranium activity will continue to increase to 1985 and then decline as breeder reactors become a source of fuel. On this basis, uranium mining and milling employment is projected to reach 1,772 by 1985 and then decline to the 1980 level by 2000."


No projection growth that will occur

has been made for light in conjunction with


sales, and service Since major from

area development. are located

industrial the basin, will


and manufacturing


long distances

the transportation a significant

and distribution enterprise.

of a wide variety

of material



Modes Railroads Rapid operations. requires railroad continuous

of Distribution


of coal is essential

to efficient


Coal production

of 5 to 15 million

tons per year for each mine handling large volumes. companies A

a transportation is one system

system capable

of rapidly

that meets

this requirement. by unit trains

The mining


ose to export

coal from the region the Burlington proposed

of approximately

100 cars Trans-

(Figure 4) using portation capacity sidings


and Chicago

and North Western line.



to Douglas


The theoretical with be trans-

of the proposed at l2.5-mile

line as presently


for construction,


and a 25-mph average returning empties

train speed, would or a 365-day yearly

48 unit trains per day including portation capacity

of approximately

96 million

tons of coal.

This capacity return train

would be reduced times,

significantly failure,

by smaller

train sizes, unequal maintenance. would Based


and railroad

on the projected before

coal production, 1983.

full theoretical

rail line capacity

be achieved

Each operation mainline. continuous


a spur line connecting

the mine

site to the rapid, to

The spur normally loading. Proposed

has a loop and storage spur lines are built

silos to facilitate to heavy-duty trains


carry heavy, loading



A large loop permits

to move

through switching

silos at a constant

rate and return

to the spur line without storage

or stopping. on each loop. per hour,

Two to five l2,000-ton, The loading capacities loading


silos are required to over 4,000 tons

will range from 2,000

or a continuous


of as much as 100,000

tons per day.







'ri r-l 'ri U


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U 0 0 r-l





and optical


of cars,

the coal tonnage In addition to a


each train will be continuously coal loading material loop, another

and accurately


track may be necessary plant.

for handling

ash and waste

from a gasification

A switch will give the ash train access site that the coal

to the loop, and it will use the same spur to the mine train uses. Carter to the Burlington Oil Company Northern proposes to connect

the North





at Gillette

by a nine-mile



The same branch will also serve the proposed Coal Company. tons per year, Burlington In order double to carry the ultimate

Belle Ayr North mine production

of Amax

of 15 to 20 million Where the proposed leases,

track may be required and North directly

for the branch. mainline




the mine

the train loops will connect this mainline will serve both

to the mainline. Richfield

A seven-mile

spur from mines. of

the Altantic track

and Kerr-McGee ultimate

This spur may also require 30 million a nine-mile Douglas


if the proposed


tons of these mines

is achieved. to connect

At the Peabody the mine

Coal Company


spur will be required

to the proposed



This spur will permit


coal and ash transportation

seven days per week. Pacific railroad between Power and Light Company plant. presently maintains its own l6-mile

its mine and power An IS-mile the mine

Amax ships

its coal by unit train by Burlington mine uses

to Pueblo, Northern


spur line was constructed to the main railroad. Simpson Power Plant

Inc. to connect

The Wyodak adjacent

part of its production and ships the remaining

at the Neil portion

to the mine

by unit trains. activities and abandonment of the mine revegetated.

Upon completion leases, spur track, silos,

of mining

etc., will be removed

and the right-of-way


Figure loop and loading

5 illustrates silos.

a typical


site layout including

unit train

Roads Prime all-weather mine sites with major truck and commuter access roads 5 to 20 miles long will connect for light the

state routes.

The roads will be designed


vlithin the mine

area, haul roads are proposed capacity. These near roads

for use by heavy-duty extend from the mine Haul

trucks having pits to storage

a 100- to 200-ton and processing enough


the unit

train loops.

roads will be wide shovels,

to accommodate

large draglines, An estimated by 1990.

drill rigs, bulldozers, 24 miles of new mainline, At the North southeastward pass around

and other heavy mine equipment.

state or county roads will be constructed mine site, State Route


59 will be relocated The new road will

from its present the mine facilities


over coal deposits. margin

at the southeast

of the lease.

Pipelines The Northern of major pipelines pipelines pipelines to support expanded pipelines Great Plains within Resource Campbell Program study estimated Counties. gas. 999 miles These


and Converse

are for transportation are proposed would

of crude oil and natural for development

Additional New

and assumed

of coal resources.


coal as a slurry,

gas derived

from coal, and water for use by new or plants. Systems Inc. to con-

the above.

Water would and possibly

also be transported new power generating

communities There

is a proposal 38-inch

by Energy pipeline



a 1,040-mile,

to export slurry.

coal from the study area to rapidly

Arkansas handles

in the form of a coal-water large volumes

A slurry pipeline

of coal and is an alternative

to rail transportation.


a ..c



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CHAPTER III DESCRIPTION OF DEVELOPMENT, ENERGY CONVERSION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM MODELS Mining Operations Surface mining Powder River Basin coal, averaging 70 feet in thickness, occurs as a

single bed in some parts of the basin but may be split into as many as four beds separated is weathered by shale partings in other areas. Coal present on the outcrop

or burned and as such is unmarketable.

Initial mining will therecoal and

fore begin as far down dip as necessary will progress into the coal-bearing

to avoid this unmarketable

area. are similar in design but differ as in thickness of

All proposed to type of equipment coal and partings. phases:

operating methods

to be used based, in part, on variations Extraction operations can be divided removal,

into three distinct

(1) topsoil removal,

(2) overburden

and (3) coal removal.

Topsoil removal Topsoil over most areas to be mined is less than 24 inches thick and, therefore, utilized can be easily removed by self-loading presently proposed scrapers. Scrapers will be to be used for to

at all operations developed

and are expected

any operations salvage

in the near future.

Companies will be required of the Wyoming

topsoil in accordance with recommendations Quality,

State Depart-

ment of Environmental over the land surface.

and/or the federal agency having jurisdiction


Prior of sustaining during areas, areas

to initial mining growth

in any area,

all available for eventual




is removed Topsoil

and stored

redistribution overburden in

land reclamation. roads, and plant



pits, boxcut

sites will be stockpiled by mining areas


the coal outcrop overburden.

that will

not be disturbed removed

or covered with and facility

The be



from mine period

sites will



for an extended Topsoil removed

of time and will be seeded of mining, the graded

to reduce

erosion. stock-

in advance onto

except for that initially spoils. This procedure

piled, will be placed reduce the amount


will Soil

of soil material

that must be stockpiled

and rehandled. cannot be


from stockpile ultimately sloping

areas will be used when be used to cover

direct placement

done and will and highwall

the areas disturbed

by the final


operations. and thickness of available mining topsoil sites. shall be determined Grading plans will be shall be to

The nature by detailed based create

soil surveys

of prospective

on the data

thus provided. suited

The objective growth,

of such grading optimal

the soil best

for plant


use of the avail-

able soil materials. A number izations overburden of the mining companies have contracted with research strata organ-

to investigate to support

the possible plant growth

use of various


in the Most of or

in addition underway,

to existing


these research conclusions


are presently

and no definitive


have yet been made.


removal After the soil material is removed, the earth and rock overlying cut and placed the

coalbed which


will be excavated

from the first outside

on land

is otherwise


and located

of the area to be mined. the pit created by the


from subsequent

cuts will be used

to backfill




The cuts will vary from 100 to 400 feet in width used and thickness of overburden.



type of equipment

Strata overlying detritus. carbonaceous The Wasatch

the coal consists of Wasatch


and slope gray shale, is lenticu-


is made up of sandstone,


shale, and in some areas, thin coal beds. overburden characteristics

The bedding

lar so that uniform

do not extend over large areas. material so that

Most operators

plan to drill and blast overburden handled.

it can be more easily and efficiently blasting initially will probably

Those companies

which plan no becomes

have to drill and blast as overburden crawler

thicker and less weathered.


tractors will prepare Then blast

a bench for drills at approximately holes will be drilled coal bed. large bits. spacings Overburden

the desired width of the cut. pattern

on a predetermined

to a depth near the top of the powered and use relatively Drill hole

drills will be electrically

They will be mounted

on trucks or crawlers

(Figure 1).

are any combination

that will give an economic and produce a material

ratio of pounds of explothat can be easily

sive to cubic yards of overburden handled by the stripping nitrate-fuel oil mixture equipment.

Holes will be loaded with an ammonium

and detonated. on a daily basis, generally Electric delay blasting seismic shock. in the aftercaps will be The amount


can be expected

noon during the period between used to maximize of explosive materials the breaking


effect and minimize

used in each hole will depend on the depth of the hole, the in the hole, the location of the various strata that


must be broken,

and the spacing

of adjacent


Typical blasting

patterns will range from 18 feet by 18 feet to 25

feet by 25 feet for coal and 20 feet by 20 feet to 30 feet by 30 feet for overburden. Thirty to 60 holes could be detonated 1-63 at anyone time and could

Figure 1 Crawler-mounted, electric-powered, overburden blast-hole drill 1-64

contain as much as 30 tons of explosive; however, most blasts will be in the 5- to l2-ton range. After the overburden has been blasted, it will be removed by either of trucks and power

large walking drag lines (Figure 2) or by a combination shovels.

The walking dragline will move along adjacent to the blasted material into the previous pit or, in the case of the When the

and will cast the overburden

initial boxcut, onto ground outside the outcrop line of the coal.

dragline reaches the end of the pit it will be moved back to begin the next cut. Most companies propose to remove the shale partings between coalbeds with scrapers; however, the use of a small dragline for parting removal Figures 3 and 4 give

and spoil rehandling has been proposed by one company. two different views of drag line stripping operations. The truck and shovel operation ducted on benches crawler-mounted

for overburden removal will be conElectric

35 to 50 feet in height in the blasted overburden. into off-highway,

shovels will load the overburden

end dump

trucks for transfer to the spoil disposal area where it will be pushed into the pit and leveled using bulldozer-equipped crawler tractors. Figures 5, 6,

and 7 give some views of truck and shovel overburden removal operations. One other method of overburden removal has been proposed utilizing bucketwheel excavators and conveyor belts. Figure 8 shows two excavators work-

ing, removing overburden which travels on conveyor belts to the spoil area for disposal. Two other excavators are loading the coal which passes from the pit

to the crusher on another set of conveyor belts.


OJ rl





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~ 6



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: ~:




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-BERM ---

- - -0









~,.-.--; - {- -;--.--1- -- -- - ------ - --- -- - --------

.~2'.. rs

. . • 40'
30' 10'


LEDGE------;--; ;---;-~--·-T-------- -- - -- - -- - ----• • • • • • 40'


PLAN VIEW -----------.. --------------------..•...





-- -





Figure 5 Mining of coal by combined shovel and dragline operation












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4-{ 4-{



Water surface" Compacted embankment


About 15 feet \



Typical Ditch Section. Slopes Cut at 3:2; Bottom of Ditch Width of Bulldozer Blade.

Ratio distance to rise

Percent grade

Angle of slope

3:2 2:1 3:1 5:1

67 50 33 20

33.7° 26.6°




11. 3°

2 2 1. 2. Impervious clay or clay sand and shale Semi-pervious material of selected stability, graduated in coarseness to outer slopes; compacted.


Typical Earth Fill Dam Section. Core Trench Depth One-Fourth of Dam Height; Top of Dam and Core Trench 15 Feet Wide.

Figure Sections

11 slopes of embankments

of ditch and dam showing


,.c: c.J


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p-, +->








Monitoring Hydrologic quality, quantity, monitoring and flow. wells will be drilled to assess ground water locations draw-

These wells will be drilled at various Pumping hydrologic tests will be performed characteristics in drainages

on and adjacent

to the leases. to determine

to measure

down and recovery Gauging

of the aquifer. and data collected

stations will be installed

on surface water quality and quantity.

These stations will be located above on surface water

and below the mine areas so that the effects of the operation can be determined. built in various direction, Surface meteorological places near the operations precipitation,

and air quality stations will be and will record wind speed and relative humidity, and air quality.

air temperature,


mining development activities are proposed in the near future

No underground for coal deposits development

in the Eastern Powder River Basin. for uranium,

Also, no underground sand and gravel, bentonite, or

or mining has been proposed

or clinker deposits active coal mines.

in the areaS of the federal

coal leases or near proposed


of mined lands Climate, especially in relation to available rehabilitation soil moisture, will be Climate

a major determining has controlled

factor to successful

of mined lands.

the character

of land prior to disturbance

and will determine of Sciences

what can be maintained study committee

after rehabilitation.

The National Academy

on the potential

for rehabilitating -

lands surface mined for

coal in the western

United States considered

"The mixed grass area of the Northern Great Plains also offers a rather high probability for satisfactory rehabilitation. Rainfall is generally adequate for establishing vegetation by seeding. This has been demonstrated in rangeland seeding 1-78

projects through this region. Predicting such results assumes that the best technology will be applied, including the addition of topsoil and selective sorting of spoils to avoid placement of clays and toxic substances on or near the surface." Reclamation and local, techniques, irrigation, grading, in order state, research is a continuing agencies. process involving fertilizer the operators application

and federal

Soil blending, species

compaction, wind




seed selection

studies, rates

soil erosion, are but


and chemical

soil analysis, researched

and growth to achieve Results

some of the areas which reclamation program.

are being

a successful

of research potential

studies have,

into the characteristics so far, been inconclusive. is capable

of overburden They do, plant

and its revegetation however, growth. indicate

that most

spoil material

of sustaining

The only strata


of not being


to good plant growth propose to

are the shale partings to bury this material

between within


As a result, Much

all operators growth

the spoils.

of the plant

research to conduct

date has been onsite

conducted with

in greenhouses,

and the companies box cuts.



spoil obtained

from initial



surface mines provide mining within

have not been

in production

for a sufficient techniques

length of time to to surface research

a full assessment within the region. River

of reclamation Currently, is being

on land subjected reclamation

the most


the Powder



in Montana. that existed previous to

Reestablishment mining is technically

of vegetative



at present.


of a near

climax accom-

vegetative panying

type is prevented

due to the disruption

of soil structure, means

loss of fertility, plant species.

and unavailability

of a suitable

of propagating

most native


An attainable raphy shaped to suitable

reclamation ecological

objective conditions


be to leave

a final topogdrainage for and

and to meet proper offer proper


conditions. drainage owing

The land surface control,



land stability, are anticipated reclamation excessive unstable

and maintenance climatic

of vegetation. applications

Some failures of improper such as where

to extreme


techniques, grazing

and unanticipated



and recreation conditions exist

will contribute

to failures,



on unconsolidated

spoil materials.


Reclamation in advance spoil prior patible of mining

of mined

land will


with removal

of topsoil

to be stockpiled or planting.



or spread over graded to a terrain and com-

to seeding

Land will be reclaimed to provide

with present a viable Overburden

topography land use. deposited

and planted

soil stability


by draglines

will form parallel


of spoil,


3 and 4, which will be leveled draglines.

and shaped by bulldozers,


aided by smaller removal burden

Shaping work

for truck and shovel overburden basis. As each truck of overof the spoil

is performed is dumped,

on an almost


it is pushed

into the pit and shapes a portion

(Figure 6). vide optimum

Graded surface

areas will be sloped no steeper stability to produce and to reduce a permeable,

than 3 to 1 (33%) to proAs appropriate, land surface. self-loading scrapers, and seeded the the


area may be mulched Topsoil bulldozers,

less erodable spoil using

will be spread on the graded Finally, resoiled

or road graders. native

areas will be mulched

with predominantly various



13, 14, 15, and 16 illustrate

stages of reclamation.


objectives Reclamation objectives number are to leave soil of such a quality that the

land has the maximum for priority mental uses,

of alternative the growth

uses and the maximum necessary

productivity environ-


of plants

to maximize

quality with

after mining.

To this end, spoil will be graded and the surrounding

to a topography land surface. stock-


the land use objectives boxcut


Final graded piled topsoil

initial prior

spoil piles will be covered with previously

to seeding. work has started, it will continue instead, concurrently newly stripped

Once reclamation with mining. Topsoil

will no longer be stockpiled;


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Figure 18 Two l2,OOO-ton capacity gravity-loading 1-88 storage silos

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Coal weighing to maintain Collection facility

equipment will be installed at rail loading facilities for royalty payments and consumer billing purposes.

accurate weights

of coal samples for quality

control will be done at the rail loading This will be done so that the oper-

or in the pit prior to blasting.

ation can maintain

a customer product of uniform quality.

Each mine usually may have a large building housing mine offices (engineering, health and safety, and administrative), and another large building warehouse, shower and Actual

change room facilities, configuration heavy-welding

for equipment repair.

will vary from mine to mine. shop, electrical

Smaller buildings and materials

may house the inventory. An

supply warehouse,

area will be needed for the primary electric voltage power may be transformed periphery Finally, of the building a parking

substation where incoming high for operations. On the

to desired voltages

complex, a materials

storage area will be required.

lot and security guard building will also be necessary.

Water wells will be drilled to supply the office, shower room, equipment, and for dust control in coal handling accumulates and on haul roads. Water that

in the sump area of the mine pit and behind check dams may also be Waste water and sewage from

used for dust control if quality is suitable. offices, changehouse,

and other plant facilities will be treated in septic into buried drain fields. of operations, all surface facilities and structures

tanks and discharged

At the completion will be removed other applicable

or disposed of in accordance with the terms of the leases and regulations.


Utilization Power generation Coal-fired one megawatt steam-electric



plants in Wyoming vary from

(MW) to 500 MW per unit with the largest being the Jim Bridger four) sOO-MW units when completed.

Plant which will have three (and possibly The only definitely unit adjacent

proposed new plant in the Powder River Basin is a 330-MW 30-MW plant at Wyodak, Wyoming. in conjunction Two additional

to an existing

plants of 30 to 60 MW may be constructed plants now under consideration. mouth generating

with coal gasification mine

Also, it is assumed by 1990.

that two additional

plants will be constructed

The generation turbine generator. ment.

system consists of a coal-fired

steam boiler and a

See Figure 20 for a simplified

cross section of the equip-

Steam from the boiler passes the turbine where heat energy is converted energy. Mechanical to electrical energy is transmitted energy. to the generator portion of the

to mechanical

where it is converted heat is released or an air-cooled requires

The unrecovered

to the atmosphere condenser system.

either through evaporative

cooling towers and it

The former is the common method,

large amounts of water.

The latter method is used at the Wyodak plant of water. No steam plume is visible in the

due to the limited availability air-cooled system.

The typical appurtenant


for a large power plant include The

a power house, cooling system, emission emission

control systems, and stacks.

control system will be either a wet scrubber system or more likely precipitator. Height of the stacks of the only known planned Other land uses adjoining the

an electrostatic

power plant will be approximately

400 feet tall.

plant may include water supply reservoirs ponds, and electric transmission lines.

and pipelines,

haul roads, evaporation


Coal gasification Test projects way by both private commercial based projects for different gasification methods are currently All known under-

industry now being

and the Federal planned


full-scale States are The Lurgi

or constructed called

in the United

on variations

of a German

process years

the Lurgi process.


has been used for many referred

on a small scale as a means By adding

of producing

low Btu gas. commonly process. gas. Other showing lists promise.

to as "town gas." to "pipeline

a methanation to natural

this gas can be upgraded





are being


tested scale.

and are Table 1

but none have been proved status.

on a commercial

the tests and their present In addition

to the various ~s working



for mined project

coal. the near Hanna.



of Mines

on an in situ gasification stages.

Wyoming. especially advantages:

Although under

still in experimental circumstances.

this process

shows potential. has the following


In situ gasification


Coal which cannot be economically seam too deep. thin. etc.). No open pit or underground Water needs Employment are minimal. needs are low. mining


can be gasified


(2) (3) (4)

is required.

In situ should probably circumstances is a possible rather problem

be considered

as an additional

method Land

for only certain surface subsidence

than an alternative associated process with

to gasification.

in situ gasification

process. being considered Figures 21

Since the Lurgi for large-scale

is the only method will be described


use. this method

in some detail.


and 22 give schematic ification plant.


of the Lurgi

gasifier plant

and the flow within in Table 2.

a gas-

Statistics require

for a typical

are outlined

Gasifiers half inches

coal to be crushed Disposition

to a size between fines,

one and oneamounting to

and a #4 mesh.

of the remaining ways.

20 to 30 percent,

can be handled

in various

If a power generating


is a part of the facility, the fines

the fines


be used for coal or, if a market ments in briqueting A typical fines

is available,

can be sold.


into a useable

size are now about

taking place. gasifiers with

large-scale spares

unit contains

30 Lurgi

three or four being is nearly distributed

for use during maintenance

and repair.

Each unit

100 feet high and 14 feet in diameter. evenly over a moving bed. Oxygen Fourteen

Coal is fed in at the top and through in

and steam are introduced percent

the ash removal the process, which

grate at the bottom.

of the coal is burned reaction process ratio

and this provides

the heat for the gasification Temperature

takes place

o at l1500F to 1600 F.

and steam-oxygen

are dependent About

upon the exact nature 86 percent

of coal. and passes to the gas scrubber a cooling and contains

of the coal is gasified and washed before

where hot gas is quenched system. returned


on through

The ash is continually to the mine



the grate

at the bottom the gasifier ammonia,

for fill material.

Crude gas leaving phenols,



such as tar, oil, naphtha,

and traces

of coal and ash dust are bonded through entering a shift conversion

to tar and removed. it to a more

Part of the gas is directed favorable composition cooled before

to convert

the methanation


The crude phenols

gas is further and ammonia.

to remove the

hydrocarbon rectisol monoxide.

oils and water selectively

containing removes

The next step,


hydrogen down


carbon dioxide,

and carbon than



o to -50 F, all hydrocarbons








MOTOR. (TY?)'-;









\0 0'1




 H  QJ"-.../ 
Q)IJ:-< H CJ r-. ;:l UJ Q) OJ.) H .\-l CIl CIl CIl Q) H ;:l H H .,-j Q)  CIl p.QJ -,


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stations amounts


in Converse


to the south receive Maximum

comparatively occurs

lesser in spring

of total annual



and early summer, early snowstorms.

and a lesser peak occurs During

in the fall, usually rain showers

in the form of but light C. for

the summer months,

are frequent 3, Appendix

Mean annual precipitation Droughts

is shown on an isobar map, Figure Adequate distribution

are common.

of monthly


April, May, and June is critical Although the average precipitation period

for vegetative


and establishment. it does not

may exceed normals, of the growing season.


occur during values

the critical

For this reason, mean needs, especially

are at times meaningless

when considering by scattered

reclamation thunderstorm

when rainfall

is often characterized 24-hour

occurrences. at Dull received

The record Center, located

storm for the State of Wyoming portion


in the east central period.

of the study area, which

5.50 inches during a 24-hour Rapid runoff and contributes

from heavy



flash flood conditions The Thunder associated Basin is

to extensive


and other damages. conditions

aptly named owing to the frequent area. Severe hailstorms Snow is common moderate Heaviest though several


with the

occur frequently from November storms exceeding

and are often extremely

destructive. light to annually. or

through May but is generally five inches can be expected frequently feet deep.

storms leave ten to 15 inches of snow.


accompany Wind with

follow a snow storm and pile snow into drifts snow quite often causes blizzard Blizzards seldom Heaviest Sheridan, located


or near blizzard


for a few hours.

last for any length of time in terms of days. snow fall of record in the northwest for lower elevations occurred in

corner of the basin,

in 1955.

The total


accumulation a water

from one storm for a 43-hour period was 39.01 inches containing of 4.30 inches. maps have been developed for maximum precipitation 24-hour storms. C.


Isopluvial amounts

that can be expected These frequencies

in 2-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year are presented selected

in Figures 4 through 8 of Appendix is shown in Table 3. To




time periods

clarify use of Table 3, for any 100-year period, ability

there is an 87 percent prob-

that a 50-year flood or rain will occur and a 73 percent probability event will occur.

that a 100-year

Table 3 Probability That an Event of Given Recurrence Intervals Will be Equaled or Exceeded During Periods of Various Lengths Period Year









Probability Recurrence Interval 2 10 50 100 200 0.5 0.1 0.02 0.01 0.005 0.97 0.41 0.10 0.05 0.02 0.999 0.65 0.18 0.10 0.05

0.93 0.40 0.22 0.12

0.995 0.64 0.40 0.22

 0.87 0.63 0.39

* *
0.98 0.87 0.63


0.993 0.92


In these cases probability can never be exactly 1, but for all practical purposes its value may be taken as unity.

Temperature The Powder River Basin has a relatively ture range is wide between both summer and winter minimums. The high elevations cool climate. The temperaand

and daily maximums

and dry air cause a rapid incoming 1-120

and outgoing

of radiation. Frequent


is usually

the coldest month and July the warmest. and cold spells are characteristic of

changes between mild periods

winter weather. During the winter, average daily minimums range between 50F and 400F.

It is common, however, December periods.

for temperatures and daytime

to drop considerably temperatures

below 00 from

through February,

may rise to 500 during mild

The basin is particularly During winter warm spells, slopes. Summers are generally exceeding degrees; 100 degrees.


to cold air invasions

from the north.

ch Lnook w Lnds are common along the eastern mountain

mild with short periods

of temperatures for July is 90 Mean and stations is

The mean maximum

daily temperature

nights are usually

cool despite high daytime for Gillette Figures


extreme temperature contained Appendix Douglas,

information and 5.

and Douglas weather

in Tables 4

9 through 12 and Tables 5 through 8 of and maximum-minimum probabilities for

C contain temperature Dull Center, Recluse

information and Gillette.

Wind Studies of wind flow patterns indicate that Wyoming is usually covered

by Pacific air with short periods of cool air masses air from the Gulf of Mexico extend this far north. factor in Wyoming's

from Canada.

Seldom does

Wind is a significant winds are westerly.


the prevailing

The high elevations

and large expanse of rolling plains during the colder

in the basin result in high average annual wind, especially months from November through March.

Winds often reach 30 to 40 miles an hour through the lower

with occasional,

higher gusts.

These rates are from spillage


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passes of cold air trapped in the Great Basin of the southwest. and direction data are greatly influenced by local situof the data

Surface wind velocity ations and, therefore, collection point.

reliable only for the immediate vicinity

The only detailed wind information

of long-term value was of patterns

compiled at the Sheridan weather makes extrapolation difficult.

service station and the variability

More information included




and related data are

in the Air Quality section of this chapter.

Humidity Average relative humidity periods, the humidity is usually quite low. During warmest during low

drops to 25-30 percent,

and conversely


periods rises to 65-75 percent.

Evapotranspiration Relative humidity, tion rates. temperatures, and wind influence evapotranspira-


is important

in terms of affect on water supply

and vegetative

growth, especially

where avail~ble water is marfinal. annual fluctuation responding

Transpiration mainly

rates have a distinct

to mean temperatures.

During the winter months when precipitation water will be available for recharge to soil

rates exceed evapotranspiration, water storage.

From late spring through fall, evapotranspiration streamflow becomes intermittent crops.


exceeds precipitation; Irrigation is necessary

and runoff is low.

to grow high-yield budget,

The area has an annual

deficit precipitation-evaporation from -9.5 inches at Douglas Appendix

shown in Figure 1, which varies Table 9 of

to -12.10 inches at Dull Center. and evapotranspiration data.

C compares precipitation











3 2

Annual P-PET ......... Douglas --9.47" --Gillette -9.49 -Dull Center -12.10





o o,


- - -/'/'

•... --, ..... >,.-.:.:. ...





...J I-


~ -2


o o,





z o
~ ~




a:: n,







JUL Figure










Sunshine Although within no records of percent sunshine are kept by weather ranges from about Sunlight stations 55 percent

the study area, estimates time in winter

are that sunshine to 75 percent

of the available are usually

in summer.

intensities amount

very high owing to filter

to the relatively

high altitudes

and limited

of atmosphere

the sunlight.


Air Quality The region is located partially within quality control regions as designated Campbell County is located two of Wyoming's three air Agency.

by the Environmental Intrastate


in the Wyoming

Air Quality Region while Neither region represents However, Counties, the Powder River has similar area

Converse County is in the Casper Region homogeneous climatological areas within

(Figure 2). the state.

Basin, which contains Campbell climatic characteristics (Figure 2). velocities,

and most of Converse

and is considered

a homogeneous


Winds in the basin are fairly constant, thereby causing significant atmospheric

frequently flushing

reaching high 1).

(Ward 1972, p. dominated by

Wind direction

varies from season to season but is generally The north-south

prevailing westerlies.

oriented Bighorn Mountain the prevailing

Range on the to more may

west side of the Powder River Basin modifies dominant northwesterly and southwesterly direction.


wind flows, and local topography annual wind speeds vary from occurring

further modify prevailing


eight to 12 miles per hour with the higher velocities part of the basin. immediately

in the southern

(For other climatic data, refer to the section on climate,

preceding.) dry air causes low-level nocturnal Such inversions inversions are usually

The basin's prevailing to form frequently, dissipated speeds. especially

during the winter.

shortly after sunrise due to rising temperatures inversions

and increased wind

In general, low-level

occur from 40 to 55 percent of the of the time in spring and

time in fall and winter, summer (Hosler 1961, p. The potential

and from 30 to 40 percent 332). for air pollution

is influenced

both by mixing heights

and average wind velocities study (Environmental

in these mixing layers. Agency 1972, Figures

Data taken from a recent 1-20) indicate that the



r·, _._-_.-'1 ..



2 3








Source: Chuck Ward,Wyoming's

Air Quality Program, Fig.2

August 1972, Figures I

a 2.


Air Quality Control



Powder near

River Basin has mean



and corresponding and seasonal

wind speeds of the year. between in the

the values

shown on Table

6 for annual


The data show a large diurnal morning basin mixing and afternoon. Seasonal


of mixing mixing

heights heights


of morning

are small while heights

those of the afternoon in diluting

are rather


Shallower that

are less effective the mixing

or dispersing


are released


layer. are typically higher than morning values of

Wind while summer


in the afternoon


are less than those in winter. in transport

The higher wind of pollutants.



are more


and diffusion heights

A combination dispersion of pollutants. potential mixing

of shallow mixing Therefore, in the basin and wind

and low wind



it is significant occurs during speeds

to note that the greatwhen both morning During this air

est pollution and afternoon period,

the winter


are relatively


inversions problems.


form for extended


of time and create



Upper-level conditions region year, days occur

(above 500 feet) inversions days, particularly

may result during

in stagnant

air This

that last for several

the winter.

can be expected and an average

to have an average

of 40 stagnation-episode lasting

days per

of 15 of these episodes 51-71). Episode

at least two consecutive lasting at least five days sounding

(EPA 1972, Figures on an average


of four times per year. that a persistent

Some recent may


observations most



exist over the area during Hearings Statement, 6-26-74).

of the winter Unstable

and most

of each spring conditions in effective


atmospheric and result

are characterized dispersion

by large variations with the

in wind direction

of effluents




::>:: p..,


" -0 o


~ ~


I=i "M

"M .j.J

•.... __ ...


~ ~~ ~ "-~~. .....
til OJ r-l

a r-l 00 r-i 0'\

i=l 0-0 -0 r-l r-l p.., CIl ;:l :: p..,
OJ QJ 4-l


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I:l 'M


•. U


QJ ..c:





"M 'U
OJ ..c: 0 OJ

P. I:l "M 'U


~ ~ ~ 1-130



level concentrations atmospheric and result

in close proximity

to the effluent





are characterized dispersion

by small variations lower ground level of

in wind direction concentrations atmospheric

in slow effluent


in close proximity

to the source.


distributions conditions


for ~loorcroft, Wyoming, very unstable

show that neutral conditions Data

(Class D) are most con@on while than one percent Figure 3.) of the time

(Class A) occur less 1973b). (See

(NOAA Environmental



air quality Until recent months, little ambient air quality monitoring had been of


out in the basin. becoming monitoring


with plans for substantial companies and agencies

development have recently such

the region initiated programs.

a reality, programs


or have developed

plans for initiating

At present, Quality, samplers stations Air Quality (particulate are located

the State of wyoming's Division, matter) is operating in the Powder Moorcroft,


of Environmental air quality These Ranch

six high volume River Basin

(Figure 4). Stoddard

at Gillette,

Reno Junction, Ranch

(about 15 miles Glenrock),


of Bill), Burke's

(about six miles

east of In addition

and Gordon's


(about 12 miles west of Clareton). the Air Quality Division

to the six stations one high volume


the basin,

also operates



in the Bighorn was initiated


Data collection 1974. The 1973,

from five of the seven Gillette and Burke's


in late 1973 or early

Ranch stations

were activated a possible

in June 1972 and January mean suspended



data indicate

particulate 1974).

range of 13 to 190 micrograms

per cubic meter


(Eric Highberger



USDC, NOAA Environmental Data Service, Wind Distribution by Pasquill Stability Moorcroft, Wyoming, 1973

Monthly and Classes,



•••• z w

u 0::



I >:::»


w a::
IA. ..J

« :::» z 20 z «


















----,---TAN A








I --l-


Gordon Ranch

I Stoddard Rancn





Air Quality Mar


for areas


that are free of local emissions, to be nearer to 13 to 21 ug/m3'

the background

particulate very little

range appears data collected

There has been pollutants

to date on background

level for other oxides. Program's

such as sulfur dioxide, Plans Aspects


and nitrogen

of the Northern

Great Plains


Atmospheric network by the for

Work Group

call for implementation under

of an air quality monitoring will be installed Other

in the future. Environmental

The first station Protection Agency

this program

(EPA) at Gillette. Buffalo, Lusk,

sites proposed

future air quality Several or plan

stations companies

include planning

and Newcastle. in the basin have operated, Most of these are shortbackground information has its coal was


to operate,

air quality designed



term stations on present initiated mine


to obtain preliminary Panhandle Eastern stations complex.


air quality.

Pipe Line Company in connection A weather

two semipermanent

meteorological plant



Coal Co.)-gasification 12 miles



in June 1973 about quality

west of Rochelle

(coal lease),

and a

meteorological/air ~ ~

station north

was established of Douglas

in January

1974 just west Other companies



59, about

15 miles

(plant site).



that air quality


will be conducted. in the basin, in Table 7.

Some emission \ together it~ applicable

rate estimates state

for two power plants standards,

and federal

are given


, (These e \ a factor

be converted )

to tons/year

by multiplying

each value by

.!:? o




C--r.....• --"'1\'resent am


all avar~le


ientcair~u~itY in the basin is very good according o 0 0 ion°-E So~  ~ : : u ~


~= ~~e~~~~


















0 0.=


_~c .•


__ 0




.: E"


-I ~ _ 0 Q




_. --

'i ._

00 -~:;;"oeu
0 ~ 0_



_ .._------

OJ ,..., co
,..Q o
0 ~




-- ------1-----_._-----







jj ~'~j~!~

000 .E 0

.~ ~~"~

j ~~ ~~
_., "';;I


The Bankard Haverson alluvial

series is on the flood plains, on the bottom

fans, and level terraces;

soils are situated

lands; and Kim soils are found on

fans below upland areas. The soils of this association are moderately alkaline and subject to to wind

flooding erosion.

during spring and early summer. The acreage

They are highly susceptible is estimated

of this soil association

to be 184,134 acres.



(No.2) to moderately deep, well drained, to steep

This unit includes very shallow

loamy, sandy and clayey soils from sandstone uplands. This association exposures consists primarily

and shale on sloping

of shallow soils and bedrock the larger streams and in

on steeply sloping badlands


areas where the bedrock has been uplifted. on steep slopes with shale and sandstone

Razor and Shingle soils are found at less than 20 inches. opportunities are


These soils produce very little vegetation. very poor and the soils are highly association is estimated erodible.


The acreage of this soil

to be 351,228 acres.



(No.3) to deep, well drained, loamy, sandy and to steep uplands. with deep, and ridgeand

This unit represents


clayey soils on level to nearly level alluvial This association moderately consists

fans and sloping

of shallow soils interspersed Renohill

coarse textured soils.

soils occur on ridgetops

crests; Vlm soils are situated Maysdorf slopes.

on nearly level upland fans and terraces; sloping upland hills and valley

soils are found on moderately



Soils of this association tial is considered moderate.

are highly erodible.



The acreage of this soil association

is estimated

to be 378,745 acres.

Unnamed Association

(No.4) loam and steep

These soils are known to be deep to shallow, well drained, clay loams on gently sloping uplands. Soil series names have not been identified the following information alluvial fans and sloping to moderately

for these soils; however, These families

can be assumed from their classification. including textural

soils are considered of fine-loamy

to be mostly medium-textured, Depth is variable, ranging

and fine.

from less than 20 inches of the fine family

to greater than 40 inches over bedrock. has montmorillonitic from (1) Ustollic minerology.

The clay fraction

The representative

soils of this unit range mesic indicating relict having


fine, montmorillonitic,

soils on the oldest stable erosion abrupt upper boundaries, shallow, medium-textured alluvial B horizons

surfaces with fine textured Haplargids, fine-loamy,

B horizons

(2) Ustollic

mixed, mesic,

soils, less than 20 inches to soft bedrock with normal simple morphology, and (3) Ustic Torriorthents, recent soils on erosional with little pedogentic erodibility is


fine-loamy, surfaces

mixed calcareous,

mesic representing

either alluvial Productivity

or eolian;

they are calcareous

development. high.

is assumed to be low to moderate;

The estimated

acreage of this soil association

is 250,382 acres.



(No.5) dee~ and shallow, well drained, steep to steep uplands, fine sandy

The soils are moderately

loam, loam and clay loams on moderately sidehills.

ridges, and


Renohill and underlain occurring

soils are moderately

deep, fine-textured

soils on ridgetops soils

by shale, Terry soils are moderately by sandstone. with numerous


on side slopes and underlain dissected

Shingle soils occur on drainages and underlain

steep upland ridges, usually with shale.

These soils are highly The estimated


and have low productivity is 280,102 acres.


acreage of the association



(No.6) deep, well drained loam and to

These soils are deep and moderately clay loams on nearly moderately siltstone. Renohill ridgetops soils are moderately Wyarno level to sloping alluvial

fans and gently sloping sandstones,

steep uplands.

They overlie


shales, and

deep, fine-textured,

and occur on and formed underis is

and ridgecrests;

soils are deep, well drained,

in alluvium;

and Cushman soils occupy moderately at depths of 30 inches. and erodibility

steep upland positions Productivity potential

lain by soft sandstone considered

to be moderate,

is high.

The acreage


259,441 acres for the association.

Wibaux Association

(No.7) deep, well drained sandy

This unit includes shallow and moderately loam, clay loam and channery broken land with shallow, occupies rolling

loam soils on sloping to steep uplands soils.

and rough

sandy to medium-textured

This association by numerous outcrops

to steep topography.

It is characterized

of scoria and scoria chips in the profile. surface has large scoria clinkers.

Thirty to sixty percent

of the and the

These soils are highly erodible




is low.

The estimated

acreage of this association


220,274 acres.



(No.8) sandy loam,

This unit includes deep and moderately

deep, well drained,

clay loam and channery loam soils on sloping to steep uplands land with shallow, sandy to medium-textured The Renohill soils are moderately soils.

and rough broken

deep, fine textured,

and occur on deep, well

ridge tops and ridgecrests;

Wibaux soils are shallow and moderately occurring on sloping

drained, medium textured and gravelly,

to steep uplands;

and Tassel and Shingle soils are shallow to moderately rolling to steeply rolling slopes. miscellaneous soil materials Rockland within

deep sandy soils on

the unit consists of

that are sandy to clayey on steep broken slopes

with exposed bedrock. These soils are moderately potentials low to moderate. Acreage to highly erodible with productivity estimates for this association are

145,124 acres.



(No.9) deep, well drained, loam and clay loam soils are

This unit includes moderately soils on nearly level to moderately moderately Renohill

steep uplands.

The Cushman

deep soils on nearly level to gently sloping upland plains while on ridges and side slopes. moderate. The estimated Productivity potential

soils are situated

and erodibility association

are considered

acreage of the

is 275,548 acres.


Association occupies

(No. 10) the steep to very steep upland ridges and

This association


sidehills which are usually dissected soils are moderately crests.

with numerous


The Renohill

deep and fine textured

and occur on ridge tops and ridgesoils of is

The Shingle and Terry soils are shallow and medium-textured sidehills. Productivity potential

steeply sloping high.

is low and erodibility

The estimated

acreage of this association

is 148,224 acres.



(No. 11) by deep and moderately deep, well drained fans and nearly

This unit is represented loam and clay loam soils on nearly level to moderately steep uplands.

level to sloping alluvial

The Briggsdale steep uplands underlain

and Renohill

soils occur on nearly level to moderately The VIm

by soft shale at depths of about 20 inches.

soils are situated to short periods

on nearly level upland

fans and terraces which are subject These soils have fine potentials. The

of overflow

in the spring and summer.

textured subsoils which exhibit moderate productivity potential and erodibility

to high shrink-swell

of these units are considered is 591,737 acres.


The acreage estimate

of the association

Terry Association

(No. 12) deep to shallow, well to excessively drained, level to moderto for

This unit includes

loamy fine sand, sandy loam and fine sandy loam soils on nearly ately steep uplands underlain highly erodible this association with sandstone.

These soils are moderately The acreage

and have low productivity is 37,239 acres.






(No. 13) gullied uplands on

This unit consists shale-sandstone foothills

of a narrow band of rolling,

and stream terraces.

Shingle soils are shallow and


located on the steeper slopes. production is poor. A moderate

Kim soils are on alluvial


Vegetative The estimated

to severe erosion hazard exists.

acreage of the association

is 240,425 acres.



(No. 14) deep, medium in alluvium to fine

This unit consists of deep and moderately textured soils on level to gentle slopes developed alkaline shales.

de~ived from to

Arvada and Bone soils are strongly saline, Briggsdale


water, and occur as alkali panspots. underlain potential acres.

soils are fine textured and The productivity acreage is 171,557

by soft shale at a depth of about 20 inches. is low and erodibility is high. The estimated



(No. 15) deep, nearly level to steep soils on slopes. The Renohill and These

This unit includes moderately uplands, upland ridges, ridgecrests

and sidehill


are derived from shale; Pugsley

soils form from sandstone. productivity

soils are highly erodible and have low to moderate The estimated acreage of the association


is 70,246 acres.



(No. 16) deep silty clays, loams and

This unit includes shallow and moderately clay loams on gently sloping to very steep slopes. The Renohill, steep to steep uplands. fans. The Briggsdale Briggsdale,

and Tassel soils are situated on moderately

Ulm soils are found on nearly level to sloping alluvial to high shrink-swell

and Ulm soils exhibit moderate


potentials. ductivity

The DIm soils are subject to short periods of overflow. is low to moderate an estimated and erodibility is high. This

The pro-

potential contains


138,500 acres.



(No. 17) deep sandy soils on

This unit consists of shallow to moderately rolling to steeply dissected rolling slopes, including drainages. and Trelona

upland ridges and sidehills

by numerous

The Shingle, Tassel, Mitchell, than 20 inches deep over sandstone topography is associated

soils are generally Hummocks and dune


and shale bedrock.

with the deep sandy Dwyer soils.

This unit is subject The produc-

to severe wind erosion hazards and moderately tivity potential is 74,712 acres. is low to moderate.

erodible by water.

The acreage estimate

for the association



(No. 19) deep and deep fine loamy and fine sandstone and shale. sloping hills, The

These are shallow, moderately soils on rolling,

steep slopes over interbedded

This association ridges, and alluvial

of soils occurs on moderately

fans underlain

by soft shale at shallow depths. formed from sandstone developing

Rauzi soils are deep and medium textured Recluse soils are deep and fine textured

and shale; sandstone

in interbedded

and shale; and Arvada soils are saline and alkali developing deposits. The erosion hazard is severe and the productivity acreage of this association is 307,800 acres.

on alluvial potential is low.

The estimated



(No. 20) deep and deep, moderately rolling to steep

This unit consists of shallow, moderately sandy soils developed from sandstone

and shale occupying


topography with gentle to steep slopes dissected by many small drainages.


Tassel, Shingle, and Terry soils are shallow and occur on the steeply sloping uplands. The Olney and Kim soils occur on side and foot slopes. is moderate. The produc-

tivity potential

These soils are subject to severe wind erosion The estimated acreage of the association is

and moderate water erosion. 444,450 acres.



(No. 21) to rolling, hummocky dune The

This association

occurs on undulating

topography and is made up of deep aeolian sands and some active dunes. soils are excessively drained, deep, loose sands. Productivity potential

Wind erosion is severe and is moderate. The estimated

water erosion is moderate. acreage of this association

is 98,912 acres.


Mineral Campbell contain tremendous and Converse resources Thick

Resources in the Powder energy River Basin of Wyoming minerals--coal, are intershale, silt-


of the important coalbeds


oil, gas, and uranium. bedded stone, sulfur with almost


to surface mining

flat-lying, (Figure

relatively 7). Coals

soft and easily removed that have been analyzed high contents of toxic

and sandstone

are low in both trace elements. tons of 12.35 mining

and ash and contain River Basin

no abnormally

The Powder coal under billion methods mining exist,

in Wyoming


an estimated

610 billion

less than 3,000 feet of overburden. recoverable Additional

Of that total, about by present

tons of coal are economically to a depth of about 200 feet.

day surface

coal can be produced if proper mining economic


by underground additional


and, in the future, by surface

conditions than the study

coal may be produced

to depths


200 feet. area. 10,000

Oil and gas have been produced producing

from about

210 fields within between discovery

The main feet.

zones are at depths depths


5,000 and rate make the

The shallow

and a high percentage Remaining

area attractive 210 fields billion mainly

to drilling

investors. estimated gas.

recoverable barrels occur


of the

are conservatively

at 221 million resources

of oil and 508 beds tons of

cubic feet of natural in the southern


in sandstone 40,000

part of the basin. The following

Ore reserves tabulation

of about

U308 have been estimated. recoverable energy resource


the potentially are described

in the two counties. minerals

The occurrences pages.

in the discussions

of individual

on subsequent


Energy Coal Oil Gas Uranium



Reserve tons

Btu Equivalent 212,420 x 1012 12

12.35 billion 221 million 508 billion (U308) 40,000 tons

barrels cubic feet

1,282 x 10 52.5 x 10 *


*Yield in Btu is dependent upon the thermal efficiency and load factors of reactor systems. For nuclear plants 1 kw hr is equivalent to 10,582 Btu fossil fuel input.


setting Broad, flat-floored Wyoming. intermontane The largest basins separated basin by prominent in Wyoming about mountain is the long

ranges Powder

characterize River Basin,


a structural

and topographic


250 miles Uplift and

and more

than 100 miles wide.

The basin

lies between Uplift Uplift

the Bighorn

Casper Arch basin

to the west and the Black Hills on the south by the Laramie City Arch,

to the east


8). Uplift

The and

is bounded

and the Hartville

on the north by the Miles the Asland syncline The Powder Precambrian descriptions Many reports bibliography.

the Porcupine

Dome, and the low arch within

(Howard, Williams,

and Raisz 1972). a rock sequence ranging in age from and lithologic 9.

River Basin contains The generalized

to Recent.



of the sedimentary that describe


are shown in Table 9 and Figure

the geology igneous

of the basin in detail and metamorphic ranges;

are listed in the is exposed sedi-

The Precambrian

rock complex

in the cores of the surrounding mentary areas. rocks thicken toward




the center

of the basin away from these mountainous Counties, Wyoming, north of the



in Campbell

and Converse

North Platte


is late Cretaceous

and Tertiary

in age (Figure 10).




asrn "-

// / \
o Miles City



o Broadus -......



Axis of anticline

\'" \8herida\n \.




~ Buffalo







50 I





Figure 8 Generalized Map Showing the Powder River Basin in Relation to Nearby Structural Features 1-159




----'~~-- _..~

:J o

-_-_-. _--~






_:-_. -=--=--=----=. t: _-=- =- =---; ---------.-.- ---

~=--=- Pie:.:e ~h~I-=_~-~..:.. u ~

150'-225' 400'-650'

_-=-.-:;::::., a, r::L- .-- - --. -,-- :J . __ Nl o br cr o Fm.=.·TD_--_;;;;~ _ ..
•• & •

:::. :=::;:-.-=








:.::;,.__ -"C,;r1ile sh~i~= ------=---=..:- ----= -- - --




200'± 400'- 1000'








Figure 9 Section Showing Rock Sequence in the Eastern Powder River Basin


N I

o o

o o o
N G\ I I N I C'1



ro o



0 0



o o o o

o o

G\ N




o o



o o






·lln~vJuounuuo slIIU xO,1


0IUI(S OJlQld:


uOluil 1J




',"" ~



o P



~ ~ ~
u H



I:l .s

.9 •..

--< 03 ,!<
Q) Q)


008 •.... Q '" o '" 0 .0'-' .8 Q '-'Q


.8 po, ...,...,


eo 03 ,<:1 IJ..<
03 03



"'.s~ ......

" S •..


I:l '" .s Q) '"

-a Jj




0. ell

po, 0


~~ § P 0 ~


QJ 'r-! r-l





'" a




;a '"

'" '"§§




s .~ s •..
Q) IJ..<

"'§ .~§ ",.§'i3 v, 0.
'-aU} po,

'rio. ~~ "",.~ '"







.D '0 0 cD 0



§ --;c .::.
(.) ft;


U. U.


.' 0







I ~/














\ •
N r<"l





-> iZi

H 0




A 3'wS'

so' )' B (Felix 4



C S't.ol2'


o (Roland)
4't.o 100'



{/r<:l R:.:.:;
.c:> .....


Base of

nee formation Base of
OX Hills


Sandy shale




Vertical scale





Figure 15 Stratigraphic Sections in the Gillette Coal Field, Wyoming, Showing Position of Coalbeds 1-177

the eastern tuminous

and southern


of the Powder

River Basin

in Wyoming Society

are subbifor Testing

C in rank according

to definitions

of the American

r~terials. usually

The coal has favorable


of low sulfur


less than 1 percent

and averaging

about 0.5 percent,

and low ash conBtu

tents ranging values

from 3 to 15 percent

and averaging

less than 10 percent.

for the coal range

from 7,800 to 10,300 per pound but average between contain minor amounts of trace elements that may be

8,300 and 8,700. transmitted

The coals

to the atmosphere Detailed analyses

or concentrated

in ash when

the coal is burned. producing mines and are

of coal samples

from the individual

in the Powder

River Basin of Wyoming Survey are shown

as analyzed in Tables

by the U.S. Bureau 13.

of Mines

the U.S. Geological comparable

10 through

The analyses

to those for subbituminous

coal in other areas of the western




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'"I r-, U I 001.1"'\000 .-l N •...•• NM M ~ en ::J U I M N rl 0'" rl V 00 rl ,... -c 0 V H u ,.. a z OlJ""l V V V V '" '" '" '" ~ -e ~ cr. ~ eo c W c: u ...• a QUiV"'lV"lLf)LI"\ ....-i...-!...-j..-l..--l..-t V ~ 0 U ...J W H ~ z a u '" w"o "0 '" ~ -c ~ "'0 rl "" V ... a a U""'I Lf)U"'\ ""I Lf)IJi U VV vvvv U ...J '" .•.. ,,' 0 " a c 'U '-' Q) .IJ M :> p r-1 rn 0 a '..1 H :<: 0 ...J P ..0 ;:J e-, « l/"l"\"""..r'ILf""I V V V VV 0 u :<: a vvvvv a u ec 00000 tI"'IlJ"'lV\r-Vi VV V U"IU"'I "\Lf)lJi V ;2 a H ...• lJ"'\ 11"\1.1"1r•.• r-c 11"'1 V VV V U ...J Q) Q) r-1 ..0 r-1 Cd Cd rn e-, ~ u ;:J 0 ,.. ...J 0.. ...J 00000 C""'lNN NM OOVice N N •...• M M U I H (J r=i '..1 rn Cd Q) @ to w Q)-~ '..1 rn H .IJ :>r-1 4-l 0 00000 00000 lI"lV"tl1"\V"t1f"l I " NNNNN vvvvv vvvvv NNNNN vvvvvv V V vv '..1 .IJ lil ~ ,.:., .IJ Q) m p 'lj .IJ 0 0 p., '..1 ~ ~ to 00000 MMMV'lf' V '" '" t--; 00000 00000 V"tlI"'l V\ a 000000 000000 Or-f'UiV"lC""'t 000000 000000 UiU'lr-V"IMV"I 00 00 MN .-< .-< Cd r.Ll ;:J Q) '..1 S Q) (fj Z 0"' Q) H r.Ll'lj .-< 0- H 0 (J .IJ (J Cd rn rn Cd Q) P 0.. H '..1 H .IJ " a u " .-< en " '" •...••....• ..-1....-1 •..•.• 00000 -o \0 -c -.0 ..0 \0 ....-1....-1....-1 •...••....••..•.• 00000 co co co 00 0000 co 00 00 00 00 00 000000 ~'fe .• l , ..-." foeCree. ", _--• "Ii -if' n/~ / A I t 0; / I ~ EXPLANATION , T56N T5SN SH E R I DANJ t. /.]1 1/ ," I ~, Oi I fi el d c;::J Gasfield \ ~i"~::;:;~~~~:' •. ' ,'r,i 'I 'iIIC- ~""\ ..,..~, :t. I I' I. I v- ,\ •• \ ~~~C~K_ It'o Itern \ '), ". te-J,I, // ' \I?~ Il< /1 ~I ropo I Id se I \.~~~ Oyot/!'... S~~~~ Fiddlle"Ceek .•••• ~' "~»"::-' ''<'::'' ~~ r,~'x." I~~ \\e Hi ight I' I W EST _~'r.;r ( ,OJ I.> , 1 ••• J' ! I 'c.~. '\ [i~~:k'_lr-ir'¥ • / ~ \. -e -......, T43N ) ! i Mea --_"T ,/ :~. •• CAMPEELl ek -I REA~ER ne LARETON •••. I T42N T41N J'!I'.·~I ~ : l1li0 ~REI (Iaretn ,: ,. ~ or' Cr - " -1._ "'xJ.VP.rcposecl"". !'--~ --\ '\,~ I-~ J ~ ~ \--,::1"\- T40N T39N T38N _~' \ .\ ~ So tCrr~i" k ,. : / ~~~d) .". Poir Dra ~! , ! 1;.~~ A ~ U "\ I _ 1 : • \:' I ' CpNYER E I:" :: I Alte nat" ropa ed NIOBRARA T37N \!: : l" \,a /l l 1\ 'A.: INA )' I • I I I , :: , f .1 Lan e / V ere k /- / T36N l Alt rnate 1" Ji ProDosd .Ii' Kay T35N \ <, ': :: B 9 Mu~dy !/i /1 I AI'""" Ir> <, RON4"'l~ T34N t, ~ : _-- ,I T33N T32N ~ t 1 P 'I ( i o, ~~, '~::r)Cree 10 /I~,' ~ 20 , 30 ~ '" Jj y / " I ': \ / I 'I'd. • \ .•.•~ , Dl>ugla 4:7 Flat Top i \ A' r<«; , , 40 , I 50 Mi I es o , 10203040 , ! I 50 Kilometers Figure 16 Oil and Gas Fields Associated With the Eastern I-189 Powder River Basin, Wyoming However, presently operating mines factors and existing indicate within oil and gas producing existing areas do not overlap. The following most oil and gas producing before most areas: zones areas will be plugged proposed 1. coal mining and abandoned operations the next 5 to 15 years, to commence will be ready in overlap More than 75 percent having an average of fields in 1974 are from Cretaceous producing primary life of five years fields and/or or less plus an average recovery projects, such secondary as water 2. Less life as stripper floods, secondary for another five to seven years. or Pennsylvanian producing zones secondary three than 25 percent an average are from Jurassic having primary fields life of 10 years secondary or less plus an average projects life as stripper to five years. 3. About 75 percent and/or recovery for another of the present projects, day producers fields, in all zones or shut-in are already in secondary recovery plugged stripper status and should be properly 4. and abandoned within the next seven years. 10 or 15 years from 1974 The few wells will that might still be in production drilled likely be the recent wells which should provide on 40, 80-, 160-, or even 320-acre space for both coal mining and oil spacing sufficient and gas production 5. Where to take place concurrently. or production would conflict with mining or oil and gas drilling work, reclamation either the Secretary until such of the Interior has the authority to suspend or operation time as mining without use, or oil and gas drilling production cannot wells well can be conducted on concurrent after conflict. This is done if the lessees pillars around producing the agree such as leaving is abandoned to be mined below the well or temporarily plugging the coal and reestablishing to approval production after mining. All plans are subject by the U.S. Geological 1-190 Survey. Uranium The host rocks are fluvial and Wasatch sandstone for uranium ores and minerals in the Powder of both River Basin beds distributed from top to bottom anomalies age. the Fort Union Formations. A few radio-active of Cretaceous have also been found near are the top of the Lance located axis. Formation Most of the deposits east of the basin's Some deposits Uranium occur axis in beds that dip gently westward in beds that dip 10 to 15 degrees and mining is confined chiefly toward the on the west side of to the Pumpkin Buttes the axis. Buttes exploration Powder and Southern River Basin uranium Campbell districts. The Pumpkin district is in extreme County southwestern County extending about six miles County to into Johnson the south. County north found north to the west Powder Platte and three or four miles River Basin district River. No uranium into Converse The Southern of the North of T46N, is in northwestern ore deposits Converse have been south of and, except in the southern east of R72W. Commission part of the basin T37N, none have been found The Atomic Basin 40,000 of Wyoming Energy has estimated that the Powder River contains 25,400,000 short tons of uranium resources ore containing are 14,000,000 and most of the County. tons of U30 and that the potential S 26,000 tons of U30S' and Campbell of the basin tons of ore containing resources 'lie within Mineralized Converse activity County All of the reserves Counties, chiefly Converse material in Converse County and ore in southern Campbell and northern coal mining rock of occur in areas well removed of one mineralized from active zone. or planned with an exception Uranium-bearing 1-191 less than ore grade was detected Pacific on parts of coal lease No. W-0244l67 of the Power and Light Company and parts of lease Nos. W-0136l95 and W-0136l96 lease. of the Humac Company, just north of the Pacific Power and Light Company On the Pacific Power and Light Company lease, low-grade ing rock and thin spotty concentrations uranium-bear- of ore-grade rock occur in an area 1 mile 3 and 10, T36N, R75W. The top of long and 1,000 feet wide in parts of sections the mineralized below zone is at an elevation of about 5,450 feet, 25 to 50 feet beds alternating with barren The grade the base of a coalbed. Thin, mineralized distance rock are distributed and distribution exploit through a vertical of about 50 feet. of uranium here is such that no attempt has been made to but it is possible that, after the coal has been stripped, the deposit; the uranium could be mined at a profit. anomalies in the subsurface define a sinuous Numerous weak radioactive mineralized trend extending through sections 17, ]8, 19, 20, 29 and 30, T37N, an extension lease. of the No mineable R74W on the Humac Company mineralized accumulation lease. material lease. The trend is probably on the Pacific Power and Light Company of uranium has been found along the trend on the Humac Company Land use for exploration, in the mining districts. coal. Strippable development and mining of uranium is mostly is west of most strippable The Pumpkin Buttes district coal deposits extend into the Southern Powder River Basin could exist in overburden materials or district and here uranium deposits coalbeds. operations, beneath mineable with coal mining seismic No mineable uranium deposits are known that conflict Extensive drilling has not for either active or planned. shot lines, water wells, oil testing and coal exploration 1-192 discovered workable' uranium deposits coalbeds or significant mineralization in proximity Uranium to strippable mineralization in areas leased for coal in Campbell County. occurs in Converse County. in overburden Early mining localities activity took place in the Pumpkin Buttes and other Monument Hill, and Box Creek. Mining was confrom open pits. such as Turnercrest, ducted for deposits at or near the surface which were extracted All of these mined-out 5 acres in area. accelerated pits are less than 100 feet deep and most are less than activity for uranium was of significant ore In the late 1960's exploratory in the Powder River Basin resulting in discovery bodies in the Southern Powder River Basin district. Operation of the Exxon Corporation mine in section 28, T36N, R72W, of and mill in section 29 in the same township will result in the disturbance about 600 acres during the open-pit phase of production. The mill will occupy About 120 million ore about 30 acres and tailings and mill waste about 250 acres. cubic yards of earth will be moved. will be removed by underground Production ore deposit section from the underground Upon completion starting of open pit mining, methods in the wall face of the pit. in early 1977. The Exxon 20 and 21 into for use phase is expected extends from section 28, northward Overburden through sections 17, T36N, R72W. and waste from each pit is scheduled as fill in mined-out ~its as the open-pit phase progresses. of the Teton Exploration Drilling Company is in section about 6 miles The operation 1, T35N, R72W. Ore is trucked to the mill of the Exxon Corporation The uranium ore is extracted Further operational away and sold as custom ore. by conventional from a small open pit mining methods. data are not available. 36, T36N, mine is Corporation The Kerr-McGee R74Wa Corporation is sinking a shaft in section The underground the Kerr-McGee few miles southwest for production of Exxon's operation. When complete, 1-193 scheduled in 1975. project will include one or more as a mill. additional underground (shaft) mines and one or more open pits as well Other minerals Clinker, is abundantly Clinker also called baked throughout shale, natural eastern Campbell slag, scoria and Converse and baking and red dog, Counties. of strata for road stone. it caps widespread is a reddish coalbeds natural slag formed by the fusion The clinker overlying surface Clinker hills when the coal burned. ballast is a resource material, railroad readily and construction for quarry and ornamental operations is unsua1ly accessible because and ridges. to Dobbin Thicknesses and Barnett underlie of clinker as much as 50 feet have been reported. Survey 1927), several billion According (U.S. Geological parts cubic yards a small of clinker of T49 and SON, R70 and 71W. in the basin. This is only by area of the total occurrences methods and crushed, The rock is quarried ballast and road conventional surfacing. hundreds haustible. effect primarily for railroad No data are available of billions on actual reserves, The supply increases but they are counted is almost inex- in of cubic yards. or actual resource. of clinker Thus, projected in production will have little on the total clinker Sand and gravel suitable for construction Counties purposes except is scarce along in the Powder River Basin in Campbell River. and Converse the flood plain of the North Platte with pebbles as much Scattered local deposits, as much as 10 feet thick the major tribu- as 2 inches in diameter, area. are found along Several areas taries to streams draining the basin of active prominent River and inactive are in R70W. River windblown T34N, sand deposits occur in the study area. and along the Belle The most Fourche R74W, north of Glenrock in T47N, Platte Deposits of sand and gravel tested or used occur along the North 1-194 and in the upper reaches of the Belle Fourche River. Most deposits along the The Wyoming Belle Fourche River are in T46N, R7l and 72W and T48N, R69W. Highway Department has identified several deposits containing not less than 25,000 cubic yards of sand and gravel along the North Platte River in Converse County. There are three siliall companies sume sand and gravel. in Casper, Wyoming, that mine or con- The flood plain of the North .Platte River contains most sand and gravel deposts and is the chief source. Shale for local use as road surface material Potter shale pit about 3 miles from Gillette. sold to consumers. is quarried from the is Crushed and pit run material The Wyoming Highway Department quarries a sand and gravel Route 59 on the Belle deposit in T45N, R72W, about 2 miles west of Wyoming Fourche River. This operation is about 150 acres in area. I~194a Water Resources Most of the data used in compiling water and surface water were collected Geological Survey and the Wyoming the following discussion program of ground of the U.S. under the cooperative State Engineer. Ground Water The rocks considered Powder include in this discussion of ground water in the Eastern The uppermost of Tertiary rocks and River Coal Basin have been divided important aquifers within into two groups. the sand, shale and coalbeds have potential depths Late Cretaceous resources age. These aquifers economic for the development of water The lower- and are within considered drilling for most purposes. most formation in this group is the Fox Hills Sandstone which exceeds part of the Eastern Powder River Coal Basin. 7,000 feet in depth in the western Underlying predominately shale, the Fox Hills Sandstone that are not considered however, are 4,500 to 5,000 feet of rocks, potential aquifers. Beneath this thick shale section, that, although tant aquifers are several sandstone and limestone formations deeply buried in nearby in the Eastern Powder River Coal Basin, are importhe land surface. aquifers, Because areas where they are nearer importance of these deeper geologic of the potential considered. economic they are also the Powder River Figure 18 shows Figure 17 is a generalized section across Basin and shows the position the stratigraphic relation of these rocks in the subsurface. of the rocks in the basin. Upper aquifers Alluvium. gravel underlying The thickness The alluvium consists of unconsolidated terraces silt, sand and the flood plains and bordering of the stream valleys. of the alluvium at most places is less than 60 feet. from about three feet to as much as 20 feet seasonally and with precipitation wells range from a few depending on permeabilitv Depth to water ranges below land surface. amounts Water levels fluctuate Yields of water (see Figure 19). to individual per minute gallons per minute to several hundred gallons 1-195 " " ~ " " ~ '" 'c, " " '" "I " " " " ~ ~ " " " c "c " " ~ ~ ~ " >f- "0 " ; 0 L> ~ - , :; " 0 0 " no ~i L> •.-1 (fl f=l p:.) CO \ r-I \ \ \ \ \ 00 \ \ 0 0 CO .w o ~ ;::l ~ .w .- ;::l , \ \ Cf.l ;g &' >f0 ~ ClJ :> 'g 0 z :J 0 L> f=l ~ j ~ ~ ~ \ 0 ClJ '"d ~ f=l ClJ .w w <0 ClJ 0 .w .w \ \ g " " \ \ N \ 0 ~ 00 •.-1 i=>-l 0 ~ Z (fl f=l 0 '.-1 CO ClJ fZ CO ClJ ~ :J :3 f=l ClJ I I 0 '0' °_0 •• 0 "{ --'U \ " " ~ 1-196 ::!: (j) G EOLOG West side of Powder River Basin >- I IC UNITS East side of Powder River Basin ~ - (J) (J) [5 (j) West side of Powder River Basin East side of Powder River Basin li 0:1:: a " II> II> e.>0 0- o ~ .- I:: o 0 Goose Egg Formation Oncludes equivalent rocks in nor thwest part of area) Minnekahta Limestone ~ White River Formation >0:: I:: II> o 0 0::: W Cl.. Z II> I:: o 0 W II> Tensleep Sands ton e Hartville Formation Minnelusa Formation l- Wasatch Formation >Fort Union Formotion ~ Amsden Formation ? ~ ~ ::::J Madison Limestone 7 (J) I:: II> o 0 II> Z Z W Cl.. 0- " ? -Lewis Shale Mesaverde Formation Cody Shale z Fox Hills Sandstone Lance Formation s Cl.. Cl.. u Pierre Shale (J) (J) (J) (J) II> ~ ::::J (J) a. a. o N o W ...J 0 W ~ Frontier Formation Englewood Formation u o w a. a. ::::J w U 0::: ~ Q) 0 (J) a. a. Whitewood Bighorn Dolomite Winnipeg Dolomite Newcastle Sandstone Shale Thermopolis Shale Skull Creek C a. l<: ::J I:: 0 u > o a l'! Cloverly Formation Fall River Formation Lakota Formation o Z I:: - "~ >. "C "C a. a. Morrisan Formation m 0::: ::::J Sundance Formation Gypsum Spr Ing Formation PR ECAM- :::E BRIAN Figure 18 Powder River From Hodson, Pearl, and Druse (1974) Stratigraphic relation of geologic units in the Eastern Coal Basin and adjacent areas 1-197 Is 1 ) "- •• 3i 1""'0 - ..o Z .:> In w ~ Z ~ - - .-to I':> I~ ~ ~ ~(f)O ~~~ ~ ...:. ~ .s ~.+s: - - u 0Ol Ol Ol - ~ c. < ~ co In Ql \ 'l. m.= >( I E Ql ) i (f) ~ Cl:: Z W ::>C 0- C !L._ Cl ! I I In Ql :::!: (/) (!) C' c .c u CD C '; r: I I , l- - N >- 5:c ""'"'- / i In Ql CD I c, o +C CD In Ql ~ <: - J ....::: ..... < > ./ > .. :.-~t-. r"' l? ~ f\ 3:>\1.::1tlnSON\11 M0138 133.::1 NI'tl31\1M 01 H1d30 1-198 ( of the deposits, on quantity test holes, dissolved saturated thickness, Records well construction of representative Chemical and development, water wells, analyses and of water needed. deep oil- and springs are given in Table 16. of water show per liter character solids range from about 500 to more than 2,000 milligrams range between 1,000 and 1,500 mg/l. of the alluvium (mg/l), but commonly The chemical of the water is dependent valley. wells, upon the matrix analyses of the particular water Table 17 lists chemical test holes, and springs areas. Recharge of water from representative in the Eastern Powder River Coal Basin and adjacent is from local precipitation, or Cretaceous but also includes age into which some water discharged is incised. and, where discharge underflow. piration from rocks of Tertiary Discharge the stream valley of wells, is by evaporation and transpiration, by pumping the stream bed is sufficiently into the stream channel. lower than the water table, by Movement of ground water is down valley as Where water is discharged along the stream channel as evapotrans- or as streamflow, Arikaree some water also moves toward the stream channel. The Arikaree Formation occurs in the extreme Formation. southern and southeastern parts of the Eastern Powder River Coal Basin southThe Arikaree consists mostly The thickness of fine-grained ward from the vicinity sandstone of Douglas. and beds of hard, limey conglomerate. eastward is as much as 700 feet south of Douglas but decreases County line. topography possible to about 300 feet near the Converse Depth to water is about 50 to 100 feet but will vary with the Yields of several hundred gallons per minute are solids are of the land surface. constructed to properly and developed wells. Dissolved mostly about 300 mg/l. 1-199 _ooooo_~~~'ro~oo~oooom~I~' ~~~~~~~~W~'~~~~~~~~~I~' " I I , , '" '" ~~~~~~~-OO~'DN~~-mOOo'-' __ :"'V\=~===>.D=:~:OO~N~~~: '" - I , __ -1-' " I I , I , { ,~, , "" ' •.....•..... mmmmm<,nCf\ '>.O>.OV\V\U"\U'"\V\>.OU'\I'-C , , "" '" C' I I 0 '" I ,_ I , , '" I "' •.....•..... 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OOLJ'l_\DlfIlr\,.., •.•...• NN"" •.•...• ""_NN..:t _ ::t Q) '-<'Ill.. 0 > CiJ ~ ~~~~~ C/) o Z c:t ...J 78 80 ,-. .AI / f"'h ~ V V v ~ VV' ~ ....• ~ 82 84 1962 1964 1966 " ~!" l , '-A / v.., "..I I-... 1972 o ...J LU V A 1968 1970 CD 40 42 44 46 Z 48 28 30 32 34 0 I36 38 40 72 Well in SEI/4 of NE '/4 of Sec.36, T.50N.,R.68W. Depth 305 feet Lance Formation Well in SW '14 of SW 1'4 of Sec. 22, T.44 N., R.72 W. Depth 189 feet Wasatch Formation ILU LU u, 1\ . a:: LU V If <, / - "V r\ ,- """'\" h .-J ...•.•. Ic:t ..•..•.. r-. "~ ,J'" V ~ :I: l- e, LU 0 74 76 78 80 82 1962 1964 Well in NE 1/4 of NE 1/4 of Sec.15, TAO N., R.78 W. Depth 317 feet Fox Hills Sandstone /'.. ""I <, f'I II"" .., \". "- <, ~ r-. y.... 1970 r r--... ./ l/ 1972 1966 1968 TIME IN YEARS Figure 20 Water-level changes in the Wasatch and Lance Formations, and the Fox Hills Sandstone in the Eastern Powder River Coal Basin. 1-212 from downward movement of water from the overlying rocks. Movement of water in the Lance is mostly northward. Dissolved solids of water from wells in the Lance range from about 500 and 1,500 mg/l. in the Lance from a 500 to more than 2,000 mg/1, but commonly No dominant is not known drill-stem water type is prevalent. range between The quality of the water in the deeper parts of the basin, but a water analysis test in sec. 32, T49N, R75W in the Lance at a depth of about 5,300 content of 2,630 mg/l. consists predominantly of fine- feet showed a dissolved-solids Fox Hills Sandstone. to medium-grained northern basinward basin. Depth to water Campbell sandstone. This formation The thickness ranges from about 150 feet in Dips are gently at the south end of the County to about 500 feet near Douglas. on the east side of the basin but dip steeply increases basinward from only a few feet or tens of to water in deeper feet in the outcrop area to about 200 feet near Rozet. Depth parts of the basin is not known. field waterflood. Dissolved Wells near Rozet yield about 200 gpm for oilfrom wells in the Fox Hills in the solids of water eastern part of the coal basin range from about 500 to more than 1,500 mg/l but are mostly less than 1,000 mg/l. Water from a drill-stem test in the western part of the coal basin in sec. 32, T49N, R75W in the Fox Hills at a depth of about 6,000 feet had a dissolved-solids Recharge rocks. Movement is from downward content of 3,200 mg/l. of water from the overlying other than water percolation of water is northward. Discharge points, wells, are not known. 1-213 Deep aquifers Inyan Kara Group. and Lakota Formations in the western The Inyan Kara Group is composed of the Fall River of the Cloverly Formation and is the lateral equivalent and southern parts of the Powder River Basin. consists of fine~ to medium-grained The thickness sand- The Fall River Formation stone with i.nterbedded shale and siltstone. 150 feet. and shale. The Lakota Formation Individual consists ranges from 120 to sandstone of sandstone, conglomeratic beds are lenticular with rapid changes in composition ranges between 100 and 300 feet. both laterally and vertically. Cloverly The thickness Formation, The lateral equivalent, the thickness consists of similar rocks, however, is only about 150 feet. showing depth to water level in some of the deep aquifers Hydrographs are shown in Figure 21. Yields of most water wells tapping the Inyan Kara Group, and equivalent Cloverly are possible Formation, range from 5 to 20 gpm, but yields of 100 gpm or more section of rocks. Several hundred gallons per from the complete minute are possible T33N, R72W, Natrona at about 250 gpm. from zones of secondary County, permeability. A well in sec. 24, and is pumped flows about 40 gpm from the Cloverly A well in sec. 1, T56N, R62W, Crook County, flows 70gpm from flow of more than the Lakota, and a well in sec. 22, T54N, R67W, had a reported 150 gpm from both the Lakota and Fall River. Niobrara Dissolved County, A well in sec. 35, T35N, R65W, flowed 140 gpm from the Lakota and Fall River when drilled. range between 300 and 3,000 mg/l; most water is solids generally type. sodium sulfate Sundance interbedded 400 feet. Formation. This formation fine-grained consists of greenish-grey The thickness shale is about with yellowish-grey, The formation sandstone. is divided into five members in the Black Hills, which 1-214 76 78 80 Well in NW '/4 of SE '14 of Sec.9, T.46N., R.63W. Depth 670 feet Lakota Formotion / \. .. /: lJ 1\ 82 84 \ Well in NE'I4 of NW '14 of Sec.18, T.53N., R.65 W. Depth 468 feet Minnekahta Limestone A , J \ IV W 86 <..l 12 16 18 /' -: V- "'- en o z / V 20 22 r- J « ....J :!= o ....J W 24 26 r-. »< V V .J --. <, r: f-.I / /"vI r--' 28 4 IW W IJ.. 6 8 Well in NW '/4 of NW '/4 of Sec.18, T.53N.,R.65W. Depth 1341 feet Pahasapa Limestone A V / Z 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 Well in NE '14 of NW '/4 of Sec. 29, T. 46 N., R.61W. Depth 2345 feet Pahasapa Limestone r- I-- / . a: w I \ \ o \ \ z \ '\ \J 0 \ "'\ \ A \ \ \ \ -\ 0.10 \ , V 0.01 10 20 30 10 20 June 1970 July 1970 Fig.23 Flow recession of the Belle Fourche River below Moorcroft 1-220 t Wyomino 8 o ~ w 0=: ::> C/) 10 0 z « ....J ;t 0 ....J W CD IUJ ~ ,,-WELL IN SEC.35, T.58 N., R.87 W. 12 14 Z fl: ~ ~ •• 16 1.&.1 0 lI I- 18 WELL IN SEC.24,T.58N.,R.85W. a. IJ.J 0 " .> 1961 20 1960 Figure 24 Hydrographs of two wells that penetrate the alluvium. 1-221 incised in the Fort Union Formation, water-level changes. Tertiary Formation, Sandstone shows essentially the same pattern of and Upper Cretaceous Rocks. Recharge to the Wasatch and Fox Hills and the underlying Fort Union and Lance Formations, of precipitation where is from the infiltration Recharge on the land surface from runoff. to the formations aquifers. the aquifers are deeply buried recharge from in is by accretion accretion from overlying Evidence supporting is (1) the existence in interstream of higher heads in shallow aquifers than heads deeper aquifers areas and (2) head of the water is higher than the outcrop in deeper aquifers in the central part of the basin the basin. Figure water on the east side of 25 shows the potentiometric penetrating the Tullock surface Member obtained by contouring of the Fort Union Formation, is levels in wells the Lance Formation, northward map. and major and the Fox Hills drainages however, Sandstone. The general gradient appear as discharge areas on the potentiometric directly from these deeply and water saturated The streams, are not gaining water the vertical gradient buried aquifers, but rather has been reversed moves upward along major deposits drainages because of the absence areas. of overlying such as are present in the interstream Figure 26 shows ground-water movement of ground water levels and direction of horizontal in shallow aquifers. shallow wells. the contours This map was drawn using All of the wells do not penetrate water-level data in relatively and, hence, the same aquifer surface. do not represent a potentiometric if the contours The actual gradient would not be as steep as inferred surface because were of a single potentiometric no base flow. The discharge the streams have essentially River near Moorcroft was less of the Belle Fourche than 0.01 cubic foot per second for 45 percent 1-222 of the time during the period of R.75W. R.74W. R.73W. T.58N. T.57N. T.5GN. T.55N. 3800 3806 ~I w, ~I u, T.54N. 3874 T.53N. 3900 3900 T.52N. 4000 T.5IN. 4082 T.50N. <:8 Gillette T.49N. TA7 N. 4400 TAG N. -3600 Control Number point where w~ter level ,is above land surface. shows approximate attitude of land surface. -4100--water-level water contourshows altitudeto which Datum is meon sea level. will rise in wells. 4464 ° 0 4461 TA5 N. 04466 4500 5 , MILES IN f TA4 N. Figure 25 Generalized map of water levels in wells completed in the Fox Hills Sandstone, Lance Formation, and lower Fort Union Formation in the Gillette area . 1-223 EX PLANATION '~tSo -' 3900 3950 4000 ~ .. --..A/ ...••...•••• Perennial Principal _ ..-------~ Source: •• stream ephemeral stream of the horizontal '''-- ... _" Arrows indicate the generalized direction component of ground water movement . 405o_",- Contours of ground water levels at 50 ft. intervals i dashed where approximately located Datum is mean sea level. Modified from King (1974) .... ----1000, -, / <;: I --- / ~/ J r::, I ~_ I I V '1~ -_-_-I i / ~ I I I ! ! i I \ \ I \ \1 I I CONVERSE I I \ I ::'000 \J --/~--- ~--- I I -~-I PLATTE \ i---L-o L-- I '0 , 20 , '0 , 40 , 50 MIles , Hydrology by W. G Hodson, J974 Figure Preliminary Limestone and equivalent mop showing rocks in the Powder 29 solids River in water in the Madison areas. Basin and adjacent dissolved 1-228 of the basin west of the Black Hills. area, however, are only about 300 mg/l. movement Dissolved solids in the Newcastle-Osage The regional toward the Williston of water in the Madison is north northeastward In the area south of the around the Black Hills. are not known, but rocks Basin in Montana and North Dakota. eastward Black Hills uplift, water movement Discharge considerable is diverted areas, other than from water wells, from the Madison is believed leakage discharge to be into overlying the Madison where permeable rocks receptive states. to upward overlie in Wyoming and in the adjoining from the Madison Sandstone, dissolved water In areas where chemical analyses are available and from the overlying from the Madison Minnelusa Formation, or Tensleep less at nearly rocks. all locations contains solids than the overlying Ground-water Use and most widespread An estimated and domestic of which use of ground water is for live- The predominant stock and domestic water purposes. 2,000 acre-feet per year of ground and Converse 60 percent of is used for livestock 90 to 95 percent purposes in Campbell An estimated Counties, this water Formation, alluvium. is consumed. is from the Wasatch and 10 percent Formation, 30 percent from the Fort Union Fox Hills Sandstone and from the Lance Formation, Very little ground water from alluvium mineralized troublesome. along the Cheyenne is used for irrigation Water and most of this is is too River Valley. in the Wasatch for most irrigation, and sodium in Wasatch water would be especially 1-229 The City of Gillette water during the 1973 calendar Wasatch, Hills. Wyodak Resources 45 percent used approximately 1,000 acre-feet of ground year, about 50 percent of which was from the from the Lance and Fox from the Fort Union and 5 percent Development Corp. used an estimated 180 acrewells were feet of ground water developed anticipated from the Fort Union during 1973. Sandstone Additional in the Fox Hills expansion. Estimated during the summer of 1973 to supply amount of ground water used for waterflood recovery (exclusive of oil- produced water) feet in Campbell waterflood in secondary of oil fields in 1973 was 8,500 acrein Converse County. mostly Water for County and 3,500 acre-feet Campbell in northeastern County is obtained from the Inyan and western part Kara rocks and the Minnelusa of Campbell Formation, obtained County, the water Formation. is mostly In the southeastern from the Fort Union Formation, for waterflood in Converse Lance County is and Fox Hills chiefly Sandstone. Water from the Minnelusa Formation and the Madison Limestone. Surface water Streamflow characteristics Streams outside discussion Wyoming the coal development area are included in this as it is evident that the water resources of all of northeastern could be affected Northeastern by the proposed developments. River Basin. Drainage Wyoming is part of the Missouri of the Yellowstone Several River, is principally by tributaries the Little Missouri of the North River, and the Cheyenne River system. small tributaries Figure Platte River drain the southern streams and drainage pattern part of the area. 30 shows the major streams of the area. Table 18 lists the major 1-230 Table 18 Hajor Streams of Northeastern Wyoming by Tributary Rank and Downstream Order HISSOURI RIVER BASIN YELLOWSTONE RIVER BASIN Tongue River Goose Creek Powder River North Fork Middle Fork South Fork Salt Creek Pumpkin Creek Crazy Woman Creek Wild Horse Creek Clear Creek Little Powder River LITTLE MISSOURI RIVER BASIN Little Missouri River CHEYENNE RIVER BASIN Cheyenne River Dry Fork Thunder Creek Lodgepole Creek Lance Creek Lightning Creek Beaver Creek Belle Fourche River Caballo Creek Buffalo Creek Donkey Creek Redwater Creek PLATTE RIVER BASIN North Platte River 1-231 by tributaj~y rank in upstream in the coal development Drainage which the smaller control. to downstream order. Tributaries that originate area are underlined in the table. of a dendritic direction nature, or in patterns tributaries of the area are mainly show no predominant orientation The courses of the smaller tributaries in rock and soil resistance. have developed as a result of minor inequalities the development Wind erosion has affected of some tributaries in the plains area. Stream types. plains area between nating The Eastern Powder River Coal Basin is located in the and the Black Hills. Streams origi- the Bighorn Mountains in these plains are mainly or rainfall. ephemeral, flowing only as a result of direct runoff from snowmelt Some main channel reaches of the Little River drainages are intermittent, aquifers with low with Powder, Little Missouri flows occurring and Cheyenne as a result of discharge from alluvial associated the streams. Streams originating per8nnial, with sustained in the Bighorn }1ountains and Black Hills are mainly from ground-water inflow. The base flows occurring major portion of their runoff occurs as a result of snowmelt. Some major streams, plains areas. perennial The resulting such as the Powder River, drain both mountain streamflows are therefore a combination of and and ephemeral Data available. types. Streamflows of the area have been monitored Survey in cooperation Department by various with the types of gauges operated Office of the Wyoming Planning by the u.S. Geological State Engineer, the Wyoming of Economic and Development, and others. the Wyoming Highway Department, The locations the u.S. Bureau of Reclamation Figure 30. and types of the gauges are shown on 1-232 U> c: ~ ~ "0 c '" :~ c 0 2 U> 0 t'" 0 '" r'" co '" " 0 '" c. c ~ go 'c E .~ 0 - 0 0 ! " ; ; -e .~ ~ '" "i! g. '" '" '" '" ~ '" Z ~ ~ ! ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ '" '" ~ Z ~ ~ '" '" 1j L- co U> ~ "S !~ ,2 '0 c ,'2 E u :;: '" 0 '0 '0 0 0 .~~ u.. ::> ,- eu 0. o E 0 "go ';;' '0 '2 e U> 11 •.. 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" . ] 0 ~ - g p u '-' 0'1 0 N ~ ~ k ~~ r-l 1< N . 00 ;1 ~ ~ u · · I=l ~. (j) r-l .o (1j a ] H :1l~~~ ~ ••• 'U.s:::1H 1 ~ ~~~~~ IH ~i~ ~ ~ ~ 1,I Ii • ~ ~ ."I ~ ~ ~ g .e l:: ~.:: e f;; '" D. ~ • .~~ ~. :e · ~ ·r~ .'" k .~ ~ M U ~ • b ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ g N ~ t; ~ 00 M .>< !~ . ; ~ ~ ~ ~ ~! El ~l , , , , 1 .. ili i~ *~ • 0 u ~! ~t t ~ E i ~~ Ee ~~ ~ :g lJu " ~~ ~~ E .jl gi ~: . l':5 g 1t ~H ., -a.8~ :~~ ~;; " k g~~ .s s .,00 t: 'i' ~~.:i .~~ s 0 N ~~§ s~ ~ .,'" .,'" ~~ ~ ii u~ii 1-238 1000 1000 06311000 North Fork Powder River near Hazelton. Drainage area 24.5 sq. mi. = /'\ \ /00 /00 o--e __ __ • __ o Maximum 0-_. __ e / /0 /0 -EI 1 1 .-"Cl Z II iii 06430500 Redwater Creek at WyomingSouth Dakota State line. Drainage area = 471 sq. mi. o w U) o 0:: W aIW W 0./ Oct. Nov. Dec. Jon. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. 0./ Oct. u, o CD 1000 ::> <..> z W \ \ \ t9 0:: <..> Cl « \ \ /00 :r: U) /0 06426500 Drainage Belle Fourche River below Moorcroft. area 1,670 sq. mi. = /f'-_...,f / / I / 0./ Minimum Figure 31 -- Monthly hydrographs of selected streams. 1-239 06315500 90 120 110 100 70 90 60 Average 80 Middle area Fork Crazy Woman Creek near Greub. 06297000 Drainage Average South area yield (679 Tongue River sq. mi. near Deyton. Ornincqe = 82.7 sq. mi. per sq. mi. per year per sq. mi.) yield = 0.270 cfs (195 acre - feet = 85.0 = 0.927 cfs per sq. mi. acre - feet per ear per 50 40 30 20 10 o ~ 063i1000 Drainage Average sq. rnl.) Norlh area Fork Powder SQ. 06299500 DrainoQe Average Wolf Creek 01 Waif, sq. mi. River mi. near Hazleton. area = 37.8 = 24.5 yield 0.775 cis per sq. mi. (561 acre - feet per year per = yield = 0.588 cfs (426 acre - feet per sq. mi. per year per sq. mi.) 50 60 40 IlIJ lIJ LL30 I lIJ a: U 20 :r: I- 0 iii 210 ::> 020 ~140 ~ W C) ll: 180 •• 190 W < :r: 0 110 a:: C) 130 < :r: en 0170 &l,20 ° 160 150 140 100 130 90 120 110 100 70 90 60 80 70 60 40 50 30 40 30 20 10 10 0 0 80 50 _..!!:Q.2..e_ 20 :;~ ~ro "' "' !':' g !':' WATER Figure "' 3: en w (!) a::ci <{w :co uw (J)w "'C -u (f) Ox Q) WW ~a:: i=0 I..L W 0 Q) Q) (f) L.. e - 0 E 0 ° .•.. (!) i=! W u z 0 .•.. W CL 3l: a:: ·0 ~ ONO::>3S ~3d 133.::1 oisno NI' 3~~'VH::>SIO .•.. 0 (f) Q) "0 > L.. a: e-, ••• > U ~ -'" ••• e Cl W -l <{ 0 :::J ••• co c .>< ~.Q 0" 0 IL ••• IL' " '••• " c 0::: 0 G- u ~ ~ c:: N -0 ••• -"0 " ~-'" uo 0 ••• 0 ~ "0 .•. ::> - 0 W (J) <{ += 3: W 0 0 c:: 'o~ e I'(!) ___ :::J 0 (f) Q) (/)00 0 E L: I- 0 I "5c ~ N c: _ ;Z •... - 0 ~ • -0 0>0"0'- ::: _l!> .•. ~ o,~ oE LOO L.. 00 ~~ ~.•. ON 0 •••0'" =c:: r<>3: 3S ~3d 133.::1 oisno 1-243 Nil 3~~'VH::>SIO 0' (f.) 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The main use of surface waters in the rest of northeastern and livestock Mountains water. where Wyoming Most of is for agricultural the irrigation purposes, occurs along including irrigation the base of the Bighorn for a winter numerous ranch operations and variable production. rely on hay production feed base. The limited crop precipitation Table 22 lists of the area requires the irrigated irrigation for dependable system. acres of each stream Extensive drainage. River irrigation is also being done in the North Platte are irrigated River Over 500,000 acres of land in Wyoming in the Platte system. Most of this irrigation major is downstream from Casper. Another purposes, activities use of surface waters boating, of the area is for recreation Most of these water-related along the including fishing, and hunting. Mountains, take place River, in the Bighorn the Black Hills, North Platte and on Keyhole Reservoir. Dayton, supply Ranchester, systems using Sheridan, surface Casper, waters. The municipalities Glendo, and Douglas presently of Buffalo, have water 1-253 Table 22 Tab1u1ation of Irrigated Acres in Northeastern VJyoming)~ Stream Tongue River Clear Creek Crazy Woman Creek Powder River Little Powder River Little Hissouri River Belle Fourche River Cheyenne River Total Total Acres Irrigated 64,320 35,320 12,090 18,900 3,230 7,760 6,540 12,425 160,585 Idle 6,175 5,350 1,880 2,705 990 2,380 1,945 2,4}1. 23,860 Average Acres Irrigated 58,l!t5 29,970 10,210 16,195 2,240 5,380 Lf, 595 9,990 136,725 *Wyoming vJater Planning Program, vlater and Related Land Uses of Northeastern Wyomi~ VJvoming Water Planning Program Report No. 10, (April 1972). 1-254 Industrial companies are presently using relatively minor quantities supplies. of surface water as most of their needs are being Inet by ground-water A number of reservoirs have been constructed to provide a more dependable water supply for the above uses. principal reservoirs in northeastern Wyoming. Table 23 is a listing of the Reservoirs of the North Platte regulated River are not listed; however, by large reservoirs the North Platte is almost completely on its main stem. Ground water and surface water relationship The streams heading in the nonmountain parts of the Powder River Basin of the Belle Fourche are ephemeral at most of their reaches. River near Moorcroft The discharge was l~ss than 0.01 (cfs) 45 percent of the time for the for all practical purposes, no ground water pickup period of record indicating, by the river. However, the elevation to which water in the shallow wells will the streams cannot lose water Head relations show the rise is higher than stream level and, therefore, to the underlying aquifers during periods of flow. streams must be eaining in the lower reaches but the amount of pickup is too small to appear as significant stream discharge. Water supplies and potential Ground water development Ground water is the principal throughout the area. source of domestic and livestock supplies The City of Gillette is supplied by ground water, some of which is treated at a desalting plant because of the high mineralization of the water. Very little ground water is used for irrigation, most of which is for is for lawns and gardens. waterflooding The largest use of ground water at present recovery of oil in oil fields. in the secondary 1-255 Table 23 Prir:.cipa1 Reservoirs in Northeastern Wyoming (Reservoirs of over 1,000 acre-foot capacity) Capacity Acre-feet 1,345 11,200 4,960 1,525 2,720 1,318 4,345 2,900 6,131 190,000 239,243 2,708 1,810 1,250 2,160 1,556 1,180 1,194 4,457 Use* I,S Water Source Reservoir Betty Big Goose Park Big Horn Clark and Metzger Cloud Peak Dome Lake Dull Knife Gillette Kearney Lake Keyhole Lake DeSmet Lower Salt M.W. Robbers Roost Spencer Stone 1!2 Twin Lakes IJ1 Wallows Creek Wi II0,," Park South Fork Cheyenne River; Beaver Creek East Fork Big Goose Creek I,D,S,P,Hun Cross Creek I Alum Creek I,D South Fork of South Piney I Creek West Fork Big Goose Creek I,S,D North Fork of Powder River I Stonepi1e Creek RR,Hun North Fork of South Piney I,S,D Creek P,Mun,I,S,Ind,FC Belle Fourche River Piney Creek I,D,S Salt Creek n.ori Stockade Beaver Creek I Robbers Roost Creek I,S Stockade Beaver Creek I Bonepi1e Creek I,D West Fork Big Goose Creek Mun Buffalo Wallows Creek I,S South Fork South Piney I,S,D,Fish Creek * Includes uses listed on permits: I = Irrigation; D = Domestic; S = Stock; P = Power; Mun = Municipal; RR = Railroad; Ind = Industrial; FC = Flood Control; Oil - Oil Production; Fish = Fishery. Wyoming Water Planning Program, Water and Related Land Uses in Northeastern Wyoming, Wyoming Water Planning Report No. 10, (April 1972). Source: 1-256 Much of the ground water available Tertiary sandstone Gillette and Upper Cretaceous formations formations. age. to wells is in the near-surface from at Lesser amounts are available of Mesozoic Depth to the Fox Hills Sandstone is about 3,500 feet and to the 1nyan Kara rocks about 8,500 feet. lies at a depth of about 11,000 feet at Gillette for municipal or industrial and might The Madison Limestone yield quantities of water use if the well penetrated zones of secondary Gillette surface. Limestone permeability. The water level in a well drilled near 700 to 800 feet of the land The Madison to the Madison would Dissolved yields rise to within solids in the water would be about 2,000 mg/l. large supplies of water to wells at depths of 3,000 to 5,000 feet at distances Bighorn Mountains of the Madison not known. of 30 to 40 miles from the outcrop along the front of the and in the Black Hills area. County and northern The water yielding Converse capacity is in Campbell County, however, A considerable formations Wasatch million assuming of Tertiary amount of water age. Assuming is available in the near-surface of the water in the 18 that one percent and Fort Union Formations acre-feet is available for pumping, in Campbell an estimated of water would be available County. Similarly, that one percent of the water in the Lance Formation acre-feet would be availNumerous of able for pumping, livestock 10 million of water would be available. and domestic wells produce water from these aquifers; withdrawals use would be in competition with existing wells ground water for industrial according to the extent and amount that water in the aquifers was pumped. Surface water The coal development within its boundary. area has very limited surface water supplies and most logical sources of additional The nearest 1-257 supplies are from streams draining the Bighorn Mountains and Black Hills, and from the Platte River system. Studies and suggestions have also been made of The potential supplies importing water from areas outside northeastern of northeastern this discussion. In determining Wyoming, Wyoming. and of these other areas, are therefore included in the water supplies of northeastern Wyoming, consider- ation must be given to several factors, including availability and dependability compacts. availability. The natural of streamflows, the actual physical state and federal water rights, and interstate Physical northeastern activities streamflow which originates in Wyoming is determined by adding flow depletions These depletions and consumptive caused by man's to the gauged streamflows. and stock-pond include those caused uses of irrigation, by reservoir industry, evaporation, Estimates and municipalities. of the amounts of these depletions, Wyoming are shown in Table 24. that surface waters The supervision and the estimated water yield for northeastern Water rights. within the boundaries and distribution The Wyoming Constitution declares of the state are property for beneficial of the state. of these waters uses is under control of the Wyoming water laws Office of the State Engineer establish and the Board of Control. the priority of adjudicated A tabulation water rights on the basis of "first in , of the irrigation water rights in These rights date from the 1870's, dating before 1900 have time is first in right." northeastern Wyoming is shown in Table 25. and during most years only those rights with a priority a dependable water supply during late summer months. Irrigation water rights provide for one cubic foot per second of water for each 70 acres of irrigated land during the irrigation season. 1-258 00 .,-j "t:l I r-I,.c I]) l:: 13 0 >. .w ~ <"'\ -ot lI"\ >< ell ~ .... I]) -.-I l.< 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 r-I r-, r-, lI"\ 0 0 0 0 N •.. <"'\ -ot l.< I]) 0 l:: l:: l.< ~ 0\ I]) 13 .w 0 til l.< ell 00 0\ r-I CO N 0 <"'\ ~ <"'\ ,...;~ r-I ell 0 E-< CO 0\ •.. <"'\ N r-I N l.<.,-j -.-I ••• 0 ell l.< l.< 0 l:: 0 0 0 CO 0 0 r-I 0 0 r-... >< r-; -ot <"'\ ~ ~ r-I ~ ~ r-I ell l.< ;:I .w til ell ~ 13 til ell •.. I]) l.< ell •.. l.< til 4-l I]) ~~ r-I ell .,-j l.< .w til ;:I 0 0 0 ~ r-I r-I r-I 0 ~ I]) :> 0 til I:l r-, 0 r-, 0 .,-j .w I]) 0 0 0 0 0 -e ~ -ot 0 0 Z "t:l l:: til 00.w tIl.,-j ,-.. I:l '.-1 .w~l.< r-I I=l< I]) '8 H r-I til U~ I=l. r-I ..0 til I]) .w ell -.-I .w til r-I l:: I=l: l.< 00 O.,-j I:l 0 0 N 13 l:: 13 0 ~ N N r-I ~ ;:;::0 ;:I -ot 0 0 0 0 r-I 0 0 r-I 0 0 0 0 0 ~ E-< ~ -o ~ ~Z ~ til r-I 0 ~ ~ til 0 0 lI"\ '"'" '.-1 .w til 0 0 r-I .,-j l.< l.< H I:l 0 r-, r-... ~ ~ ~ 0 0 r-I r-I 0 0 CO 0 0 lI"\ r-I -ot ~ 0 0 0 I]) r-I ~ lI"\ .w "" til r-I r-I til ;:I ~ I:l l.< '.-1 I]) 00 .w l:: ell til '.-1 til 13 bOl:: 0 0 :> r-, N 0 ~~ <"'\ <"'\ N N 0 0 -e 0 0 r-I ~ <"'\ -ot 0 0 I]) ~ 0 ...:l I]) r-I ..c ~.w::>: l.< r-, >. 0 CO ~ -ot ~ 0 0 0 0 I]) r-...~ 0\ r-... .,-j l.< ;:I 0\ 00 til l.< I]) ~ l.< l.< I]) o ~Z l.< '.-1 :> til ~ 13 I]) '.-1 :> I]) I]) 0 ..c til til .,-j I]) ~ l.< .w til ;:;:: l.< I]) U l.< ;:I l.< I]) .,-j :> l.< OJ OJ r-I '.-1 r-I~ I]) ~ ~ l:: 0 E-< ;:I 00 I]) 0 "t:l r-I .w '.-1 .w~ .,-j I]) :> Po< :> § >. OJ ~ ...:l I]) ..c I"l I]) r-I til .w U 0 E-< 1-259 Table 25 Tabulation of Adjudicated Acres and Permits in Good Standing in Northeastern Wyoming from State Engineer's Records Stream (1) Adjudic"I.' Good Stand:Lno; (2) (3) (2j '1'" t.:c:.,i ·s (;) (4) 94,132.22 82,933.07 36,170.06 39,274.54 7,932.34 166,310.01 4,143.59 30,701. 50 49,870.11 345,157.43 Tongue River Clear Creek Crazy Woman Creek Powder River Little Powder River Total Powder River Basin Little Missouri River 92,Q36.35 80,598.41 35,788.02 37,296.40 6,535.57 160,218.40 3,377.38 25,232.46 41,909.98 Wyoming 1,695.87 2,334.66 382.04 1,978.14 1,396.77 6,091.61 766.21 5,469.04 7,960.13 21,982.86 Belle Fourche River Cheyenne River Total northeastern 323,174.57 1-260 In addition to water rights for irrigation, domestic, livestock, there are rights for and fish and other uses such as municipal, wildlife of water. quantities purposes. industrial, These rights presently involve relatively minor quantities There are also water rights for storage which involves considerable of water. The United States Government claims water rights for federal national parks, and reservations, including national Although forests and grasslands, Indian reservations. federal reservations have not significantly for a conflict does exist affected other water users to date, the potential between state and federal water rights. Interstate Wyoming and bordering compacts. The division of available streamflows between states has been agreed upon for the Yellowstone No agreements presently exist for the Little and the Belle Fourche Rivers. Missouri or the Cheyenne Rivers. The Yellowstone River Compact provides for division of the streamflow and North Dakota. State of the Yellowstone River between Wyoming, Montana, water rights existing as of January 1, 1950, are recognized, allocated sufficient water to provide supplemental supplies and each state is to all rights water of the existing as of that date. streams is allocated Stream Clarks Bighorn Tongue Powder The remaining unused and unappropriated as is shown below. Wyoming 60% 80% 40% 42% Montana 40% Fork of the Yellowstone River River (Excluding the Little Bighorn) River River (Including the Little Powder) An important provision 20% 60% 58% River Compact provides the that of the Yellowstone "no water shall be diverted from the Yellowstone River Basin without 1-261 unanimous sidered consent of all the signatory states." This provision must be con- in the event of proposed transbasin diversion. and Waters of the Belle Fourche River are divided between Wyoming South Dakota on the basis of the Belle Fourche River Compact. riated as of February South Dakota. Interstate compacts also exist for other streams leaving Because 1944 are allocated 10 percent to Wyoming Waters unappropand 90 percent to the state, such as the Green River and the Snake River. from areas outside of northeastern the scope of this report. Development Wyoming, these rivers originate are beyond their compact agreements of unused and unappropriated projects, water. Since time of the to improve and regu- earliest water development the need for storage late water supplies has prompted Although past investigations potentials, investigations of surface water developments. concerned with of reservoir sites were primarily irrigation many of these reservoir sites are now being considered water supplies exist in for industrial northeastern purposes. Unused and unappropriated Wyoming, and there are potential reservoir sites which could be reservoirs as indi- used to develop these supplies. Table 26 lists potential cated by applications to the State Engineer. that the Tongue River drainage in Wyoming has an per year. per year and It is estimated average unused and unappropriated Compact Montana agreements 60 percent water supply of 241,000 acre-feet 40 percent or 96,400 acre-feet per year. Carryover allocate Wyoming or 144,700 acre-feet storage would be necessary to develop these shares into a firm water supply. The Powder River drainage has an average unused and unappropriated water supply of about 287,300 acre-feet percent or 120,700 acre-feet per year. Wyoming's allocation is 42 per year, and Montana's 1-262 allocation is 58 percent P': ~Cf) ~Cf) "d "d til "d i=1 "d H i=1 P':P': H H H Cf) ~ p.., H ~ ~ p..,p..,p.., p..,p.., " " ~ i=J H "d"d"d i=1 i=1 Cf)Cf)'l:J HHH •• i=1 ~ ~ HH HH HHHH i=1 i=l HHHH "d "d i=1 i=1 "d"d'l:J'l:J i=1 i=1 i=J .. .. P':~~.. .. " .. ~.. ~1 H "H H ~ H H" H H HHH H p.., H U) p..,H .. .. .. 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ClJ H 0 co ,--j p..,..c H +J S p..,p..,ClJ ClJ ".-1 ClJ (J) (jJ (jJ 1:1 (jJ +J (jJ rl +J Ul UJ O'l:J '0 U,--j ,--j() p.., 0 o p..i=1 !=1rl ~ S Ul ClJ Q)'l:J ,--j bD,--j i=1 H 0 1:1 H ~ Q) 0 Ul '-1 0 U 'l:J U P=l ,--j 0 H H~ (jJ 0 'l:J ClJ i=J ".-1 H ,--j c, p..,ClJ Q) S i=1 ~ Ul '.-1 rl ,--j 1:1 p.., .-i ~ Q) Q) H H U uP':P':::r:: ~ ~-.j- ill ::: . U U U 0 ~H ill ~ P=l H ,--j rl '.-1 ...-; ''"' 1-263 ....•.. .) -~ -.-\ ~ "0 Q) H ~ I .-., W CO Ori ...c:P4 P4 :> P,:;~ "O'"d "0 ~ -.-\ 0 ~P4 P4P4 ::: ::: o 0 ::CZ ~ H .• 0 o lI") Lf) r--- CO 00\ ri 0 -:t '" N ",r---O lI") I 0'1 lI") N H Q) H l»Q) Q) Ul ~ Q) CO CO H Q) Up:j :> c, Ul ,lJ r:: o o ri Q) N P4 H ~ CO 1-264 or 166,600 acre-feet per year. Reynolds Mining Corporation allocation; developed a water supply using about 55,000 acre-feet acre-feet recently bility per year remains available of Wyoming's thus about 65,000 (Reynolds for other uses in Wyoming. to Texaco, Inc.) sold part of these interests Due to the high variato develop dam sites and of annual flows, large carry-over allocation into a dependable storage would be necessary water supply. Potential the remaining exist on the Powder River which Montana's allocations. could provide storage for both Wyoming's The Belle Fourche River Compact enables Wyoming percent of the Keyhole Reservoir capacity, users to purchase 10 or about 13,000 acre-feet; however, due to the variability reservoir of flows, a firm supply is not guaranteed. Creek, tributary of the Cheyenne A potential a site on Beaver River, could provide water supply of about 15,000 acre-feet Surface-water drainage howev~r, supplies per year. for development from the Platte River that basin; available are limited due to existing investigations and projected needs within and negotiations are being made in an attempt by comof obtaining these panies to obtain Platte River water. supplies are complicated because The possibilities of operation of the river under terms of a Potential storage United States Supreme Court Decree and by current water uses. sites on tributaries could be utilized of the North Platte River and expansion of Seminoe Reservoir supplies. to firm up the river's unused Wyoming uses. statutes and unappropriated provide Change in water use. water rights to higher, for a change of use of uses is: preferred The order of preferred 1-265 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) domestic and livestock water water for municipal purposes water for use of steam engines and general railway use, water for culinary, laundry, bathing, refrigerating uses, water for steam and hot-water heating plants and steam power plants industrial purposes irrigation, and hydropower. is made for the condemnation uses of irrigation rights for the water Provision first three preferred (except steam power plant use). users. Changes Irrigation rights may be purchased water rights by industrial of use of adjudicated of Control which can by to new uses have to be approved only if other appropriators by the Board approve it. the change will not be adversely affected Possibilities interstate available River compacts of imported water. Analyses needs of available reveal water under is and foreseeable local water that water from Wyoming's Green River, Snake River, Clarks Fork, and Bighorn River Basin. for and could be diverted of Reclamation for development of coal in the Powder agreements The Bureau several has entered into option to supply water companies to be made available River. from regulation routes of Boysen and Yellowt~il Dams on the Bighorn sidered. Three possible of diversion have been con- One possible Miles divert City, Montana, 694,000 route would be a diversion from the Yellowstone River at below the confluence of the Tongue a 173-mile would River, which would to Gillette. from the area. acre-feet per year through pipeline Another Bighorn River possible route considered be a diversion pipeline at Hardin, Montana, and a ISO-mile to the Gillette to various A diversion of 694,000 acre-feet per year would be delivered 1-266 points in ~lontana and Wyoming with 312,000 acre-feet at Gillette. pipeline from Boysen Reservoir The third route considered to Gillette carrying 135,000 was a l82-mile per year. acre-feet An alternative diversion from the Nowood considered by the Wyoming Water Planning Program is a Mount- River via a 40-mile to Gillette. tunnel through the Bighorn ains and a 77-mile Another western Wyoming. pipeline source of water It is estimated for importation that between is the Green River in southper 93,000 and 272,000 in Wyoming. acre-feet year could be used outside assumes state. Wyoming's the Green River Basin The larger figure full allocation of water will be available for use in the 1-267 Vegetation Campbell County and northern Converse County are rangeland, in the truest definition of the word. While both coniferous and deciduous woodland occur locally, the vegetation is characterized by communities of low-growing shrubs and herbaceous plants adapted to the semiarid condition of the region. Throughout its developmental history, large herbivores (grazing animals) have had an important influence on composition of the vegetation. The area was within the range of northern bison herds until the middle-to-late 19th Century, and these animals doubtless had profound effect on the vegetation. During the latter part of the 19th Century, bison were replaced by domestic livestock, and ranching has continued to the present as a major industry of the two counties. Vegetation has been held in a seral stage of succession for a long period of time by animal grazing, although conditions prior to the introduction of domestic livestock may be designated a "zootic climax." Figure 35A Big Sagebrush Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) is the shrub most characteristic of better drained uplands throughout Campbell and northern Converse Counties. The successional status (relation to ecological climax) of big sagebrush in this part of northeastern Wyoming has not been fully defined. Because the herbaceous understory of big sagebrush stands is composed of species common to the Northern 1-268 Great Plains grassland, probability is high that big sagebrush is an invader into what should be grasslands. The theory generally held for this invasion is that heavy grazing of desirable grasses by domestic livestock has resulted in changing the competitive position of sagebrush and permitted its establishment. However, since it appears the area was grazed, perhaps quite heavily, by large herds of bison prior to the introduction of domestic livestock, the over-grazing theory may be of questionable value in explaining the presence of big sagebrush. Another view is that big sagebrush should not be considered an invader but rather a natural component of a vegetation type which represents a transition from a Northern Great Plains grassland (short-grass/mid-grass prairie) environment to the sagebrush environment which is predominant at this latitude over much of the rangelands of the West. This theory is compatible with current thinking in ecology which equates abrupt changes in vegetation only with equally abrupt changes in environment. In the basic study area, a gradual decrease in elevation occurs front west to east, accompanied by an' increase in annual precipitation and presumably an increase in length of the growing season. The vegetational expression of this complex environmental gradient is a big sagebrush/shortgrass community, which represents the ecotone (transition) between two major vegetational zones-the sagebrush zone to the west and the Northern Great Plains grassland zone to the east. The composition and structure of this standard vegetative association may vary from place to place, as controlled by broad environmental transitions, by site-specific factors and by use-history, including grazing and fire. The vegetation types and subtypes occurring on the area are shown on Map 8, Appendix A, and are briefly described below: Dry meadow grassland, Type 1 On sites which occur adjacent to non-saline and non-alkaline live streams, lakes, ponds, or springs, but are not inundated, a "dry meadow" grassland~type is present. The more extreme hydrophytes are absent, and grasses such as prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata), tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia caespatesia), basin and canada wildrye (Elymus cineias and E. canadensis), slender wheatgrass (Agropyron trachycaulum), bearded wheatgrass (A. canium), western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii), inland sedge (Carex interior), and mat muhly (Muhlenbergia richardsens) will be present along with a variety of mesophytic forbs, including licorice (Glycyrrhiza spp.), aster (Aster spp.), golden pea (Thermopsis spp.), meadowrue (Thalictrum spp.), starwort (Stellaria spp.), virginsbower (Clematis spp.), and yarrow (Archillea spp.). Willows (Salix spp.) may grow immediately adjacent to the water's edge on some sites. These meadows are very productive and are often mowed for wild hay. Many of the areas which would support "dry meadow" grassland have been, or are being, used for agriculture. About 148,400 acres are included in this type. 1-269 Figure 35B Playa Playa grassland, Type lA Scattered through the level to gently sloping upland regions of southern Campbell and northern Converse Counties are numerous playas (dry lakes) of varying size. These playas are seasonally inundated with runoff water from adjacent uplands and have a deep, poorly drained, very clayey soil. A very distinctive grassland-type with western wheatgrass as the dominant species occurs on the playa sites. Subordinate species appear to be dependent on length and degree of inundation. On playas where surface water evaporates rather rapidly and the subsurface water table lowers, foxtail barley (Hordeum jubatum) is second most important grass and almost the only other plant species present. On wetter playas, slender spike rush (Eleocharis acicularis) becomes codominate with western wheatgrass. This type covers only 250 acres in the region. 1-270 Figure 35C Scoria Grassland Type Scoria grassland, Type IB A distinctive grassland-type is found on "scoria" hills and ridges that are a prominent landscape feature in Campbell and northern Converse Counties. Scoria is a reddish colored, slaglike, clinker material produced by heating and partial fusing of shale where coalbeds adjoining shale have burned. The scoria areas have a relatively rough, steep topography and sandy to gravelly loam soils with low water holding capacity. Bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum) is the most characteristic species, although blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) is often the most productive grass. Several psalrumoplyticgrasses grow in these dry, well drained areas. The most distinctive of these is little bluestem (Andropogon scoparius). Others are prairie sandreed (Calamovilfa longifolia), sand dropseed (Sporobolus cryptandrus), red threeawn (Aristida longiseta), and Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides). Needleandthread (Stipa comata), stoney hills muhly (Muhlenbergia cuspidata), hairy grama (Bouteloua hirsuta), sideoats grama (B. curtipendula), prairie junegrass (Koelaria cristata), and Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda) are minor species. Forbs include globemallow (Sphaeralcea spp.), lupine (Lupinus spp.), licorice (Glycyrrhiza spp.), and small soapweed (Yucca glauca). Scattered big sagebrush, skunkbush sumac (Rhus trilobata), shrubs and stunted Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) may be present in draws where moisture conditions are somewhat better. About 27,300 acres are included within this type. 1-271 Figure 35D Sandhills Grassland Type Sandhills grassland, Type lC In southwestern Converse County, just north of the North Platte River, is a region of sand dunes. Both active and stablized dunes are present. The vegetation on these dunes is a rather open grassland with prairie sandreed the most comspicuous grass. Needleandthread, Indian ricegrass, blue and hairy grama, sand drop seed and Sandberg bluegrass are common. Scattered sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii) may be present. Silver sagebrush (Artemisia can~may occur, and in some areas rather dense stands have developed. Small soapweed, fringed sage (Artemisia frigida) and cudweed sagewort (A. graphaloides) may be locally abundant. This type occupies 90,100 acres. Wet meadow, Type 2 A wet meadow grassland-type is present on level to nearly level, poorly-drained lands near springs, seeps, or sloughs where the land is inundated for most of the growing season. Soils on these sites have a high organic matter content. The plant community is dominated by species which can withstand long periods of submersion. In good conditions, Nebraska sedge (Carex nebraskensis), northern needlegrass (Calamagrostis koeleriodes), bluejoint reedgrass (C. canadensis), and tufted hairgrass are the most important species. Species which may increase as range condition declines but which are also present on good condition areas are inland sedge (Carex interior) and baltic rush (Juncus balticus). Forbs such as arrowgrass (Triglochin spp.), blue-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium spp.), iris (Iris spp.), horsetails (Equisetum spp.), and waterhemlock (Cicuta spp.) are also present. This type occupies 14,400 acres. 1-272 Figure 35E Big Sagebrush Type Big sagebrush, Type 4 The shrub layer of the sagebrush/grass community is composed almost exclusively of big sagebrush. The density (plants/unit area) of the big sagebrush layer varies from a few scattered plants, with a predominatly grass understory, to closely spaced or clumped shrub stands with little or no herbaceous understory. In the later instance, crowns of individual plants normally do not touch. The height of the shrub layer rarely exceeds 18-24 inches. The major understory species is blue grama which is found almost everywhere. Taller growing grasses (midgrasses) such as needleandthread and western wheatgrass are also abundant. These latter two species will vary in abundance from year to year, and it is thought this variation is, to some extent, controlled by variations in the moisture regime. Needleandthread seems better adapted to soils which tend to be sandy and may dry out rapidly, while western wheatgrass is better adapted to clayey soils which hold available water into the growing season. Secondary grasses and sedges include Sandberg bluegrass, pralrle junegrass, and threadleaf sedge (Carex filifolia). All of the above species are usually present on moderately used range but rare or absent from areas continuously subjected to heavy grazing. On such sites, blue grama will be the most abundant species. Lesser grasses include Indian ricegrass, green needlegrass (Stipa viriduala), bluebunch wheatgrass, and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Plains pricklypear (Opuntia polycantha) is widely distributed in the big sagebrush type and may be abundant on ranges in any condition. The abundance and 1-273 distribution of this species is related more to a succession of drought years rather than to excessive grazing as ungrazed ranges often support denser stands of plains pricklypear than moderately used ranges. The big sagebrush/grass vegetation-type is by far the most widespread shrub community in the area. However, other shrub communities are present. These occupy rather specific habitats. Big sagebrush may be present in some of these other shrub communities and can occur with some abundance, but other shrub species will be more characteristic. The big sagebrush type occupies 4,188,000 acres. Figure 35F Silver Sagebrush Silver sagebrush, Type 4A Type A silver sagebrush shrub community is found on level to gently sloping flood plains of streams which run water during at least part of the growing season or on land which receives additional water from overflow. Soils of these sites are deep, well drained and permeable, somewhat sandy or-loamy, and usually not extremely saline or alkaline. Silver sagebrush may form rather dense stands and grows two to three feet tall. The predominant grass is western wheatgrass. Needleandthread, Sandberg bluegrass, matmuhly, blue grama, prairie junegrass, and threadleaf sedge are present to a lesser extent, especially on areas subject to mo~erate to heavy grazing pressure. On lightly grazed areas, basin wildrye, green needlegrass, and several species of bluegrass (Poa spp.) are 1-274 present. ForbE are scarce. Occasionally, snowberry (Symphoricarpos shrubs are present. About 36,900 acres are included in this type. spp.) Figure 3SG Greasewood Type Greasewood, Type S Another shrub community is present along stream channels and on flood plains which receive additional water from overflow or runoff and where soils are moderately to strongly saline or alkaline. The shrub layer of this plant community is characterized by a moderate to heavy stand of black greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus) with some scattered rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseousus). Fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), Gardner saltbush (A. gardneri) and winterfat (Eurotia lanata) also may be present on good condition sites. The herbaceous understory is dominated by inland saltgrass (Distichilis spicata spp. stricta), squirreltail (Sitanion hystrix), and alkali bluegrass (Foa juncifolia) in grazed areas. Alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides) and Nutall alkaligrass (Fuccinellia airoides) occur where high soil moisture conditions exist well into the growing season and where grazing is light. This type includes 80,700 acres. Saltbush-greasewood, Type SA A shrub community, where Gardner saltbush and black greasewood are the shrub-layer dominates, also occurs on upland areas where the soils are moderately to strongly saline and/or alkaline. Gardner saltbush is more characteristic of these sites than black greasewood when they are in good condition. The production of vegetation on this "saline upland" is less than on the "saline lowland" described above, because no additional moisture is received from runoff. The composition of the herbaceous layer is much the same as that of the lowland 1-275 site except that species requlrlng high soil moisture, e.g., Nutall alkaligrass, are absent. About 2,260 acres of this type are found in the basin. The four shrub communities (big sagebrush, silver sagebrush, black greasewood, Gardner saltbush) form a vegetational mosaic with several grassland communities. The uncertainty of the ecological status of big sagebrush and the preponderance of herbaceous species characteristic of the Northern Great Plains grasslands in big sagebrush shrubland has been discussed. Areas of big sagebrush with low density will have the appearance of grasslands and might be classified as such. Thus, a needleandthread-blue grama grassland type could be distinguished on loamy to sandy uplands and a western wheatgrass-blue grama grassland type on clayey uplands. The separation of shrub land from grassland, in this instance, is made on the density of big sagebrush. Whether certain areas exist where big sagebrush density is limited by specific factors and which, therefore, could be considered "true grassland," remains to be determined for the Campbell-northern Converse region. An analogous problem may also be present with regard to the black greasewood shrub community, since stream channels and swales where an inlandsaltgrass-western wheatgrass grassland type occurs are also present. These are very similar to the black greasewood/inland saltgrass-western wheatgrass shrubland type, except for the complete absence of the shrub layer. Nevertheless, plant communities where grasses and sedges are dominant do occur in the area under consideration. In general, these communities have rather distinctive site attributes, most important of which are high soil moisture conditions, or shallow, stoney soils, or very sandy soils (sand dunes). Figure 35H Ponderosa Pine Forest Type 1-276 Ponderosa pine forest, Type 6 Areas where trees are dominant are present in the Campbell-northern Converse Counties area. The most widely distributed type is ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest. This vegetation type is well distributed over the badlands-scoria land region north and east of Gillette in Campbell County. It extends southward in a long, narrow band to the vicinity of Lusk where it swings west toward Douglas. A distinct area of ponderosa pine is present on the western edge of Converse County, east of Midwest. The distribution of ponderosa pine forest appears to be controlled by outcrops of sandstone, shale, and clinker. It is located primarily on the crests of these surfaces. Ponderosa pine is the principal tree species. It grows in stands which range from a closed-canopy forest to a savannh-like open woodland. The closed-canopy forest may have a secondary overstory of Rocky Mountain juniper. Shrub species in the understory of the denser forest stand include skunkbush sumac (Rhus trilobata), creeping juniper (Juniperus horizentalis), and western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis). The herbaceous layer is composed mostly of grasses. Major species are green needlegrass, Sandberg bluegrass, prairie junegrass, and stoneyhills muhly. More open stands of ponderosa pine will have silver sagebrush, green needlegrass, and sideoats grama as the major understory species. On sites with coarser soils, bluebunch wheatgrass, little bluestem, and porcupine needlegrass (Stipa spartea) may be present. There are 328,400 acres of ponderosa pine forest in the region. Broadleaf forest, Type 10 Broadleaf trees are present on some of the perennial stream floodplains (Cheyenne River, Belle Fourche River, Powder River, Little Powder River) and intermittent streams which flow eastward and northward from Campbell and northern Converse Counties. The density of the trees will range from a scattering of single trees, to a fringing row, to a riparian woodland extending several miles along the stream channel and two to three miles on either side of it. The latter type of forest is most prevalent on the eastern edge of the two counties. Plains cottonwood (Populus sargentii) is the characteristic tree for this vegetation type, although lanceleaf cottonwoods (P. acminata) may also be present. Other less common trees are sandbar willow (Salix interior), coyote willow (S. exigua), peach-leafed willow (S. amygdaloises), and boxelder (Acer negundo). The understory of the riparian forest is quite complex and diverse. Shrubs such as snowberry, wild rose (Rosa spp.) silver sagebrush, rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseousus), and silverberry (Elaeagnus argentea) may be present under the woodland canopy. Tall stands of wildrye grow in sloughs and other semi-inundated sites. Several of the more mesophyllyic species of wheatgrass, needlegrass, and bluegrass are found in the herbaceous layer along with a wide variety of forbs. The region includes about 61,700 acres of this type. 1-277 Archeological Archeological values and Paleontological Values It is impossible to say exactly how many, or where, The accompanying investigated archeological sites exist in the Powder River Basin. 26 sites which have been archeologically greater Powder River Basin. their frequency (Figure 37). of occurrence map (Figure 36) shows the and reported within Many other sites are known within fits the same pattern the area, and distribution of geographic These other sites have been reported but not investigated. of archeological sites It is important is evidently presently related to note that the distribution to present day population distribution. This is because of known sites, as shown on the map, became known when development areas created a need for these sites to be salvaged. the more populated The Ruby Site (Figure 36, #12) further bears on the reason of why archeological sites are recorded in this apparent geographic disproportion. than Many mantle of The interior of the Powder River Basin is more deeply filled with sediments the periphery as seen in the Ruby Site photographs (Figures 38 & 39). Because the overlying older sites are covered with many feet of fill. soil hides the sites from surface searches, unreported. overlying Topography is more broken, they remain undiscovered and and the surface generally more eroded, soil layers are thinner along the western and eastern edges of the occurred Powder River Basin. These factors plus the fact that early settlement of archeological near the edges should result in higher probability and reporting. Archeological illustrated discovery sites do exist in the interior Powder River Basin as Buffalo Jump (Figure 40). by the Ruby Site example and the Glenrock (1973, p. 172), State Archeologist, Dr. George Frison the area recently who is most familiar with border stated " ... a person can stand on the Wyoming-Colorado 1-278 A 24 All A 22 A 19 AIO A 12 26. AI6 6. 26 Excavated Archeological Figure 36 Sites in the Powder River Basin. 1-279 Table 27 Chronological Sequence of Dated Sites in the Study Area Period (Historic) Site Radiocarbon Date *24. 23. Late Prehistoric 22. 21. 20. 19. 18. 17. Foss Thomas Billy Creek PK Burial Medicine Creek Big Goose Piney Creek Vore Glenrock 500 B.P. 450 B.P. 200 B.P. 250 B.P. A.D. 500 16. 15. 14. 13. 12. 11. 10. 9. 8. Lee Sweem-Taylor Lissolo Cave Glendo Ruby Mavrakis-Bentzen-Roberts Powder River Powers-Yankee McKean 1500 B.P. Middle Period A.D. 2600 3220 4450 3287 300 B.P. B.P. B.P. B.P. 2,500 B.C. Altithermal 5,000 B. C. 7. 6. 5. 4. Hawken Schiffer Cave Casper Hell Gap 6440 B.P. _ 8450 9800 8600 8600 10,000 10,150 10,600 10,850 9650 7870 9350 9970 10,375 B.P. B.P. B.P. B.P. B.P. B.P. B.P. B.P. B.P. B.P. B.P. B.P. B.P. Paleo-Indian 3. 2. 1. Sister's Hill Betty Greene Agate Basin *Numbers refer to sites located on Figure 36. 1-280 •... lI'I w ...J(J) ...J...J W...J :I:o:I: ~ •... •... tn CI> o c.. o tn CI> ::J c.. o t:n CI> .c o c, e o o « 1-281 Figure 38 The Ruby Site A deeply buried Arroyo Bison Trap in the Pumpkin Buttes Area, used about 2000 years ago. Photo shows site prior to excavation. 1·-282 Figure 39 The Ruby Site Photo exposes prehistoric the butchering area. use level, about 20 feet of fill overlies erected Holes are the post molds of the palisade to guide Bison to the kill area. 1-283 Figure 40 Glenrock Buffalo Jump Above Bison were driven over cliff (at arrow) and animals butchered below. Bone profile at left shows different periods of use. Bison butchering area below. Glenrock Buffalo Jump is on the National Register of Historic Places; located near Casper, Wyoming. 1-284 and look from one buffalo forests of Canada." are shown jump, trap, or pound to another continuously to the in Illustrations in Figures of man's method of hunting and trapping the basin 41 and 42. Because of recent development activities in the Powder River Basin, archeological site surveys have been initiated in the area. George Zeimens, Assistant State Archeologist, has identified six sites on the Black Thunder lease area, two of which are being considered for salvage (Wyoming Environmental Institute Report, July 1974, Enclosure 1). Some evidence of archeological value has been sited along the Burlington Northern railroad proposed right-of-way during preliminary examinations prior to archeological survey. While surveying the Sun Oil Company lease, he uncovered many more, including a potentially high value, deeply buried, multicomponent site. Olaf Doud, Kerr-McGee scatters on the Kerr-McGee archeologist, reported archeological sites and lithic 19 sites of lease area which survey he surveyed. prepared In addition, were reported Montana Morton in the archeological report by the University and South units. for the Amax Company May (1974) mentioned to cover its Belle Ayr North seven archeological area. sites on the Carter and Carter Oil Company Oil Company lease and ten more reports in the Gillette The Kerr-McGee surveys, were not intensive probably archeological exist and more sites which were not seen or recognized "The Powder systematic mostly in these areas. largely uninvestigated Present with no real reflect River Basin remains program ever having been undertaken. sites investigations attempts to salvage endangered that were brought known periods to someone's of high plains involved attention. pre-history is well The entire spectrum of the different is to be found there but details added) of the cultural systems in the future." (Emphasis (Frison 1974b). sites exists (Frison, et al 1974) no most Though largescale a great probability formal archeological for finding surveys have been conducted, . . The writer and " ... of the activity number has been by collectors. surface collections has seen only a small of the local from east of the Bighorns, 1-285 Figure A Mammoth 41 Wyoming Hunt in Post Pleistocene 1-286 .-.. ---- ~- Buffalo 42 19 • Jump by Historic Plains 1-287 F' ure Indians doesn't mention the Powder River Basin though occasional indicates that significant paleontological salvage in the area clearly (McGrew 1974). paleontological values exist There exists great probability met with great success using extensive remains were reported for finding sites since Delson, reconnaissance methods. et al Paleontological (Keyser 1974) in by May (1974) and University of Montana their reports of archeological remains on the Carter and Amax leases. gap in the Powder River Basin's paleontological animal and There exists a very large information paleontology. plant inventory because Almost no knowledge exists. of the basin's "Fossil plants in particular the temperature A knowledge are useful to geologists at the time which they reliably indicate and precipitation that the plants were living. of the species and paleoecology could be gained from a systematic pecia1ly addition important in interpreting study of these overlying the Tertiary history strata will be esin of eastern Wyoming which resulted to an understanding and formation of the geologic processes valuable in the deposition 1973.) of these currently coal beds." (Harrison Information companies Historic on the archeological agencies surveys conducted by the applicant to the Wyoming State Advisory also have and approving Preservation have been forwarded Officer, the State Archeologist These organizations and the National and individuals Council on Historic Preservation. been asked for comments. Council are graphically The procedures illustrated for review compliance by the Advisory in Figure 44. According to information contained in the Federal Register (February 19, 1974) and all succeeding monthly supplements listing sites on the National Register of Historic Places, the following four sites have been entered in the National Register and therefore qualify for federal protection under terms of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966: Glenrock Buffalo Jump, Casper Buffalo Trap, Vore Buffalo Jump and Big Goose Creek Buffalo Jump. 1-290 FEDERAL AGENCIES MANAGING LAND RESOURCES I B COAL DEV. REQUEST I : COAL DEV. REQUEST 1 INVENTORY, EVALUATE NOMINATE SITE ON REGISTER OR IS ELIG IBLE FOR NOMINATION MEET CRITERIA NOT ON REGISTER OR ELIGIBLE H COAL DEV. REQUEST I COAL DEV. REQUEST J:;::: PROCEED UNDER ESTABLISHED PROCEDURES FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT CANNOT PROCEED BEFORE ADVISORY COUNCIL COMMENT I ADVISORY COUNCIL MAKES COMMENT ~ RECOMMENDS ACTION BE RECON SIDERED ADVISORY COUNCIL CONCURS MAKES RECOMMENDATIONS ! AGENCY TERMINATE ACTION ! AGENCY RECON SI DERS ACTION PROPOSES ACCEPTABLE CHANGES TO ACTION ! PROCEED UNDER ESTABLISHED PROCEDURES FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT PROCEED UNDER ESTABLISHED PROCEDURES FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Figure 44 Agency Procedures to be Followed for Consideration of Properties in Powder River Coal Development. 1-291 Historic Historical Historic environment events. viz: Values on the basis of a regional into four separate must be described survey of significant geographic regions, The study has been divided 1) the North Platte Valley, along the southern includes the sector of the Powder Bozeman River Basin; 2) the Powder River, which along the western along the eastern represents separately. documents Trail and Bighorns sector of the Powder River sector of the Powder River Basin, core of development. historical informa1974). Basin; 3) the Black Hills, and 4) the Inner Basin, which Historic trails are described the central More detailed (Western tion is available in supporting Interpretive Services North Platte River Valley Following the discovery of South Pass in 1812, the Platte River for transcontinental settlers headed rushing travel over for California to get rich quick Valley was opened as a major which passed and Oregon fur traders thoroughfare (1820's and 1830's), (1840's), Mormons (1849-70) (1840's), and emigrants, (1865-68). the valley, in California military and Montana From 1849 to 1890, considerable and during various periods the activity took place within valley corridor transportation historic was utilized as a link in several major lines. As a result, transcontinental band of and communication a concentrated trails and sites can be defined along the North Platte River. Locations Following is a of the sites described in this section are shown on Figure 45. sites within this region. listing of seven significant J \ 1-292 ...•. • CON~;R~L~;I~--~-L~ ::------ l • Sheridan DEC.6,1866 FIGHT SITE FETTERMAN FIGHT SITE J ASTORIAN • ROUTE _ _ FORT PH!L KEARN!, __ WAGON BOX FIGHT SUGGS I ~CAMP -1 I P.A.BETTENS T------- -- --!. I I I I 1 ' ( I I : DEVILS NATIONAL Iiiill TOWER MONUMENT I PALMERS TRADING i POST I •• 'I DONKEY 1 I I TOWN • I MOORCROFT TRAIL_MARKER_ CUSTER IB74 CAM~ ~I~ :YAN KARA MOUNTAIN ~::;~N:OMAN \ Gillette i SAWYER EXPN FIGHT SITE TEX~S BATTLE FIELD .HOE, 'I • I : :1 RANCH ! I I I TOWNSEND TRAIN FIGHT FORT Mc KINNEY K.C.RANCH·.' ~ FREUND'S CASTLE FREWEN RANCH SITE -No.1 ORT RENO IpOWDER RIVER CROSSING I I MILE STAGE STATION • CAMP JENNY Newcastle" STOCKADE) PORTUGESE HOUSES SEVENTEEN - -~-'ANT~LOPE SP~INGS ~'---i' - --- -ROBBERS ROOST • : CAMP AT SAGE CREEK\ I ST~TION I I U.S. NAVAL PETROL. RES. ft1!) TEAPOT ROCK ~ BROWN'S SPRINGS I FT. FETTERMAN "HOG RANCH" FT. FETTERMAN : • .0.... /·'·1 l ~ ~ ... • • I I I .: .: • DEER CREEK STATION BRIDGERS FERRY" _...l-- RAWHIDE BUTTES STATION I • n, I ! .·{LD --- ---- ----+- '" ~REGISTER 3 MILE RANCH 6 MILE RANCH GRATTAN MASSACRE \ Ii =1==; l, . ~FT. ., •••••• Torrington PRATT TRANSCONTINENTAL TRAILS---BOZEMAN TRAIL CHEYENNE BLACK HILLS TRAIL •• •••••• a FERRIS RANCH . =. .•..•. GOV'T FARM CLIFF LARAMIE ? <, •..••• ! •• ••••• •• STUART WINTER CA~~ 1812-1813 RED CLOUD AGENCY No. I Historic Figure 45 sites and trails. 1-293 Figure 46 Fort Laramie (Photo Courtesy-Wyoming Travel Commission) Fort Laramie National Historic Site and emigration site from 1834 to 1890, this site on the entire and A fur-trading, ranks as substantially high plains. administered historic Located military, the most important single historic three miles southwest Park Service, of the town of Fort Laramie by the National it is now one of the most extensive United States and compares favorably site developments in the western with any in the nation. 1-294 Grattan Fight Site This is the site of the first major engagement between U.S. troops 19, 1854, and under Lt. John Grattan and the Sioux Indians. marked 37 years of intermittent plains warfare. It occurred August Located some eight miles east owned and a pair of of Fort Laramie National historical markers Historic Site, it is privately are its only developments. Red Cloud Agency No.1 From 1869-1872 buildings and operations of the Red Cloud Agency marked Located near the owned, its the major point of government Nebraska contact with Oglala Sioux. line on the north bank of the Platte River and privately remain undisturbed and undeveloped. cellars and foundations 1-295 Figure 47 Oregon Trail Ruts (Photo Courtesy of Wyoming Travel Commission) Oregon Trail Ruts and Register These are important trancontinenta1 of Guernsey, have received Cliff and nicely preserved landmarks along the route of Located just south and both travel from the 1830's through the 1870's. Wyoming, both sites are owned by the State of Wyoming of interpretation and development a measure in recent years. 1-296 Deer Creek Site group This group includes from 1850-65; garrison Bissonette's Trading Post, a fur trade operation telegraph and Deer Creek Station, a stage coach, Pony Express, 1851 Bridge, operated Farm/Upper station from 1858-67; Richard's in conjunction with Bissonette's Trading Post; and the Mormon from 1949-57. Located Platte Agency/Deer and nearby, it is Mission which existed privately at Glenrock owned and has not been developed. Richard's Bridge Site group Richard's Trading Post and Bridge, which served the emigrants establishments from 1853-1865; the military of Camp Davis, Fort Clay, Camp at Platte Coal Mine which operated owned and Little or from Bridge 1855-56, Camp Payne 1858-59; and Richard's 1853-65 are all included in this group. All are State of Wyoming located just east of Casper on the south bank of the Platte River. no development or preservation has yet occurred here. Fort Caspar Site group This group includes Guinard's 1859 and operated Toll Bridge and Trading Post built in and telegraph Located station; until 1865 as a stage, Pony Express, by the military 1865-67. and Fort Caspar, garrisoned edge of Casper, National on the northwest On the are one it is owned and maintained of Historic Places, by the City of Casper. Register this property in Wyoming. and its buildings of the oldest historic site developments A number of minor sites on the transcontinental varying degrees of magnitude, A complete document. integrity, significance, trails exist in locations. and convenient listing and explanation of these may be found in the support 1-297 Powder River Basin Although the region north of the Platte River Valley has been known pased through in 1802. it was too far north of other than trappers, traders. since the first traveler established emigrant trails to attract visitors and explorers western border until 1863 when the Bozeman Trail was established of the study area. activity During along the the five years of heavy use that to the inevitable Indian and followed. military conflicts. accelerated in response After the Indian Wars. the region was settled by ranchers hostilities among themselves farmers who continued for a short period of time. Eighteen significant The current era of mineral historic development began in 1910. this portion sites have been identified within of the study area. Portuguese Houses A fur trading post established in 1834 and operated operation until 1841 on with Fort Laramie. remains the Powder River. it is a significant contemporary Located a few miles east of Kaycee and privately constitute a valuable resource which presently owned. its undisturbed is noted only by a single stone marker. Fort Reno Built on the Bozeman Trail as Fort Conner in 1865. then renamed Reno. it was garrisoned prevailing by various units from 1865-68. Located It was a central post in the Indian hostilities. on the north bank of the Powder River owned and on the National consists of protection. and several miles east of Kaycee. Register of Historic Places. it is State of Wyoming Development presently outline a single stone marker near the stockade remains. 1-298 Figure 48 Fort Phil Kearny Fort Phil Kearny Site group the highly significant Bozeman Trail military sites Fight This group includes of Fort Phil Kearny 1868. Wyoming 1866-1868, the Wagon Box Fight 1867, and the Fetterman State of All are located south and west of Story and have multiple and private ownerships. Fort Phil Kearny is on the National development Register of Historic times. Places and has received some interpretive in recent 1-299 Figure 49 Fort Fetterman Fort Fetterman Established on the Platte River near the starting point of the opera- Bozeman Trail, Fort Fetterman served as a major support base for military and particularly in 1876. Located tions in the region from 1867-78, miles northwest National of Douglas, about nine it is owned by the State of Wyoming, Places, and its two surviving and interpreted. is on the parade Register of Historic structures, field, and other remains are being preserved 1-300 Cantonment Reno (Fort McKinney #1) This served as General Crook's main field supply base in the 1876-77 campaigns and as supply base until the summer of 1878. Administered by BLM its and located on the north (left) bank of the Powder River east of Kaycee, or developed. remains have yet to be marked Figure 50 Fort McKinney 1-301 Fort McKinney (#2) in northeastern Wyoming This was the Army's main base of operations for the period 1878-1894. It served during the closing days of the Indian role in the Johnson County War. one mile west of Buffalo now Wars, and its troops played a significant State of Wyoming owned, its several buildings house the Wyoming State Soldiers' and Sailors' Home. South Bozeman Trail Site group This group includes Brown's Sage Creek, first stop out of Fort Fetterman; and site of an 1865 Indian a garrison, stage station Springs, second stop out of Fort Fetterman and Antelope fight and stage station 1878-92; and road house 1877-87. owned and few identifiable Springs, Located adjacent and near Ross road, all are privately remains have been discovered at this time. Crazy Woman Crossing A major landmark on the Bozeman Trail between Fort Reno and Fort with the Phil Kearny, it was a camping site where a number of engagements Indians occurred Brothers' 1866-68. It also became Located the site of the later Trabing southeast of Buffalo within a mile BLM trading post, 1880's. of the present county bridge over Crazy Woman Creek, it has multiple and private ownership. Seventeen-Mile Stage Station Stage Station was a Rock Creek Stage Company Station owned, its few remains are unmarked. Seventeen-mile from 1878 to 1892. Privately 1-302 Powder River Crossing This was a major crossing 1878-92, and location of Moreton on the Bozeman Trail, a stage station site "76 Ranch." Although publically owned, Frewen's its inaccessi.bility has left it unmarked and undeveloped. TA Ranch Barn At the TA Ranch in May 1892, a body of armed citizens force of cattlemen County and beseiged took the "invaders" it is privately visitors that had assembled to raid the small ranchers surrounded of Johnson and the them until federal troops arrived into protective custody. Located from Fort McKinney 12 miles south of Buffalo, Present owner tolerates owned and the barn is still in use. to suggestions of possible but is hostile development. 1-303 Figure 51 TA Ranch Suggs Suggs was an end-of-tracks into northeastern between soldiers Wyoming, town on the Burlington railroad as it came in 1892 and the scene of a very interesting conflict from nearby Camp Bettens and civilians in the town. Privately few owned and located on the right bank of the Powder River opposite Arvada, remains and no development or interpretation are to be found. 1-304 Figure 52 Hoe Ranch Ruins Hoe Ranch This was a ranch headquarters prominence when its foreman, in the open range days that came into was "dry gulched" during the from George Wellman, Located Johnson County War activities. Fort Reno and privately about three miles downstream owned, a massive stone chimney and other ruins remain. Camp P. A. Bettens Camp Bettens was a "summer camp" established the political currents prevailing after the Johnson in 1892 in response Troops to County War. from this 1-305 camp had one very interesting battle with the citizenry of Suggs that summer. Located about four miles southeast of Arvada on the east bank of the Powder River, and privately owned, few remains and no development or interpretation may be found. Teapot Rock and Naval Petroleum Reserve #3 Teapot Rock is a distinctive regional landmark and the adjacent government oil field became the focus of national attention in the early 1920's. Located south and east of Midwest, it is still government owned and administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Freund's Castle and Frewen's 76 Ranch Freund's Castle is a prominent local landmark and Frewen's 76 Ranch is a historic open range cattle operation that was well known during the 1880's. Located on the South Fork of the Powder River, about ten miles The landmark is unchanged but little off 1-25, both are privately owned. remains of the ranch buildings. LX Ranch The LX Ranch was the main headquarters for John B. Kendrick's cattle operation along the Powder River in Wyoming. Extensively developed from 1909- 1915 by the construction of native stone buildings, it remains as fine an example of a cattle baron's property as is to be found anywhere. Located on the left (north) bank of the Powder River a few miles south of the Montana line, it is still owned by the Kendri~k Family. although deteriorating gradually. All buildings remain intact 1-306 Figure 53 LX Ranch Trail End and Sheridan Inn of Senator John Kendrick completed in Trail End is the townhouse 1915. Located in Sheridan, it has been restored Historical and refurnished Society. accommodation and is owned Inn was by the Sheridan built by Buffalo for many years County Chapter, Wyoming Sheridan Bill in 1893 and was a prestige Acquired in the West it thereafter. and saved in 1964 by Mrs. N. D. Kings, has been extensively are on the National restored Register and is still operating. of Historic Places. Both of these properties 1-307 Floral ValleyjInyan Kara Mountain situated in the Floral Valley, is a prominent Inyan Kara Mountain, Indian landmark Expedition Sundance, and was visited by the Warren Expedition in 1857, Raynold's 1874. Located near and Places. 1859, and Custer's it is under multiple "Black Hills" Expedition private and u.s. Forest Service ownership Register administration. The site is enrolled in the National of Historic Cambria Cambria was a major coal mining 1892-1916. cemetery Located north of Newcastle, company town of the Burlington owned, few building railroad and and privately remains may be found and no development or interpretation has occurred. Devils Tower National Monument regional landmark and was the first National of Sundance, This is a distinctive Monument created in 1908. Located 12 miles off U.S. l4~16 northwest and is intensively it is administered by ,the National Park Service developed. The Inner Powder Riv~r Basin Although Astorians, this area was first traversed in 1811 by a party of came into the basin during it was not until the Burlington 1-308 railroad the years 1890-92 that any sustained activity event, the region was converted history can be considered to agricultural is recorded. Following this use and very little of its significance. within As a to be of state or national have been identified result, no sites of significance study area. Historic trails this region of the The study region is fringed on the south by the classic main route of westward migration, the "Oregon Trail," which in this area generally keeping follows the course of the North Platte River; however, wagons to traverse, where conditions it departed on ground easy for some miles from either side of the river (parallelling this dictated. The Oregon and Mormon Trails segment of the Oregon Trail) are currently and local participants Trails. Branching as potential being studied by federal, to the National state, additions System of Historic off from the transcontinental "Oregon Trail" in the region State Park is the "Bozeman this between present Orin Juntion and Fort Fetterman Trail." Crossing the central portion of the study region diagonally, of Dayton. trail passes on out of the state northwest Connecting with the Bozeman Trail at Fort Reno is the "Sawyer Wagon River Road," a little used route that entered the state from the Niobrara Country. The Cheyenne/Black Hills Stage Route followed to Fort Laramie. the old route from in 1876, and, the railroad at Cheyenne northward Established the route passed two stage stations southwest within the study region, the notable and south of Fort Laramie stations of Rawhide, Silver Cliff, Rat Creek, Cheyenne River, and Beaver Stockade. From 1877 to the mid-1880's, quantity. range cattle moved into Wyoming in some These cattle followed routes that depended of water and forage. Generally, from season to season on availability there appears little justification 1-309 Figure 54 Bozeman Trail for the notion of a '~exas Trail" as a well-defined region, and yet Texas herds did move north across passing has been commemorated able in the Regional According History by markers. geographic entity in this the general area and their information Services is avail- More detailed Study (Western Interpretive contained supplements 1974). (February 19, to information monthly in the Federal Register listing 1974) and all succeeding ter of Historic following therefore sites on the National Office, the Regis- Places and from the Wyoming State Preservation eleven historic sites have been entered protection in the National Register and quality for federal Act of 1966: under terms of the National Historic Fort Preservation Laramie, Fort Caspar, Fort Fetterman, Cliff, Sheridan Fort Phil Kearny, Fort Reno, Register Inn, Trail End, Oregon Trail Ruts, 1-310 Inya Kara Mountain, and Jenny Stockade. Cheyenne Black Hills Stage Route--Rawhide to Si1verc1iff, Additionally, at the present time, National Register nominations are being prepared by the State Preservation erties: Teapot Rock and Naval Petroleum and the Hog Ranch. on the historical agencies Office for the following Reserve #3, Cantonment four prop- Reno, Crazy Woman Crossing, Information companies Historic surveys conducted by the applicant State and approving Preservation have been forwarded to the Wyoming Officer and the National Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. comments. These organizations and individuals also have been asked for 1-311 Aesthetics The aesthetic region includes the interior Eastern Powder River (south), Bighorn Basin as well as peripheral Mountain areas of the Laramie Range (west), and Black Hills (northeast) which relate to any industrial Some landforms of the region are best and population illustrated growth of the basin. and described by photographs. Figure 55 Bighorn Mountains The Bighorn Mountains greatest (Photo Courtesy of Wyoming Travel Commission) have some of the highest quality scenery and exhibit the Vegetative seasonal contrast of trees and open parks of and patterns. relief in the region. grass and shrubs provides assorted colors, textures, 1-312 These are highlighted by deeply cut drainages Elevations with rock formations of mixed red, yellow and gray colors. range from 5,200 feet near the western edge of the basin to 13,175 feet on Cloud Peak. Intrusions in and near the Bighorns Some exceptions are few and highways exist where and power lines blend with the forest. unnatural lightly timber clear cuts in from the air and on water courses qualities shapes have been made. These are mostly visible meadows traveled dirt roads. Irrigated and streams Numerous and tree-lined along the foothills of the mountains. Bighorns and abundant wildlife add to the visual small alpine lakes and streams near the central the Cloud Peak Primitive Area. are clustered around Figure 56 Hlack Hills 1-313 (Photo Courtesy of Wyoming Travel Commission) Another seemingly mountainous landform, the Laramie Mountain Range, is made at more forbidding by its sharply rugged nature. The mountains the north end are 5,500 feet elevation Laramie Peak. The dense, wooded draws, and some open meadows inaccessibility at the base and rise to 10,200 feet on grassy cover on very steep slopes, narrow at higher elevations typify the more rugged of the region. Figure 57 Laramie Range The Black Hills of Wyoming, the basin. The Wyoming (Photo Courtesy of Wyoming Travel CDmmission) shown above, are located along the east side of hills, open Black Hills have a landform The park-like of rolling timber and grasslands. stands of ponderosa pine, rolling 1-314 grasslands throughout and rushing streams provide a variety of colors and textures to the the day or season. Elevations from the edge of the basin South Dakota line range from 4,200 to 6,600 feet. consist of blended small farms, ranches, sawmills, The Black Hills and mines. The mines represent many early gold propects long sirtce abandoned and lend a sense of cultural color to the area. Figure 58 Devils Tower Standing as a prominent landmark and visible (Photo Courtesy Wyoming Travel of Commission) from the inner basin cluster is Devils of rock columns. Tower, an imposing The national formation appearing as a stump-shaped monument is 1,000 feet across at the bottom and 275 feet across 1-315 at the top. It rises 865 feet above its wooded base (5,117 feet above sea Other level) and 1,280 feet above the Belle Fourche peaks as high as 6,300 feet are located River near the base. in the Inyan Kara Mountains. Figure 59 Rolling Plains of the Powder River Basin Within the basin, the landforms, However, textures, and colors become more muted and less spectacular. vide various combinations some periods of day or season do proand soil. of color and shadow from hills, vegetation, 1-316 Figure 60 Typical River Banks in the Basin This land is more the characteristic relief of river breaks and surrounding side slopes and rolling open country. Belle Fourche, Little Powdert theme of open rangeland as the relative lands is less than 100 feet with gentle In river bottoms of the North Plattet cottonwood along and Little Missouri interest Rivers, banks contributes leaves during to some natural during the winter, glossy green the spring and summer, and brief gold colors in the autumn. pine ridges Some views of the rolling Black Hills and other scenic ponderosa can be seen from most northern drainages. 1-317 Along the Powder River, terrain is more broken and a true sample of the badlands. water contributes Here, the Bighorn Mountains scenic variation can also be seen. Running year around. farmlands are more prevalent along the Land patterns North Platte where and remnant of irrigated the river still provides a stop to rest and view wildlife on the Oregon Trail. signs of the emigrants who traveled (Photo Courtesy of Wyoming Travel Commission) Figure 61 Buttes and Rolling Plains In the open country characteristic basin, topography of the mining region of the is variable with rolling plains, broad level river courses, These buttes often stand isolated in the basin like low hills and buttes. 1-318 Pumpkin east). Buttes (central basin), Teapot Rock, (western) or Chimney Rock (south- The Rawhide Buttes pine provide (southeast) and Rochelle Hills (central) with charac- scattered relief from the more level plains, a principal National Grasslands. teristic of the Thunderbasin Figure 62 Artificial Intrusion Land patterns features mining, of the mountains coal storing in the basin change from the more distinct natural to man-made features and patterns, i.e., strip silos, oil and gas equipment, Highways dry farming, power plan~s, transmission lines and Interstate 25 and 90. over the plains break the solid Many small reservoirs patterns of native grasslands. scattered 1-319 Wildlife The wild fauna of the Eastern of native terrestrial and aquatic and Fish Powder River Coal Basin is a composite representative of several animal communities In a broad biomes and major plant communities. sense, the basin is a transition zone or ecotone with plant and animal species prairie, the northe~n desert shrub community, representative the montane While of the short grass forest, and coniferous the deciduous forest edge (riparian woodland). plant community some animals may be tied type within the basin, Verte- closely to a particular or vegetative species others are more wide ranging. Some introduced are also present. brate animals which are found in the basin are listed in Tables Appendix C. To analyze the impacts on wildlife 29, 30, 31, 32, from coal development Information in the basin, the ecology of each species to food, breeding cycles, predators, etc., is limited involved must be known. routes, seasonal with respect life habits, migration population in scope. and key habitats, trends, carrying capacities of given habitats, to one Further, since action which may be beneficial an understanding is necessary. species may prove detrimental to another, of how individual To the extent environment will species relate to others in local ecosystems information be described information to man. Northern is available, the wildlife portion of the existing more or less categorically is available and quantified where possible. and economic More value for species of higher recreational The following information was abstracted from draft material in the Great Plains Resource where pertinent. Program and augmented by new or more detailed information 1-320 Big game Mule deer 1-321 CJ) ,W « a:: « w o, 51 I-: N .-I 00 4-1 0 H (l) .j..I r-, 0 (Y) Lf) ::;: .-I \0 C\J .. Lf) .-I .-I .-I .. N .-I r--. \0 \0 \0 N IJ) \0 .. -cr r--.. N IJ) .-I 00 .-I on III (f.l .j..I.j..I l:l..-l .-I Lf) Lf) IJ) r--. N 00 N \0 (Y) \0 r--. .j..I .j..I (l) (l) 0.0 .j..I.o .j..I III 0 Lf) 0 .-I" N r--. .-I .-I" (l) til .-I r-, l:l 13 p., l:l -r-t {f.l on 0 ..c 0 p., l:l l:l 0 0 .-I (l) o~ "" (l) :>.. '-' H H 0 '0 .-I III 0 (l) .j..I (J I:.!> ~ :> ..-l " l=l t> on H .j..I {f.l on l=l .j..I H 0 c, (l) ~ 'd (l) .-I~ ..-l H 0\ 00 r--. \0 .-I .j..I (l) .,.., (l) :::t til 'd H (J "" (J ~ ;3: E-t :::t ,,-.. 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Q) Q) ~ H :::t lIlE-t (f.l H Q) (l)..!4 OE-t » :> H l:l :::t 0'-' 0 E-t (f.l (l) 'd 0 c, I-) '-' Z :::t .-I .-I CJ ID~ » l:l l:l 0 (l) CJ S (l) .j..I bOH H 0 0 p., (l) (l) H I-) . eo l:l on ;:J C!J~ I-) (l) 0 a u '-' Hoj( oj( oj( 0 til &' 0 1-328 study area. The jackrabbit is widely hunted in Wyoming for its hide, used in furbearers. for range from Food glove manufacture, preferences jackrabbits and its meat, fed to captive to those of cottontail. referred carnivorous Density are similar calculations paragraph from the studies to in the preceding 61 to 144 per square mile. Rodents, bats, and shrews Richardson's and thirteen-lined They feed heavily ground squirrels on weedy, are common throughout forb found in most of the study area. seeds and insects. disturbed green vegetation, animals They are among the first and most numerous forbs become established. prairie dog colonies are widespread areas where Black-tailed in grassland potential areas having suitable soils. Some colonies While prairie are large and provide black- footed ferret habitat. vicinity wheatgrass dogs eat a wide variety of plants in the such as western of their burrows, and blue grama. the bulk of their diet is grasses White-tailed prairie dogs may be found in the southcolonies. west corner of the study area in smaller, In areas of rougher the bushy-tailed topography, less close-knit rocky ledges and deeply cut washes, are common. Porcupines are most grasslands wood rat, deer mouse and least chipmunk areas. type. are found in pinyon-juniper abundant include in the sagebrush the Ord kangaroo The deer mouse and least chipmunk of the sagebrush Other small mammals vole, Wyoming rat, sagebrush pocket mouse, northern More widely grasshopper distributed and'wherever mouse, western harvest mouse, and prairie vole. are the northern people pocket gopher, meadow vole, meadow jumping mouse, Bats in the study area include little longeared the are, the house mouse. little brown bat, small-footed and long legged myotis, bat, 1-329 big brown bat, hoary bat, and the silver-haired wandering shrew and Merriam The abundance resident mammalian shrew probably bat. The vagrant shrew, occur in the study area. is very important raptorial to and variety of small mammals predators and to resident studies and wintering birds. the study The results of limited area, described densities live trapping on three sites within as scattered sagebrush, are shown as examples of population Incorporated of these species at various times (Ecology Consultants 1974, pp. 84-87). Area Rochelle Mine Area Species Thirteen-lined ground squirrel Deer Mouse Densities 13.3 per 10 acres .47 per 10 acres 17.8 per 10 acres 22.3 per 10 acres Period 6/73 8/74 6/73 8/73 " " Northern " " " " " " " Ords Kangaroo Rat Deer Mouse Deer Mouse 19.0 per 10 acres 28.0 per 10 acres 49.0 per 10 acres 9/73 9/73 9/73 Plant Site " Southern " " Plant Site Upland game birds Sage grouse Sage grouse are generally wherever sagebrush types occur. Critical distributed throughout the study area upon sagebrush nesting and This bird is extremely dependent for food and cover. brooding to their needs are strutting areas. grounds, areas and winter concentration Specific water sources and wet- meadow sites are crucial habitat sagebrush grazing. eradication, Hunting elements. farming, Much habitat has been lost through and livestock of the intensified oil field development pressure and harvest has been light owing to closure 1-330 large amount of private land, limited local hunting, and remoteness from larger population centers. sparse human population population, distri- Detailed bution and critical data are scarce since this area has received "area wide" average inventory habitat supports populations (Nemick 1974, Williams 1974). attention for the above reasons. less intensive The sage grouse estimated at five to eight birds per square mile This density is considered 64. "medium." Sage grouse winter Campbell, Known strutting grounds are shown in Figure range information Niobrara, is almost nonexistent. Harvest data for Converse, and Weston Counties are shown in Table 29. grouse are generally distributed throughout the northern half of Sharp-tailed Sharptails the basin (see Figure 64). They inhabit the sagebrush grasslands, often near brushy stream bottoms. early brood protection. Sharptails require good brush cover for nesting and Wheat seeds make up the major part of the sharp tail Hawthorne berries, willow (Nemick 1972, in diet based on limited studies on a wheat farming area. buds, dandelion p, leaves, clover and grass leaves are also important 17). Known dancing grounds are shown in Figure About 1,800 grouse were harvested "total area" comprehensive were estimated detailed 64, and recent harvest Table 29. Although in or near the study area in 1972. inventories are lacking, sharp tail grouse densities to be 14 to 20 birds per square mile in northern Campbell County and 8 to 12 birds per square mile for central Campbell County (received in Wyoming Game and Fish Department comments). Hungarian and chukar partridge Chukar populations are limited to rough arid lands, and only a few for this species. Since select habitat areas are considered more than marginal 1940, thousands few huntable warranted. of chukars have been released within persist. Detailed the study area, but only a have not been habitat types. These populations Hungarian ~pventories partridge occupy widely diversified 1-331 Legend l:ij!%!@¥lTurkey • Sharptail Dancing Ground c=JSharptall Grouse Ground @ Sage Grouse Strutting Source: Map Compiled with Information Provided by the Wyoming Game and FISh Deportment Figure 64 Wild Turkey and Sharptall Grouse Distributlon and Known Shorptall Dancing Grounds and Saoe Grouse Strut1ing Grounds in the V1dnlty at the Study Area. 1-332 birds have been observed in sagebrush-grassland, agricultural but the greatest populations exist in areas of interspersed patches lands, grasslands, 1972b, p. 19). weeds and brushy (Wyoming Game and Fish Department The "hun" feeds mostly harvest Population on wheat and various weed seeds. The Hungarian and chukar partridge in Table 29. which totals over 1,100 birds taken is shown combined or density estimates for these birds are not available. Wild turkey Wild turkey populations the edge of the study area populations are established Off-shoots in several locations around (Figure 64). of the Black Hills turkey Crook County. River are found in northern Campbell County and Western Turk~ys are also found in the Powder River breaks drainage of Converse and Niobrara Counties. and in the Cheyenne Birds are hunted in or along the edges of the study area in the Carlile hunting hunting area. The 1971 spring harvest area and in the Converse-Niobrara Area and spring Hunters took in the Converse-Niobrara and fall harvests in the Carlile Area are shown in Table 29. Turkeys require trees, usually ponderosa 94 turkeys in 1972. Food habitat studies pine, for roosting. fall diets (over 100 birds) in the Black Hills grains. Acorns, indicats were made up predominately various berries grasshoppers comprise of cultivated almost one-third fruits, pine nuts and of the diet, and grass leaves and quantities (Nemick 1973, p. 79). of the portion Low moisture of were present in significant Certain populations Converse are not hunted. The total turkey population to be 300 birds. County in the study area is estimated limiting factor. is a major habitat Mourning dove Mourning heavily doves nest in most of eastern Wyoming Highest densities with the exception of timbered areas. occur in areas with interspersed stream bottoms. Doves nest trees and open lands such as along the wooded 1-333 most successfully brush in otherwise the area. in trees although open areas. they also nest on the ground in clumps of cover is enhanced by open perches in Nesting Several studies indicate that doves are seed eaters taking about 70 grass seeds and grain when availDoves occupy all but the most the daily percent weed and forb seeds and 30 percent able (Bureau of Land Management arid areas of the basin. cruising recently reopened area. radius. 1970, p. 6). Good habitat migrate depends on water being within south for the wirtter. The majority Doves were season classified in 1973. as game birds in Wyoming, No detailed information and the legal hunting on doves is available for the study Waterfowl The thousands of stock ponds and small reservoirs in providing waterfowl throughout the study area are most significant Over half of the breeding species nesting production widgeon. habitat. Other duck ducks are mallards and American in large numbers include gadwall, green-winged teal, blue- I-334 winged teal, pintail, and shoveler. Other nesting ducks include redhead, lesser scaup, ring-necked mergansers. occasionally, duck, goldeneye, cinnamon through bufflehead, teal, American ruddy duck, and common Merganser, and, Scaup, canvasback, wood ducks migrate the area. Ducks nest on almost all habitat small water bodies is supplied Temporary and large streams and rivers, but the best breeding that hold water throughout the year. by ponds and marshes shallow ponds are used for feeding, courting, and breeding and nesting areas in the spring. centain scattered The best brood ponds are more than an acre in size and plants such as cattails sufficient vegetation and bullrushes. exists to provide Puddle cover emergent ducks nest on dry land where requirements. Most nests are within Diving Mallards 100 yards of water but some may be a mile or more away. emergent harvest. plants. ducks nest along the shore or over the water among usually comprise more than half of the study area Canada geese breed and winter snow geese migrate through in the study area. Small numbers of in spring and fall. Some wintering geese concentrate on the North Platte River downstream freeze over. Few geese are harvested in Table 29. from Glenrock where annually; the river does not they are included with ducks Wyoming is of under "waterfowl" currently resident Goose hunting in northeastern regulated birds. with the objective of building up the population Small numbers of geese nest on the many stock ponds and of transplanted goslings. small reservoirs now, and these are largely progeny sandhill _..rom 80,000 to 100,000 F cranes migrate Keyhole south through the serves as a resting eastern half of the study area annually. Reservoir 1-335 area for those large birds. known to overfly northeastern Small numbers Whooping Wyoming. cranes, an endangered species, are not of whistling swans fly south each fall through the center of the study area. Other birds Raptors In 1973 an estimated eagles were wintering eagle wintering widespread, 600 bald, 9,000 golden, Almost and 900 unidentified in the state. (Wrakestraw the entire study area is excellent Usually, golden eagles are Abundance habitat 1972, pp. 1-7). while bald eagles are more concentrated along rivers. of prey species such as small mammals which eagle concentration. Nesting densities do not hibernate largely determine is low. Golden of both eagle species eagles nest in many areas, while Platte River. only a few bald eagles nest along the North the study area include the marsh hawk, Other birds of prey inhabiting hawk, Swainson's hawk, red-tailed kestrel, hawk, rough-legged owl. hawk, sharp-shinned great horned owl, and short-eared Less common are the Cooper's owl. Occasion- hawk, prairie pigeon hawk, western ally observed are the peregrine burrowing owl and long-eared falcon. falcon and prairie The turkey vulture is a common summer resident. The falcons, hawks, plants in their diets. regional distributions owls, and eagles make almost no direct use of important to local and prey habitat. Shrubs often In open structures Yet, plants are vitally of these birds because sites for the majority the flora controls of birds of prey. Trees provide nesting provide country, provide cover and nesting sites for Swainson's hawk and marsh hawk. utility poles, fence posts and other more or less isolated important perches for nesting and hunting raptors. These are often 1-336 well used along transportation an attractive ready-made routes where traffic-killed small animals make of badgers and food source. The abandoned burrows prairie dogs are used as nesting Raptors, like other predatious sites and escape cover for burrowing play their part in the overall influences on prey owls. predator- animals, I prey-relationships, populations. acting as one of the regulating Shore birds and song birds The many stock ponds, reservoirs, line and riverbank of shore birds. legs, willets, long-billed nesting and rivers provide necessary acres of shoreexistence and feeding habitat for continued Great blue herons, avocets, gulls, grebes, coots, snipe, lesser yellowkilldeer, and northern through for a terns, upland sandpipers, curlews all nest in the study area. These species migrate types provide leaving the area in spring and fall. surprising winter. bunting, variety The various vegetative Most are migratory, habitat the of song birds. during Seed-eating Savannah birds such as the horned lark, vesper and McCowns longspur are common, sparrow, lark sparrow, as are largely shrike, and insectivorous mountain birds such as the western Aerial insectivores meadowlark, loggerhead bluebird. such as bank swallows and common Western kingbirds, nighthawks are often abundant, goldfinches soaring above the open lands. and robins are usually Brewer's sparrows, various warblers, vegetation, found in the riparian towhees prefer distri- but sage thrashers, and green-tailed the shrub types. bution, There is little information factors of these species concerning the densities, and limiting in the study area. (Ecology Consultants (Results of Incorporated a recent plot census are given in Table 30.) 1974, p.143.) 1-337 H co ~ il H ;:E: ;:I p., (\) (\) A O'INN MI'--OO 0 M.-tN N.-I.-I If).-t If).-I (\) .-1.-1.-1 co 4-l: 0 (/) M N . M \0 \0 \0 \0 MMI'--\OO 0 .-I 0 M . . .-1.-1 O'IN.-I .I-J.I-J .-I -r-l (/) (\) Z (\) (\) M I'-0'1 .-I .r-! co .I-J -e co .-I I> O'IIf).-t\O MNN 0 .-I o l:: ~ ~ '"d I=l co (/) (/) (\) (\) H 'r-! () (\) . 1 ;:I Z (\) "@ U) H co .-I H H co 00 H'"d p.1=l~ H CO (/) .r! H CO (\) .-I .I-J CO CO P.S .I-J I=l.-l (/) (/) I=l 0 H E--! ~ 8 8 ;:I H ,o'"d H (\) (\) (\) (\) H co .-I H 0 H co Oll'"d H p.1=l CO H (/) 'r-! (\) H CO.-l .I-J S CO P.CO .-I (/) .I-J (/) 0 '"d HE--! ~ ~ 8 ~ ~ ~ § ~ ~ I=l p..I-J (\) H H (/) (/) H CO0 (\) (\) i=QH::I:l:>~ I=l ~,o~ (\) (\) ~ ~ .I-J I=l (\) H (/) H H CO (\) 0 i=QH~::I:l:> o, (/) (\) H H co H .-I co c, H (/) H Oll'"d co H I=l COP.H H (\).-1 H -r-i (\) (/) CO P. P.CO CO .I-J S p..I-J .-I (/) (/) '"d o 0 I=l '"d,o H H H H "cE--! (\) (\) (\) (\) CO (/) (/) I=l ~ .I-J ~ p..-I H H (/) (\) (/).-1 CO 0 CO (\) H H ::I:lH~i=Q 0 ~. ~ ~ 8 8 ~ 0 '"d P. (\) 0 .I-J H co p., H 0 (\) p., ,.C H .I-J 0 o I=l I=l 0-:...•H 8 p-, § (/) H .I-J OM I=l .I-J.-t CO I=l.-l .I-J (\) .-I ;:I ~ ,-.., '"d"c (\) (/) (\) (/) H I=l O.-l.-t Ucol'-()O'I >-"r-! .-I 8 c, . ft 0000 I 00 H ;:I (\) H .-I .I-J,o .I-J (\) .I-J co 00 0 () co .-I (/) (/) p., '-" co (/) OO,.C .-1.-1 () ,-.., ,-.., -.::t 1>, ,.c M .I-J ;:I 0 (\) H .-I,.c,o p., '-" '"d I=l co .-I 0 0 H () ;r-! ~ 1'iIi=Q ~ (/) .I-J co 0 H .-I 00 p., <;» (/) (/) (\) H U) ;::l 0 o 1-338 Fish The Powder River Basin encompasses a variety of fish habitats, many In of which are small flowing streams and intermittent addition, throughout a large number of stock-watering the study area contain Major drainages Cheyenne, Little Missouri, aquatic habitat small tributaries. ponds and reservoirs scattered several fish species. consideration are the Belle Fourche, The lack For deserving Little Powder and the Powder River proper. is the major factor limiting upwards of suitable this reason, 9,OOO-acre Department fish populations. any impounded waters ranging Reservoir, from one acre to the almost (Wyoming Game and Fish Keyhole are important fish habitats 1966, p , 43) .. Irrigation demands and return flows often cause fluctuations, and elevated water temperatures in streams, making them increased unsuitable siltation, for trout habitat. A large percentage tributaries, of existing aquatic habitat is do classed as warm-water. provide cold water Fishing numerous Numerous streams, and reservoirs environments. pressure is light throughout most of the study area. Although small stock ponds and reservoirs they are significant of producing in the basin are lightly fished, many days of fishing annually. collectively by supporting The exact number ponds is not known. fish species residing in the study area or A list of known or suspected is found in Table 32, Appendix endangered C. It should be noted that no threatened "Threatened 'species of fish (as listed in the 1973 edition States," U.S.D.I., species presently Wildlife of the United , B.S.F. & W.) are thought to occur in the study found in the "Wyoming Llst of Rare & Endangered Thefbllowing descriptions are ) J area. Several I Wildlife" primarily do occur. adapted Refer to page 1-345. Technical } from Fisheries March 1966). Report No. 15, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, ) ) I J \ 1-339 l- ) I Belle Fourche River drainage A majority of the drainage area .of 3,700 square miles is used for grazing of livestock. Crops below Keyhole Reservoir are usually irrigated with Most streams in the Belle Fourche River water from the Belle Fourche River. drainage are not suitable for trout; many are intermittent or flow very little water, and high water temperatures and insufficient habitat become controlling factors. Approximately 54 farm ponds have been stocked with trout, and about Many contain green sunfish 108 ponds have been planted with largemouth bass. or bullheads through illegal transplants. Walleye pike and channel catfish are found in the Belle Fourche River and Keyhole Reservoir. Cheyenne River drainage Two streams in this drainage support reproducing trout populations, and two others provide habitat for planted trout on a small scale. Black bullheads and green sunfish are present in some streams which are unsuitable for trout. populations. Little Missouri River drainage Small reservoirs to impound stock water an~ water for irrigation are abundant in this drainage and, along with the Little Missouri proper, provide the bulk of fish habitat. Little Powder River drainage Flowing water in the drainage is restricted to the Little Powder River proper with no permanent flowing water in tributary streams. Fish of Numerous stock ponds and stock-water reservoirs support fish habitat is present throughout the length of Little Powder River and tnsome the many small stock-water reservoirs in the area. 1-340 Powder River drainage The main Powder River does not contain variations practically are extreme, a drystream Nongame redhorse; sturgeon white, ranging from high, a significant fishery. Flow turbid runoff in the spring to bed in late summer months. the flathead suckers; chub; carp; goldeye; fathead minnow; northern dace; species include longnose and mountain longnose chub; river carpsucker; plains minnow and silvery minnow. where habitat Stonecats, and black bullheads the shovelnose and channel catfish are present sturgeon, classified is adequate as rare in the State of Wyoming, has been found in the Powder River proper. Selected individual habitats better known individual affected by industry habitats are representative Numbers of The following those which may be directly correspond to locations proposals. A. assigned plotted on Map No. 11, Appendix Belle Fourche drainage (1). Habitat below Keyhole Reservoir areas. Presence varies Belle Fourche River from holes over six feet deep to shallow riffle dams is not reliable; classified as poor. of beaver are shelter ranges from poor to good and food conditions Nongame fish dominate fish populations The most important pike, bullheads, in the Belle Fourche game fish is the River above and below Keyhole Reservoir. channel catfish. Others include walleye bass. green sunfish, stonecats and smallmouth Variations of flow are extreme above Keyhole Reservoir. Waters directly below the reservoir contain populations green sunfish, (2). of walleye pike and channel bass. trout, walleye pike, and catfish as well as bullheads, Keyhole Reservoir ) ) and smallmouth rainbow Game fish include channel j catfish, pike. smallmouth Nongame bass, yellow perch, green sunfish, bullheads, / northern species are carp, river carp sucker, northern redhorse 1-341 sucker, white sucker, fathead chub, flathead minnow, the silvery minnow. pike, and smallmouth the drainage With the exception of walleye sand shiner and possibly, trout, northern in pike, rainbow bass, all of the above mentioned species were present at the time of impoundment. with about 9,000 surface acres, Many feel that this reservoir, represents the major Gillette purchased singular aquatic habitat in the Powder River Basin. The Wyoming Game and Fish Department reservoir is designated Fishing Lake (3). this site in 1957, and the 25-surface-acre as a public fishing in 1968. deep. area. This deed was turned over to the City of Gillette of the lake is in shoal area less than 15 feet is abundant and algal blooms are frequent. rainbow trout are planted annually to maintain About 90 percent Aquatic vegetation About 6,500 catchable the heavily used fishery. Cheyenne River drainage South Fork Cheyenne River (4). This stream is intermittent throughout its course in Wyoming. Black bullheads and green sunfish inhabit isolated to be unimportant as a holes and some flowing tributaries sport fishery. Old Woman Creek headwaters provide (5). but are considered Several large spring holes at the extreme Flowing water between spring limited habitat for trout. holes is too small to allow natural reproduct{on. Little Missouri River drainage This is a small stream North Fork Little Missouri 'River (6). providing limited habitat'for fish. Summer flows are small, but deep holes habitat. Game fish present may hold water and provide limited year-round black bullheads, include channel catfish, and green sunfish. 1-342 Little Powder River drainage Little Powder River the upper headwaters. 1960. (7). Planted brook and rainbow trout survive in since are The headwaters of this stream have not been planted is limited, game fish populations dewatered Since flows are small and habitat restricted. generally Sections of the stream are periodically to large holes along the streambed. with fish habitat being confined temperatures springs. restrict Summer water by headwater trout in all but a short section influenced The lower section of the Little Powder, particularly near the state line, contains channel catfish, black bullheads, Although and rainbow natural reproduction and green sunfish. does not occur, numerous plants of brook of short-term salmonoid fisheries. trout have allowed the maintenance While no tributary fishery, permanent of the Little Powder provides water is available a particularly significant Game fish in several of the draws. species present are generally limited to green sunfish and black bullheads. contain populations of large mouth bass, Other ponds in the drainage green sunfish, and black bullheads. Reptiles and amphibians Quantitative information relating to these animals in the study area appears nonexistent, the bull but resident species include the prairie rattlesnake, (gopher) snake, milk snake, plains garter snake, eastern short-horned Amphibians are, of course, tied to aquatic environments toad, Great Plains toad, Other for lizard, and others. at least part of their lives. The plains spadefoot leopard frog, and tiger salamander reptiles and amphibians are fairly common in good habitat. of the study area are listed in Table 30, Appendix c. 1-343 Invertebrates Invertebrates, abundance during especially insects, are present reduced in variety and They the warm months and are greatly during winter. are important and as primary because of their impacts on ecosystems, of vegetation. species snails, Insects especially in food chains, consumers rank as one of the three major groups of herbivores. organic matter. food sources Certain prey on others and some feed on dead aquatic insects, and worms are major such Some mollusks, for fish, shore birds, eastern amphibians, short-horned and mammals. lizard, Many animals as the shrews, nighthawks, grasshopper Others, diets. mouse, little brown bat, insectivorous. and mountain bluebird are almost wholly such as skunks and burrowing Sometimes insect populations owls make insects a major part of their such as grasshoppers can rise to plague proportions. recorded Fourche Wyoming Game and Fish Department (1966, pp. 64,65) studies as fish foods in the Belle stoneflies, studies caddisflies, the major groups of invertebrates valuable and Little Powder Rivers. flies (Diptera), These were mayflies, Invertebrate indicated two-winged and beetles. Campbell on one of the coal lease areas in northern insect numbers heavy sagebrush County that total individual less in was made sampled by sweep net and pit trap were about 20 percent as compared to grasslands, but most of this difference up by the large numbers (Ecology Consultants differences relative of springtails (Collembola) found in the grassland There were wide Incorporated 1974, pp. 159-165). in the families within of insects represented between and, in some cases, in the types. Grassleaf abundance families the two vegetative hoppers were more abundant hoppers, in the grassland samples, while plant bugs, type. and aphids were more abundant in the sagebrush 1-344 Threatened Species Those wildlife species determined by the Secretary of the Interior in the Federal as to be threatened Register with extinction and named on a list published species." The species and Wildlife's are officially "endangered categorized "threatened" Threatened in the Bureau of Sport Fisheries Wildlife of the United States 1973 publication, (1973, p. 289), include all vertebrate whether they are officially with species whose existence listed as "endangered" extinction, inhabit is considered or not. threatened The following species, threatened the study area. ferret was observed once in Crook County County in 1974. in 1969, Exact The black-footed once in Weston locations County in 1971, and once in Campbell by the observers. Ferrets were not reported Other sightings of the b1ackwith prairie food source. footed ferret have been verified. dogs and prairie are closely associated dog towns since the prairie dog is their major The spotted bat may occur in the study area, but little is known of this rare species. The prairie is commonly area. Status-undetermined species include the northern swift fox, which observed falcon frequents the area. The American peregrine falcon to the north in Montana and probably frequents the study may occur in the area, and the ferruginous plover, northern uncommon long-billed hawk, prairie pigeon hawk, mountain owl which are curlew, and western of the area. burrowing but regular inhabitants Some species, while not endangered remnant populations prompted throughout their range, have This has (Wyoming such in danger of being eliminated of "rare and endangered" (no date), pp. 1-28). 1-345 in local areas. species lists state development Game and Fish Department Wyoming's list includes species as the shovelnose burrowing within sturgeon, goldeye, sturgeon chub, kit fox, western owl, upland sandpiper, and western smooth green snake which may occur the study area. 1-346 Recreation Zoological Hunting Resources The Powder River Basin and its peripheraL provide some of the best variety mountain ranges and hills The of big game and upland game in Wyoming. significance. big game hunting resource also ranks with national the basin In 1973 over represent- 29,000 hunters hunted deer within ing 78,000 hunter days. nonresidents days Nearly (74 percent nonresident), hunters 67 percent of the antelope (13,612) were (Wyoming Game and Fish Department), representing 30,000 hunter (Table 31). Mule deer, elk, and antelope are the most plentiful can be hunted within and sought after big game in the region. community Appendix in the basin. A. These animals Ranges a few hours of any of these species are shown on Maps 9 and 10, In 1973, more than half were taken within Wyoming's antelope the basin. represent (19,504) of the antelope hunter harvested in Wyoming 95 percent. Antelope success rates averaged over 50 percent of the world's population. Wyoming are sage and cottontail of The principal upland game species of northeastern grouse, ring-necked grouse, wild turkey, sharp-tail rabbit. Campbell However, pheasant, the number of upland game hunters Counties within is low in the portions because of and Converse the study area, primarily poor public access to private In 1972, Wyoming lands where these species are frequently found. hunters (8,111) harvested 85,000 ducks which is only Twenty-one percent 1973b). a small portion of those produced of the harvest occurred in the state annually. in the region (Wyoming Game and Fish Department Some of the larger streams such as the North Platte, of Sand Creek in Crook County provide season. Many stock ponds, Tongue River, and portions hunting in the late some fine waterfowl small reservoirs excellent and small mountain lakes, dispersed production. throughout the region provide spring and summer waterfowl 1-347 Table 31 Hunter Use - 1973 Principal Management Study Area Antelope Unit (17) (19) (23) (24) (26) (27) (28) (29) NW of Gillette NE of Gillette SW of Gillette SE of Gillette West of Bill East of Bill West of Douglas East of Douglas Hunters 1,439 961 1,779 886 1,910 1,700 480 301 (17) (18) (20) (21) Unit NW of Gillette NE of Gillette West of State 59 East of State 59 (Coal leases) (22) West of State 59 NW of Douglas (14) East of State 59 Between Bill and Douglas Units Deer Hunters 1,757 3,343 430 1,122 2,052 1,298 10,002 Total Source: Source: Wyo Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Annual Report of Big Game Harvest, Fishing Sport fishing occurs mostly The attraction in the region, representing (see recreation 1.3 million visitor days, 66). on larger reservoirs regional map, Figure good public access of good warm and cold water fisheries, and the opportunity and picnicking to combine fishing with other recreation The shortage such as boating account for this use. of trout streams in the more basin and poorer public access to streams makes attractive. pressure Low land reservoirs the larger reservoirs account for up to three-fourths of the fishing in the basin, with Keyhole Reservoir, the centers of use. Lake DeSmet and North Platte from Colorado system. and Utah Good reser- River impoundments Fishermen bring added pressure voir fishing to the North Platte River Reservoir also will be found on the Bighorn Fishing in 1970 within and Tongue River Reservoirs here represents participated near Sheridan. approximately the region described 870,000 fisherman Commission days of which 175,000 nonresidents 1973). (Wyoming Recreation 1-348 (Photo Courtesy of Wyoming Travel Commission) Fishing Many small mountain Black Hills, are presently however, time. Regions Bighorn Figure 65 on the North Platte River streams and reservoirs can be fished in the for new reservoirs mountain ranges; at this and Laramie Mountains. Two proposals and Bighorn being analyzed near the Laramie no recreation reserves have been planned for those reservoirs For an inventory of fishing waters in the region refer to Table 32. regions which encompass the region 2 and 3 are state recreation in the statement. planning described 1-349 @ LEGEND A ~ State Parke County Parke Ski Areas Fareat Service Camp Site $• Figure 66 Recreation Regional Map 1-350 Sightseeing State Highway 59 and U.S. Highway 14-16 along with county roads in for the traveler. the basin provide good antelope and small upland game viewing Mountain opportunities areas of the National Forests provide the most exotic during the summer along off-highway truck trails and footpaths. characteristics of the Large open parks in the timber, the most outstanding Bighorn Mountains and Black Hills, provide moose. the sightseer more chance of viewing deer, elk, and an occasional A prairie dog town has been protected visitors of Devils Tower National Monument. presentations aid the visitor's for the enjoyment displays of the many and Interpretive enjoyment. naturalist The Wyoming Game and Fish Department trapping faci1ites pastures has trout and walleye fish at Lake DeSmet and Keyhole Reservoir that collectively and elk wintering to in the Bighorn Mountains provide opportunities view game and fish management Grazing buffalo of Gillette programs. be observed on a private ranch south can frequently on State Highway 59. eagles frequent the area between Casper and Douglas. In Wintering 1973, 600 bald, 9,000 golden and 900 unidentified wintering waterfowl in the state. eagles were estimated and nesting Resident These great birds together with migrating local birdwatchers 7.6 million visitor seen on farm ponds provide in the region represents Commission 1973). good viewing. days annually sightseeing (Wyoming Recreation Geological Sightseeing The Powder River Basin and the region surrounding erable geological miles from resources of recreational value. it possess consid100 In the Black Hills, Gillette, the Jewel and Wind Caves 1-352 (National Park Service) under- River 1 Figure 68 Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. 1-353 ground caverns formations collectively register of calcite crystals and dripstone sta1agtites; erosional are in Custer State Park; Harney Peak; and 1nyan Kara Mountain geological visits sightseeing per annum. geological sightseeing values. outstanding Jewel and Wind Caves nearly Within one million the Bighorn Mountains, Shell Canyon, attractions (elevation include the Red Wall, 13,165'). Ten Sleep Canyon, Recreation and Cloud Peak The Big Horn Canyon National Area (Figure 68) on the west Present use slope of the Bighorns is near 161,800 visits is one of the most spectacular per annum. in the area. (Photo Courtesy Figure 69 Devils Tower of Wyoming Travel Commission) 1-354 On the periphery MOnument of Powder River Basin are Devils Tower National natural landmarks, Pumpkin Buttes, (Figures 69 & 70) and six potential Missouri Buttes, Rozet Escarpment. Sundance Mountain. Gillette history 1nyan Kara Mountain, Hat Creek Breaks anu These features and the red cinder cones and coalbeds near evidence of alluvial deposition and erosional provide spectacular of the region. - - - - -------- SECONDARY ROAD MAIN ROAD FOOT TRAIL 52 MI LES TO BELLE FOURCHE. S. OAK. 13 MILES TO WYOMING HULETTE I 33 MILES TO MOORCROFT 28 MILES TO SUNDANCE ~ ~ '_0_0_fe_I.2_t0_0_ Figure 70 Devils Tower National Monument 1-355 Collecting Gem and mineral Hills and Bighorn exception is Tepee collecting however, 21 miles is popular all across the basin, Black One Tepee Mountains; Canyon, few areas possess east of Newcastle on significant value. 16. u.s. Highway Canyon agate is a much sought include petrified wood after gem of nationwide renown. Other valuables and quartz. Mountaineering The central Bighorns provide portions of the Black Hills, climbing challenges. the Laramie Devils Range and the some mountain Tower possesses comparatively per annum. mountaineering heavy use. values of nationwide significance is nearly and receives 173,700 visits Total use of Devils Tower Botanical Sightseeing Wind Cave National of the prairie Mountain season. ecosystem Park, in the Black Hills, and interpreted foliage is an excellent example preserved for botanical are always sightseeing. in wildflowers and autumn and spring of interest Collecting Botanical collection natural collecting is dispersed across the region with no special farm near Gillette. This collecting for pleasure, etc. Some is areas other than the state experimental is collected with dried vegetation for art projects. driving often done in conjunction family outings, 1-356 (Photo Courtesy Figure 71 Keyhole Reservoir Waterbase recreation Within public swimming of Wyoming Travel Commission) the Powder River Basin, few water bodies opportunities Outdoor except Keyhole Reservoir, swimming exist which offer Lake DeSmet and the 4.3 million North Platte River. visitor in the region represents days, 16 percent of which is nonresident 1973). Other public swimming use (Wyoming Recreation to municipal adminand Commission facilities. is limited primarily Some of these reservoirs have boat and camping facilities Keyhole, Glendo, Alcova istered by the Wyoming Recreation Guernsey Reservoirs Commission. offer good water skiing when the water levels are kept to a compatible level. 1-357 (Photo Courtesy Figure 72 Cook Lake of Wyomine Travel Commission) 1-358 (Photo Courtesy Figure 73 Alcova Reservoir of Wyoming Travel Commission) Floating These areas are also popular in boating for pleasure (sightseeing) boating reservoirs, but more important Recreation along is the Bighorn Canyon National exists Area near Sheridan portions with its 71 mile lake. and Tongue Good float boating and Cook Lake. of the North Platte Tongue Rivers River is being considered as a possible addition to the National Wild and Scenic Rivers system. 1-359 Figure 74 Skiing Bighorn Mountains Winter recreation Downhill skiing at developed commercial facilities within the region is confined Sheridan to Meadowlark Ski Area west of Buffalo Hogadon and Antelope Buttes west of in the Bighorn Mountains, Ski Area near Casper on Casper Mounin the Black Hills. Cross-country tain, and Terry Peak northeast skiing in the Bighorn Mountains, many good opportunities by residents Commission of Newcastle Laramie Mountains, from all-weather 708,000 visitor and Black Hills provides highways. Downhill skiing accessible in the basin represents 1973). days (Wyoming Recreation 1-360 (Photo Courtsey of Wyoming Travel Commission) Snowmobiling Figure 75 Bighorn Mountains Primary areas of enjoyment for snowmobiling are the Bighorn highways, of the Mountains, Black Hills and Laramie ownership, Range in that order. and terrain All-weather land snow conditions experience days. influence the quality snowmobiler's in these areas. Resident snowmobiling represents participated 481,370 visitor in the sport In 1970, 13.8 percent Commission of the population 1973). (Wyoming Recreation Most winter are within 100 miles. sports areas for basin residents (Douglas and Gillette) 1-361 (Photo Courtesy Figure 76 Cloud Peak Primitive Primitive The Cloud Peak Primitive region, is now being considered of Wyoming Travel Commission) ( Area wild area in the (137,000 acres). It Area, the only designated designation for wilderness is located along the hydrographic divide of the Bighorn Mountains west of Buffalo and Sheridan. Some of the principal uses of the area are hiking, horseback riding, fishing, and tent camping. Total annual use for the area has been near 57,000 visitor acre proposal days. Congress will consider a 150,490Area. for study 26,800 acres. Bow and 282,000- for enlarging the Cloud Peak Wilderness An area of 10,420 acres as a wilderness Approximately candidate 17 roadless area. (Lqramie Peak) has been chosen Citizen groups have recommended areas have been inventoried in the Medicine and Bighorn National Forests. 1-362 The North Fork of the Powder River Canyon possible designation as a primitive area. is being studied for of Kaycee This area lies northwest on the east slope of the Bighorn Mountains. ~Photo Courtesy Figure 77 Fort Laramie of Wyoming travel Commission) History Visitor and local agencies for understanding interpretive sites have been developed by federal, within state and groups, providing good opportunities the region Trails. of a period of rich history along the Oregon and Bozeman Values section More detail on these sites is included this chapter. in the Historical 1-363 Some of the interpretive of Historic sites, each listed on the National Fort Fetterman, Register Cliff, Places are Fort Laramie, Trail End, Sheridan Fort Caspar, Register Fort Phil Kearny, Because western boundaries Inn, Custer Battlefield. sites, largely along the southern and of the many historical of the region, more interpretive on historical values sites will be developed. includes locations Figure 45 of the section of other historic sites. in this chapter Petroglyphs, Figure 78 Powder River Basin 1-364 Archeological Some significant the Bighorn Mountains for cultural unprotected Register visitor. archeological sites like the "Medicine Wheel" in and other areas under study provide unusual opportunities However, most sites are either inaccessible or sightseeing. from vandalism. Some like the Glenrock Buffalo Jump (National for the of Historic Places) are generally known but not interpreted (Photo Courtesy of Wyoming Travel COmmission) Figure 79 Camping, North Platte River 1-365 Other cultural Camping - picnicking Picnic use in the region is estimated at 3.8 million visitor days. Camping, with 8.6 million visitor days, is greater because 50 percent of this use is made by nonresidents staying in the region for longer periods (Wyoming Recreation Commission 1973). Except for municipal facilities, recreation developments within the basin are minimal. Keyhole Reservoir, a state park, 35 miles from Gillette has day-use and camping. Devils Tower National Monument approximately 61 miles from Gillette has similar facilities. Glendo and Guernsey State Parks approximately 35-70 miles from Douglas have camping and picnicking units. Most camping and picnicking are confined to the cooler mountain of the National Forests (Bighorn, Black Hills, Custer and Medicine Bow). areas Urban Table 33 summarizes an inventory which includes 14 swimming pools. of municipal parks and playgrounds An active program of community recreation is being provided for youth and adults of Gillette and Douglas. Outdoor parks, golf courses, swimming pools and camp-picnic areas are well supplied in both communities for summer enjoyment. There are modern facilities in both cities currently under construction for year-round use. The facilities include a new high school pool, handball court and auditorium in Douglas and a community recreation complex with indoor pool in Gillette. Adult and youth development programs are provided year-round in both cities. These community programs include, for example, trade and crafts, swimming, wrestling, basketball, cross-country skiing in Gillette under the direction recreation of a full-time board. From reports expected population recreation standards in Douglas, facilities are adequately planned to support the growth to approximately 1985. In Gillette the present The future county recreation director. Both counties have a program is up to standard in almost every aspect and exceeds (National Recreation and Park Association) in many areas. holds the need for rapid and costly expansion. and quadruple DEPAD by 1990. The needs will double by 1980 Plan and These figures are based on the Comprehensive Study 1974). (Campbell County Recreation Private Table 34 summarizes and water in the region. guiding, leasing, an inventory of privately managed recreation land Most of the private enterprises fishing, are involved in and camping. or dude ranching for hunting, 1-366 Q Q) 'M U -1-1 H til .-I .-II .-I \0 .-I .-I .-I ~ tIJ (/) (/) 'M -1-1 Q l-l Q ;:j Q) 0 E-iU -::I" N .-II CV) .-I .-I CV) ..:;t .-I r-.. " 0'1 .-I <;» .-I .-I .-I .-I til til .c l-l..a Q) o -1-1 q -"M til ;:j .-I P-::l CV) (/) eo L(') a p::; " -::1"1 N 00 N 0 .-I N 0 " -1-1 l-l 0 0 '"0 ;:j 0 Q) (/) '"0 Q ;:j 0 l-l -1-1 (/) (/) CV) p::;p::; 0 Q) 0 Q Q) ..c: Q) l-l 0 U L(') a L(') .-I -,Q) tI:l 'M P-< Q ;:j '"0 0 QU tI:l '"0 (/) Q tI:l l-l tI:l (/) P-< Q 0 .-I -M tI:l bO p..Q) -M P::; U 'M bO Q q ;:j -M co (/) l-l (/) (/) 0 ..a Q) -.... ;:j Q) '"0 l-l l-l Q..c: E-i tI:ltIJ N -::I" \0 -::I" N ..:;tl a CV) CV) ~ OJ .-I ..a tI:l E-i -::I" .-I -::I" " -1-1 Q) '"0 'M ~ -1-1 (/) (/) (/) tI:l tI:l Q) l-l l-l til tIJ -::I" 0~ Q CV) Q) tI:l p...-I " -::1"1 - 0 q (/) ~ \0 N 4-l tI:l o '-1 P-< :>-. l-l :>-. o..a -1-1 Q) l-l CV) -. '.-1 (1) P-< OJ p:; ~ C"1 4-l r:qr-- UJ CdO u .--I 0 \0 0\ \0 ~ .jJ OJ H ;::l p:j Ul 0 '.-1 Po< !=l ~ 4-l 0 Cl) .jJ .jJ rl 0 H 00 Lf") OJ •. () p 0 •.-1 .jJ OJ P () 0 H •.-1 OJ P-< OJ r-Lf") Lf") s:: rl r-C"1 r-, 00 r-, H OJ \0 Lf") N rl 0 ~ s:: 0 UJ P 0 0 0 H U H Cd P Cd rl 0 H H ..a '"d •.-1 H OJ s:: Cd .c u 0 'J s:: .jJ .jJ 0 Cd 0 -.-1 .c Z Z UJ (f) ::s: OJ 0 '.-1 bIJ OJ P 0 H OJ .jJ OJ () Cd .jJ ~ H ;::l 0 UJ UJ 1-393 Table 44 Population Changes of Powder River Basin Counties & Places Within Counties 1950 - 1970 % Changes 1950-1960 21.1 63.4 7.3 10.9 42.7 -1.0 1.7 59.8 16.3 8.7 57.8 64.4 70.6 72.5 152.2 -20.2 -9.5 -5.9 1.3 5.4 -6.3 -·31. 6 17.8 28.0 28.7 23.3 13.6 % Changes 1960-1970 121.1 100.9 -6.7 -5.1 -4.4 -3.3 16.3 18.8 2.0 16.8 3.3 1.1 16.7 -4.6 22.7 -31. 6 -22.0 -20.9 -6.0 -6.0 18.9 -1l.5 -8.4 -20.5 -21.0 -19.4 4.5 0.7 1950 Campbell County Gillette Converse County Douglas Glenrock Crook County Sundance Moorcroft Johnson County Buffalo Natrona County Casper Mills Mountain View Paradise Valley Evansville Edgerton Niobrara County Lusk Sheridan County Sheridan Dayton Ranchester Clearmont Heston County Newcastle Upton 8 County Region State 4,839 2,191 5,933 2,544 1,110 4,738 893 517 4,707 2,674 31,4.37 23,673 866 393 203 4,701 2,089 20,185 11,500 316 251 225 6,733 3,395 951 83,273 290,529 1960 5,861 3,580 6,366 2,822 1,584 4.,691 908 826 5,475 2,907 49,623 38,930 1,477 1,721 678 512 3,750 1,890 18,,989 11,651 333 235 154 7,929 4,345 1,224 102,684 330,066 1970 12,957 7,194 5,938 2,677 1,515 4,535 1,056 981 5,587 3,394 51,264 39,361 1,724 1,641 1,764 832 350 2,924 1,495 17,852 10,856 396 208 141 6,307 3,432 987 107,364 332,416 Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census of Population, 1950 through 1970. 1-394 In 1970 approximately in Gillette, lation 55.5 percent of the county population (Table 45). resided popuaverage the only urban place is only 2.7 people 39). County. in the county The county density per square mile, below the 3.4 state (Appendix C, Table Converse In contrast to Campbell County, the population of Converse decade, County increased only 7.3 percent significantly to 6,366 persons in the 1950-1960 by the but then declined (Table 44). employment 6.7 percent to 5,938 persons attributed year 1970 This decline can be directly to a declining remains the agricultural primary trend in the county, sector. even though agriculture or basic employment In the 1950-1960 decade, the population 5.1 percent included of Douglas increased 10.9 percent to 2,822 persons decade. In 1970, but then declined to 2,677 people the majority 45.1%) in the following the rural population (54.9%) of the county in Douglas residents; the urban population (or remaining is only (Appendix resided (Table 45). The county population below density 1.4 people C, Table per square mile, substantially the 3.4 state average 39). Other six counties. distribution, Tables 43 through 45 provide information for the con- cerning population trends, and percentage urban remaining six counties. Social characteristics Tables of regional population C indicate population distribution by 40 through 42 in Appendix age, sex, ethnicity, The majority (54.1%) and the educational population (96.9%). level of persons is between 25 years old and over. of age by sex is of the regional white 18 and 64 years distribution and racially The population People approximately even throughout the region. 25 years old and over in the slightly above the region had a 12.4 median number of school years completed, 1-395 Table 45 Urban & Rural Population by County Powder River Basin Region 1970 Urban * Population Campbell Converse Crook Johnson Natrona Niobrara Sheridan Weston 7,194 2,677 0 3,394 39,361 0 10,856 3,432 % 55.5 45.1 Rural Population 5,763 3,261 4,535 % 44.5 54.9 100.0 39.3 23.2 100.0 39.2 45.6 60.7 76.8 2,193 11,903 2,924 60.8 54.4 6,996 2,875 Region State 66,914 201,111 62.3 60.5 40,450 131,305 37.7 39.5 *P1aces with 2,500 people or more. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Census of Population, 1970. 1-396 12.1 national years average. The region's four years average. high percentage of high (63.6%) of persons greatly (25 old and over) with national school or more surpasses the 52.3 percent The majority four or more years cent national reduced needs of the counties have lower percentages of persons with of college than the 11.8 percent state average and 10.7 perand average. Because of the lack of business for professional of college opportunities of a small population four or more years services, would it is likely find work in that people with larger urban Casper education Natrona centers, both in and out of state. largest County, which includes over (the state's old with second city), had 13.3 percent of college. of its populace 25 years four or more years Employment This sector the decade the region sectors analyzes employment view trends that have developed employment during within employment 1960 to 1970. as is discussed An overall within of predominant the first part. Only significant are discussed and conspicuous in Campbell trends are noted. and Converse Part two analyzes employment characteristics For purposes Counties. into ten sectors Institute appears on at in of analysis, employment is divided a format identical to that used by the Water A component Resources Research the University Appendix C. of Wyoming. breakdown of the sectors In 1970 the eight counties 41,253 persons, up 7.1 percent of the Wyoming Powder River Basin 1974). employed The rate of from 1960 (University of Wyoming unemployment 4.8 percent rate in 1970 was 4.1 percent (Bureau of Census 1971a, Table as compared with a statewide 121). Within the eight county region, 1-397 the petrochemicals industries were (petroleum and natural gas), agriculture, and construction and trend Each the principal employers with 12.4 percent, 9.2 percent, The most immediately loss in agricultural noticeable employment. 7.7 percent of employment throughout (Table 46). the region is a consistent county posted losses varying 53, Appendix employer. from 10.3 percent to 41 percent (Tables 46 through C). Regionally, Sheridan County remains remained the major agricultural due to the major Petrochemical employment fairly static regionally County still remains petrochemical a shift from Natrona petrochemical At present, mining, to Campbell County. Natrona employer with 56.6 percent of regional employment in sythetic gas production employment. coal Sheridan (coal gasification), one percent. C). and power generation sectors is an insignificant County retained the bulk of this employment (Table 54, Appendix 1-398 Table 46 Employment Summary for the Eight-County Region 1960 Population Employment Agriculture Petrochemicals Petroleum and Natural gas Synthetic Gas Coal Mining Uranium Mining and Milling Power Generation Other Mining Other Manufacturing Railroads Construction Other Residentiaries Total Employment 102,700 4,861 1970 107,364 3,784 (9.2%)* 4,964 ------95 136 193 126 1,150 518 3,677 22,799 38,519 5,135 (12.4) ------- 224 (0.5) 572 (1.4) 221 (0.5) 269 (0.7) 931 (2.3) 305 (0.7) 3,196 (7.7) 26,616 (64.5) 41,253 (99.9) *Percentage of employment by sector in parentheses for 1970. Source: University of Wyoming, Water Resources Research Institute, (1974). Campbell and Converse Counties Total employment within Campbell County increased by III percent during the ten-year period 1960 to 1970 (Table 47). This increase resulted from signif- icant employment increases to the sectors of petrochemicals and other residentiaries (509% and 110%, respectively). This is a direct result of the Petrochemicals oil boom which occurred within Campbell County in the 1960's. 1-399 Table 47 Employment Sutnmary,Campbell and Converse Counties Campbell County 1960 Population Employment Agriculture Petrochemicals Petroleum and Natural gas Synthetic Gas Coal lUning Uranium Mining and Milling Power Generation Converse County 1960 6,366 5,938 486 (22.4%) 1970* 1970 ,~ 12,957 601 (12.5%) 5,861 670 580 224 1,364 ------ (28.4) 177 204 (9.4) 32 2 32 -----40 ------ (0.7) 17 30 39 71 (1.8) (3.3) (0.8) 25 Other Mining Other Hanufacturing Railroads Construction Other Residentiaries Total Employment 18 22 189 1,120 2,277 131 11 268 2,356 (2.7) (0.3) (5.6) (49.1) 16 25 192 1,345 2,407 16 6 225 1,121 2,168 (0.7) (0.3) (10.4) (51.7) (100.0) 4,803 (100.1) *Percentage of employment by sector in parentheses for 1970. Source: University of Wyoming, Water Resources Research Institute (1974). 1-400 ( and agriculture tiaries) within sectors combined are the top two employment the county. Coal mining, sectors (excluding other residenand railroad Presumably sectors a large growth in the as power generation, comprise only 1.8 percent of total employment. a secondary result of the 1960's oil boom, the other manufacturing not related to energy mining or fuels) experience low numerical (manufacturing of 628 percent but still remained county. The rate of unemployment In contrast percent decline Campbell to Campbell a moderately employer is a low 2.6 percent. County, Converse County experienced a 9.9 in total employment and has a higher unemployment is principally attributable rate than to a loss of at 4.3 percent. This decline nearly 100 employees Other residentiaries, in the agricultural which includes sector, a 16.2 percent drop (Table 47). employment, remains concurrently the principal Coal mining, service-oriented showed a drop of 9.9 percent. employment sector Agriculture, nevertheless, (excluding other residentiaries) and railroad sectors combined energy sectors 12.7 percent in the county. power generation, employ a mere 2.1 percent of the (petrochemical and uranium mining labor force, but the remaining and milling) employ a significant summaries of the labor force. Employment Niobrara, Sheridan for the counties of Crook, Johnson, Natrona, C, Tables 46 thru 54. and Weston are found in Appendix 1970 unemployment Crook Johnson Natrona rates for these counties are shown below: 3.0% 1.7% 4.8% Niobrara Sheridan Weston 2.7% 4.2% 4.1% 1-401 Income This section eight-county describes 1970 income levels and distribution and Campbell generally. and Converse (Table 48) Counties for the specifi- study area as a whole cally, and the remaining six counties The eight counties of the Powder River Basin exceeds The mean family income for the study region is $10,878 which the state mean of $10,127 by 7.4 percent. a high of $12,949 Likewise median in Campbell The mean family income ranges from County to a low of $8,153 in Crook County. in Campbell County to income ranges from a high of $11,303 Generally, a low of $7,474 in Crook County. a population increase those counties which experienced from 1960 to 1970 have the higher median family and mean family incomes. Campbell County The median ($11,303) and mean ($12,949) incomes of Campbell County are the highest development in the eight-county region. The introduction of oil and coal high with associated While high incomes has contributed of the 3,085 families of the families to the generally income levels. exceeded $10,000 60.6 percent have incomes which greater in 1970, 26.2 percent have incomes than $15,000. The 10.2 percent 50 percent of total families having incomes less than $5,000 is nearly less than study area and state averages. Converse County The median and mean incomes for Converse 43.3 percent County are $8,947 and $9,191, had 1970 incomes greater of 47.4 percent for the eight The 10.1 respectively. than $10,000. Of the 1,582 families, This is slightly below the average county region but greater than the statewide average of 42.6 percent. 1-402 .r< rl Ul ill '-0 NN I.D-..::t N rl <"I a-. rl (Y) ....• Mr---...::tO\....j" co ••... a-. rl-'i3 CIl ~~ M ,i3 W , W '" <"I 00 00 N <"I rl <"I rl a-. a-. N N lI"l N N Ul ill ....• rl r---.Nf--.O\CO -..::t'I..OOOrll/) rl rl <"I ~ a-. 00 <"I rl rla-. rl 0 a-. N <"I N NOO <"I N rl '" , .r< w i3 , .r< rl ~ 0 lI"l 0000 rl lI"l rl ~ COO-..::tM H I t> I 1-403 H :> tn ill 'rl .-< 'rl ~ ~ '" COCOON , W 0 N N N N •• N 00 .-< 0 N .-< .-< .-< 0 ..Cll W~ '" OMrlO'\\D If) 0...0 .-< If)-..j" ill S .-< 00 0 M "rl <:i Cll ,,~ M M M '" "rl r--.COO\D N\O\O-..:t '" r-, 00 00 \0 •..•.•..•. Q) 0000 w S <:i Cll ;:!~ u'O:Cll 0 '" '" '" 0 00 \0 '" M '" .-< r-iU)r-!t'"-0'\('1"') s r-, 0 ,....\DO tJ co r-, "'N o» < 0 tJ Q) Q) <:i H S .-< 0 Q) 'rl tJ S Cll S <:i OW••..• tJ CllH <:i p. Cll <:iH .-< Cll U Cll <:i '"CJ Cll 0 Q) Q) Q) I;-< ;:E:;:E:p., S Q) '" ....• A 00 ::;; ~ Q) ....• o '-' •• •• ;:l 0 00 " •• '-' 0 H H H H H H I :> H I 1-404 :> I :> H percent of Converse County families with incomes greater than $15,000 is to the region and state averages Finally, of 19.2 percent County relatively low in comparison and 15.6 percent, respectively. 23.6 percent of Converse the proportions families have incomes below $5,000, while are 18.2 percent and 20.3 percent, for the region and state respectively. Housing This section describes River Basin. An assessment the 1970 housing conditions within the Powder is made of housing of housing trends specific to the region and Converse facilities, with more detailed Counties, crowding, descriptions conditions in Campbell respectively. Occupancy, structure type and age, plumbing value of owner occupied housing in turn. and contract rent for rental housing are discussed Regional Six tables (49-54) illustrate various housing conditions using 1970 census data as the primary data source. Occupancy per occupied housing from state averages. areas. Those counties characteristic. Household size (the number of persons differ only slightly unit) and occupancy Household characteristics size is generally greater in rural than urban a population gain during lost and cities which experienced the 1960's tended to have lower vacancy rates than those areas which population. Finally, within the study area more housing units are likely to be to urban owner occupied than the state average and within rural as opposed areas (Table 49). Structure constitute and age characterist~cs. percentage of housing While single family structures units within the study area, the stock. the greatest mobile home is beginning This phenomenon to assume a greater proportion of the housing is especially true in the rural areas and places which have 1-405 U") U") ,,"0("') ONOO rl rl 00 o rl rl o 00000 000 Nrlrl N """" 0000 N ("')N o I-< ("') 0 .g 'r! '-' (/) rl 'U OJ .r! 0< (/) § ""' o ::l (/) rl N -, u <=: o <1J ;;,. oJ< rl 'U (/) <1J <=: '-' ~ ::I'r-! <1J ;><::t: <1J " OJ 0 ::l cq ill (j ~a:5 :>-, o g 0< I-< ill o o r-, " rl rl -0 U") u (j o u ~ ""' o o rl (/) .., <=: 'r! a-; rl o f'i .., (/) .,.., ? .,.., ~ '-' I-< <1J 0< ill 'r! P § 'U 'U p-, .0 Vl § I-< o '"d ill I-< <1J OJ ;>< oJ< .., I ::l oJ< oJ< ill (j o u ~ I-< ::l o Vl 1-406 experienced rapid and substantial population growth. Of the housing within This age Housing in the eight-county characteristic study area, 43.3 percent was built prior to 1939. is similar to that noted for the state as a whole. growth is of more recent construction centers of recent population and 51). Plumbing of housing which (Tables 50 and crowding characteristics. Differences in the percentage lacks some or all plumbing facilities are most pronounced between urban and rural areas. of housing Crowding Campbell deficient in plumbing In rural areas of every county, the proportion facilities exceeds the statewide average. conditions were generally less than state averages (Table 52). except within County where crowding was most extreme Value of owner occupied housing housing. and contract rent of renter occupied the The median value of an owner occupied home ranges greatly within County to $20,700 in Campbell exceeded County. Median area from $8,400 in Niobrara contract rent was $78 which slightly newer construction commanded the state median of $73. Naturally, higher rents. Median contract rents paralleled units (Tables 53 and 54). changes in median value of owner occupied housing Campbell County Occupancy characteristics. There are 3,937 year-round1 including housing housing units in Campbell County. within the county, The City of Gillette, contains 2,228 year-round The remaining the entire urban population units or 55.1 percent of the housing rural areas. in the county. 1,709 housing units are located in in Campbell County. There are 3.4 people per household 1 Year-round housing excludes vacant units intended and vacant units held for migratory labor. for seasonal occupancy 1-407 -.::t rl U") 0"\ U") -.::t rl o o N N o Q) CO 0"\ rl OM ,.0 Q) UJ S 0 -.::t U") CO rl N 0"\ :<=:::r:: UJ o U") " o ..-I ("") ..-I Q) .g If"\ N CO 0"\ N ("") 000 U") H ." 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Q) H o ..c: K co ClJ .r-l ..c: S CIl 'r-l S ;>" .w ..-I -r-l tJ H 0 Q) 'r-l .w I=J CIi :J'"O 0 CIl 4-i 'r-l 0 'J ~ OJ) p. H . ::r:: ,.0 ,.0 Q) ~ ...:1 HP-i ~ ::q Zoo po:; S 0 ClJ J:Ll .-I N p::;- . . 0') 'J 00 ..-I ..-I ILl 00 ..-I ..-I 0 ." EJ .r-/ .w I=J Z H 0 H ~ 'r-l ~ -Ie Z -Ie -Ie ~ S .r-/ 0 tJ tJ t1l Ul -Ie -Ie -Ie J:Ll K 0) tJ H :J 0 00 1-421 fall 1975 and, with use of three parts of the old high school, will accommodate a maximum enrollment of 1,100 students. County High School, built in 1972, has 601 enrolled capacity of 1,100 students. to incorporate The existing building school facility to The Campbell students and a maximum on a 40-acre accommodate site has been designed an additional additions 400 students. school sites, the school district of Gillette) owns property to meet In addition at two sites to existing (south and northwest which will be utilized future demands and when funding becomes available. County rural schools. students There are 14 rural schools with a total of 322 Table 57 provides the current in grades K through 8 and 33 teachers. maximum enrollment capacity, enrollment, school. and structural type of each rural and are presently Enrollments at these schools range from 2 to 74 pupils (Gap). under capacity in all but one school Most Junior high and all senior to public schools in Gillette. high school students from rural areas are bussed Converse County The county has two unified school districts--Douglas of 1,783 students. 1972-73 and Glenrock-In comparison with which together had a fall 1973 enrollment counties, the combined all other Wyoming districts valuation school year figures from both assessed expenditures placed Converse County second in the state with a $38,679 in effective per pupil in ADM and above the state average C, Table 61). #1. ($1,067) per pupil in ADM (Appendix Douglas largest average Unified School District This school district is the an in Converse County with a fall 1973 enrollment of 1,104 students, of nine student-teacher schools ratio of 15.5 to 1, and a school inventory high school (Table 55). elementary and one junior-senior In 1972-73, 1-422 H .-1 'rl . +J Q NOI1")I1")r-U OOONI1")-el r--N-o~N NC"lCJ\N CJ\ C"l 11") .... o r--. .-l .-l (j) ,.Q ;:l U ~ 4-l~ or-.-l .-1 en.-1 CJ\ ~ ell U o .c U Cf.l U -r-l .-l o 11")00-00 N C""l C"l 00 O-oNN 00 N N .g Po< .-l ell ;:l p::.; H N N C"l 00 CO 00 r-, 00 I I I I ::.::::.::::.::::.::::.:: + OOOOOO~ I I I I ::.::::.::::.::::.:: o .-1 o o ..c U Cf.l 4-l . ~ o (j) Cf.l (j) ell Z r=; f:-l f:-l ~ o U H ;:l Cf.l o 1-423 the district had a highly favorable ADM and expended Table 61). assessed valuation of $44,417 per pupil in (Appendix C, came $1,107 per pupil, more than the $948 state average of the total $1.4 million The majority school revenue receipts from the from the district (54.8%) and county (38.7%) with only 6.4 percent state and 0.12 percent from the Federal Government (population (Appendix C, Table 62). and one The City of Douglas junior-senior enrollment, city school. high school. maximum of 2,677) has one elementary Table 58 indicates capacity, the grade levels, current type of each in the elementary respectively. The enrollment acreage, and structural under capacity Student enrollments are presently school and junior-senior maximum acceptable high school by 9.5 and 10.8 percent, ratio is 20 to 1. School student-teacher The Douglas Elementary 543 pupils and consists temporary elementary classrooms (grades K-6) has a current enrollment of of the South and North Grade school sites and This school will be replaced capacity by a new at the fairgrounds. facility with a maximum student enrollment of 600 students by fall 1975. The Converse enrolled County Junior-Senior capacity High School for 600. (grades 7-12) has 535 of the new students with a maximum school, Upon completion elementary elementary the junior-senior high school will acquire its maximum capacity the North Grade to 750 pupils. to include a lifting, school facilities and increase The district gymnasium, wrestling, will have a recreation complex completed by mid-1975 for handball, 25-meter AAU swimming and a rifle range. In addition to existing pool, facilities weight school sites, the district owns 25 acres across the river which will be available for future school construction. with a total of 58 There are eight rural public schools in the district pupils in grades K through 8. Table 58 provides 1-424 the grade levels, current (J) -l..l ill N N 'r-! (J) ill ill H .c: -l..l a H I 0"1 -l..l I' cd o o If) ..-l 'r-! H -l-J (J) -l-J o N r-l r-l cd ~ 'r-! A r-l (J) ..0 "" ill 'r-! -l-J -l..l ill 'r-! 'r-! -l..l 'r-! (J) o .c: en (J) o 'r-! H -l-J -l-J tl tl N r-l tl ill H ? "CJ ill 'r-! 4-1 'r-! .r-! A r-l cd I If) o cd (J) \0 cd cd If) -l-J -l-J -l-J tl (\j (J) ill .-l cd 'r-! H ~ "" CO If) o .c: en tl o o 0"1 0"1 . N CO r-l tl (J) (J) OOOOOMCV"lN ..;;tIf)OOOMCOO"l ..;;tM..;;tNOCOIf)N r-l . o ? r-l U ill "CJ l=l cd (J) . o .c: o .c: tl l=l ;l "CJ l=l 'r-! § o ill r-l H ill (J) r-l'r-! 04-1 o 'r-! .c:l=l..;;t "CJ ill o o tlPr--. ..0 bt :> s:: U til 0"1 '"""' rl tl (J) -lC o o \0 \0 -lC -r-i l=l 'r-! s:: o 13 H cd ill l=l -l-J "" E-l cd r-lr-l ..0 'r-! cd eo p., ;l ;l 0 o o If)OIf)If)r-l\o..;;t..;;t ..-l N N N N '-' -l-J A "" U o § § o o 4-1 ill (J) H ill ? If) o l=l M If) s:: 'r-! -l-J U o o ill \0 o COCO CO CO CO CO I I I I I I I ~ I' I N r-l I (J) COCO I ~~~~~~~~ l=l H ill .c: -l-J H o l=l l=l -r-! "CJ ill +J ill l:Jr-l G ~ cd tl H ill (J) r-l o ::r:: H ill Z 0 <.<:l tl cd 0 .c: (J) r-l ill P-,4-I en E-l en ",,0 H ~ ~ IU U 0 o .c: -lC -lC -lC o en tl o en ill tl H ;l 1-425 maximum enrollment capacity, and structural type of each school. under capacity Enrollments range from one to 14 students Most junior-senior Junior-Senior and are currently at all schools. County high school students from rural areas attend Converse High School in Douglas. Unified School District schools #2. The Glenrock School District Glenrock consists of four elementary and one junior-senior high school and had a student-teacher had a higher ($1,004) per pupil (40.2%) total fall 1973 enrollment ratio of 21.4 to 1. assessed valuation of only 679 students and an average In the 1972-73 ($29,876) school year, the district effective expenditure and higher in ADM than the respective revenues accounted state averages. District (52.4%) and county receipts for 92.6 percent of the total school revenue ($812,977) with the small remainder is currently coming from state and federal revenues. any school Since the district bond issues. at maximum debt, it cannot initiate The Town of Glenrock has one elementary and one junior-senior capacity high The school, both of which have enrollments Glenrock Grade School under maximum (Table 59). (K-6) has 385 pupils and occupies three buildings intenns (built to replace its in 1918, 1954 and 1955) on a 3- to 4-acre site. the 1918 building maximum enrollment with an addition capacity to existing The district facilities which will increase from 425 to 600 students. in a steel frame building in student enrollment. The Glenrock (constructed Junior-Senior in 1967) High school houses 315 pupils and is at 90.0 percent debt is sufficiently capacity As soon as the district's the junior-senior and a reduced to allow issuance of school bonds, high school facilities library, maximum hopefully enrollment will be expanded to include additional classrooms by spring 1975. capacity This expansion will increase the school's from 350 to 500 pupils. 1-426 -. rl 0 OJ 0 +J .c '.-I U Cf) Cf) p., OJ -cr I C") :>-. '.-1 U qJ ::::> +J fj '.-1 r=l rl 0 0 .c o Cf) UJ '"0 rl OJ 0 'r-! 0 4-l .c or-! 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OJ u OJ ~ 0 UJ $-I 0 U ,.0 OJ rl rl '.-I OJ '"0 Q OJ ~~~ $-I ::r:: +J UJ 0 ~ UJ fj '"0 OJ l'irl ell 0 .!4 Z 0 .c G.!4 C/) ...:l 0 ~ ~ u 0 ~ Z ~ c.-'0 $-I ~ s:: H +J 0 ell U 0 H U 0 OJ OJ OJ -r-l s:: s:: ::r:: Z OJ rl $-I OJ '.-1 0.-1 rl 'r-! U 0 '"0 rl OJ .c +J Cf) s:: ::r:: su OJ Cf)rl I Cl $-I $-I $-I +J U 4-l CO r=l OJ U $-I Cf) OJ $-I'M rl OJ UJ rl OJ ell OM $-I ~ H s:: +J rl 0 OJ U G ~ ...:l ~ o rl ""'rl ~ . ~ ~ ~r=l::r:: rlNC") ... 1-427 UJ 'M 0 .c oj( $-I r=l Cf) u oj( oj( ;:l 0 Cf) The district K through 8 (Table 59). has three rural schools with only 12 students Most junior high and senior high students in grades in rural areas attend school in Glenrock. Remaining six counties Tables 63 through 69 in Appendix C indicate the grade levels, schools current enrollments Sheridan, and maximum enrollment capacities of public Counties. in Johnson, Natrona, Crook, Weston and Niobrara Health and social services Encompassing a broad range of medical and helping services, health of a and social services given area. incorporates mentary element are a vital element often functioning perspective. in the socio-economic environment each Although in much the same manner, Best viewed a far different sectors, as separate but compli- service the following discussion deals with each as a distinct in the socio-economic environment. Health With both preventive treatment the health and supervision care services discussion and curative functions ranging from diagnosis to of physical, available mental, emotional, and social problems, to a community are both broad and diverse. elements in the health The following centers upon the three primary facilities, and services. categories care system--manpower, Manpower. physicians, dentists, The various nurses of health manpower include pharmacists, development the (R.N. 's and L.P.N. 's), optometrists, Due to the sparsely settled dental hygienists, pattern and sanitarians. common to both the Powder River Basin and the State of Wyoming, of health manpower has developed into a general pattern distribution of urban 1-428 M \0 M r-o.n .....-I 0'1 o.n o.n -.:t -.:t CO N N 0 l-l .0 0 .....-I .....-I M 0 0 0 o!C .....-I l::l .....-I (/) 'rl Z Q) ..c: l-l Q) Po III l::l l-l '''; Q) s::: l-l ..w \0 N 0'1 N N .....-I 0 r-CO M 0 r-.....-I M 0'1 \0 N <;» o.n r-.....-I Ul Q) ,-... 0 U 101 0 \0 III :;: III O>Q Po l::l l-l U Ul Z l::l 0 (/) 'rl .....-I Q) :> .0 l-l III Q) tr.l :> ~ '''; ..c:P:; H .....-I III III Q) .....-I l-l III Q) Q)"d .w l::l ..c: N -er CO 0 00 0 r-, .....-I .....-I ...•'" \ o!C 0 'J p::: '''; U 0 tr.l P-i ~ ~ 0 0 l-l U .....-I .....-I o.n .....-I 0 0 0 0 .....-I .....-I o!C -e l::l III (\) Ul ..c: -.:t N N l-l (\) 0 U ~ -cr N o.n 0 o.n .....-I 0 o!C ,-... Q) .w .w ,-... .....-I o!C .....-I .w p::: .....-I .....-I '''; c..'.J Q) III Q) 4-l 0 ~I r-M 0 M M .w l::l '-' .....-I '-' o.n N Q) r-- N N .....-I ~ (/) M 1:1 .w l-l N ~ .w (/) (/) .w U '''; l-l III r-. Po Q) 0'1 .....-I A .w '''; l::l (\) Ul (/) (/) (/) DO Q) l::l '''; U .....-I '''; Q) A H ::l Z .....-I (/) .w l::l III (/) (/) .w Ul (/) Q) '''; .w 1:1 '''; DO (/) '''; '''; U (/) .w (/) (/) (/) (/) ..c: :>-. P-i '''; .w l::l Q) Z Z pel A . P-i (/) '''; 0 0 ..c: '''; u III H .w Q) p::: Z tr.l :>-. l::l III .0 -r-l :>-'l::l Q) 0 ::s: .....-I H :>-. H "d Po Q) Po H u H ::l tr.l 0 1-429 'U (\) 'U UJ P (\) 'r-! 0 0 0 0 CO M \0 I'-N N \0 S 0 M M Cd (\) (j E1 +J 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 M l.Ji -cr ~ Z :IJ CO \0 l.Ji Q'\ l.Ji Cd ~. ~ ~ Z Z +J M ~ . ..c: Z ~ (\) i (Y) \0 \0 I'-- -cr Q'\ M M M M N I'-I'-- M M N (Y) l.Ji l.Ji 0 M 0 M \0 (Y) -::t -::t 0 M CO M 00 P 'r-! P P Cd I'-(Y) N N N (Y) (Y) CO M ::>: I'-N I'-l.Ji ::>: P 0 +J 0 (Y) (Y) (Y) (Y) l.Ji 0 M I'-\0 0 0 M" M \0 M CO CO I'-- I'-I'-- UJ ::>: p.., Cd 'U l.Ji UJ (\) \0 N 0 'r-! +J ~ P 0 'r-! +J OJ ..c: M (\) (j (f.) Cd P M I'-l.Ji N P H N l.Ji -::t N 0'\ N 0', N 0'\ -::t 0' N N ~(Y) -er I'-0'\ N 0'\ N -er Z • +J OJ 0 p.., ,.0 Cd H N N l.Ji I 0 'r-! H (\) OJ H 0 Z Cd ~ 0 0.. M \0 Cd P OJ M ,.0 ~ ..c: +J M Cd Cd P 0 H +J \0 N \0 I'-N I'-- H (\) (f.) 'U P ..c: 0 N 'J l.Ji 'r-! UJI'-- o M Cd 'r-! (j OJ M 'U P OJ ..c: l.Ji (Y) l.Ji t>, 0 0.. OJ H (f.) ~ 0 (Y) (j ~ 0 0 H U (Y) l.Ji l.Ji (Y) l.Ji l.Ji (Y) l.Ji l.Ji t> 'U 0 H 0 OJ Cd P ~ 'U OJ OJ UJ -cr -::t CO l.Ji (Y) -cr 0'\ \0 0'\ I'-- " , p.., 'r-! +J P OJ Z . ~ ~ Z p.., 'r-! H +J OJ P +J Cd UJ H ;:l 'r-! H 'r-! (j Z UJ t>, :IJ ;:l P PM 0 0 o 'r-! 'r-! P +J +J .r-! Cd Cd ~ ~ Cd H UJ 0 (\) 'U bl)(\) PM 'r-! r=~ ..-l 0 0 p..,H ::>:p.., (\) H . 0 +J r= Cd Cd 0.. +J 'r-! P Cd ~ Cd ..c: 0 (f.) M 0 0 ..c: Z p.., (f.) M Cd o :IJ p.., ~ +J P OJ MM 0 ;:l ;:l 'r-! +J 0..0.. (j 0 0 p..,p..,~ oj( oj( oj( Cd oj( oj( oj( H ;:l 0 (f.) 1-430 adequacy population and rural scarcity. Tables 60 and 61 present the numbers and in each of ratios of physicians, dentists, etc., currently practicing the eight counties in the Powder River Basin region. Campbell and Converse Counties are now below R.N. 's, and a As Table 61 indicates, the state average L.P.N. 'so definite Ranging scarcity for ratios of population from 30 to 100 percent of health manpower to physicians, dentists, below state averages, this indicates to from which, when viewed in relation recommended ratios, becomes still more severe. than currently Recommended ratios require 2 to 275 percent more manpower substantial physicians, dentists manpower exists in these counties. This gap is particularly practical nurses serious with respect (L.P.N. 's). to dentists, County, and licensed In Campbell serve 170 percent more persons than the recommended ratio, physicians and R.N. 's serve 85 percent more persons, L.P.N. 's serve 62 percent more persons, Converse County, although serve 52 percent more than recommended. severely underserved, is nevertheless not so and physicians. which short of L.P.N. 's, dentists, respectively, Gaps of 93 percent 86 percent and 48 percent, reveal shortages below statewide when compared with state averages Table 61 also reveals counties are below counties are still substantially ratios. a clear distinction between urban and rural and Natrona Counties in the Powder River Basin region. state averages While Sheridan for all but optometrists, as Campbell the remaining four rural show much the same pattern Facilities. and Converse Counties. utilization and Bed unit Table 62 presents estimates of hospital bed needs for each of the eight counties needs, an indicator from which utilization a sufficient of general present facility in the Powder River Basin region. requirements, facility provides needs. a standard to measure and projected Based upon present rates per 1,000 population, most of the Powder River Basin area has care (nursing home) beds. number of acute and extended 1-431 o C'1 o 00 N .-l 00 C'1 \.0 o Lf) C'1 o o 00 Lf) Lf) Lf) Lf) Lf) C'1 N .-l o .-l •. 00 .-l 00 r-... 0\ r-... Lf) 00 00 o o N •. •. N N N N .o 'ri Cd H Cd H o o •. 00 N N '~I I o Z 00 0\ N o N CIl III () I::l 'ri .§ o ...., \.0 CIl o •. o .-l •. H III (J) :> .-l Cd ·ri () ~ H U III CIl H III 0\ N o o o o (J) 00 0\ Lf) o 8 .-l •. u o 00 \.0 o 00 0\ Lf) -er \.0 C'1 III III be "0 be Cd III III Cd +J H "0 +J Z .c: (J) 0 III III o .c: Z "0 III "0 III "0 "0 H (J) pq pq pq III III pq 1-432 With 31 acute beds and 125 extended in a good position population. indicator to provide an acceptable in this particular service because care beds, Campbell County appears level of service to its present However, case the number of beds is a poor is of available it does not show that one hospital The utilization closed due to an inadequate number of physicians. rates, 799 acute patient days per 1,000 population population 65 and over are substantially and 43,349 extended care patient days on different from the statewide rates. acute While extended care rates may be attributed to use by nonlocal persons, rates may be due to either actual lower use (reduced morbidity population) or the seeking of alternate, nonlocal in a younger sources of acute care. care beds, is able to County, but its Converse provide adequate Converse extended County's County, with 32 acute and 59 extended care. levels of acute and extended acute utilization As with Campbell rate is below the state average, care rate is above the average. For the most part, the remaining counties in the Powder River Basin The exceptions, Residents of area provide an adequate number of acute and extended care beds. Counties, have no extended care facilities. for such care. and outpatient medical Crook and Niobrara these areas must go elsewhere Services. Besides inpatient services, the of health care system in the Powder River Basin region offers a wide variety mental health services including alcoholism counseling and treatment, individual, group and family counseling, training. Functional psychotherapy, and parent-teacher effectiveness and partial types of services include inpatient, outpatient hospitalization, emergency services and education-consultation. by the Northern In the Powder Mental and the River Basin region, Health Center services are coordinated Wyoming (Sheridan, Crook, Campbell, Counseling Center Johnson, and Weston Counties) and Converse Central Wyoming (Natrona, Niobrara, serving Counties.) Of the 18 professional personnel this eight-county area, 11 are employed 1-433 by the Northern Central Wyoming Wyoming Mental Health Center and seven are employed by the Counseling Center. and treatment is provided through the mental area and and Alcoholism health organizations. counseling Three staff members, two in the five-county one in the three-county area, spend 100 percent of their time on alchohol the incidence alcohol related problems. problems As with the state as a whole, of such is quite high in the Powder River Basin area where as many as 10 percent may be considered to have a "drinking problem,,,l and a and of the population considerable number of arrests are alcohol related. (See Law enforcement arrests in this chapter.) According Social Services, to staff members of the Wyoming Department treatment of Health and is compounded by the problem of alcohol and alcohol acceptance. Liquor its high, cultural is an ingrained part of the "code of recreational activity. the way"; it is often represented In many areas, the availability as the only available of recreational outlets has changed little since former days, and alcohol thus retains its former role. With this high cultural a "drinking problem." acceptance, many people deny that they have among persons with weak is frequently delayed to Social sanctions, particularly Treatment or nonexistent community ties, are delayed. the point at which its need is no longer desired. in the Powder River Basin are in such areas as family relations, the bulk of the caseload. adjust- Most mental health services nonpsychiatric in nature. Counseling constitutes ment, and child management lThis is an informal estimate of one of the alcoholism program staff members. 1-434 In Campbell related County, approximately 100 mental health and 75 alcohol Between the two-man local staff and per week of cases are handled services services at a given time.l the part-time mental health of the alcohol are currently treatment available group, 11 man-days in Gillette. Of the approximately regional trends. 600 cases treated Family relations, adjustment moving in calendar children's year 1973, the majority performance at school, reflected depression. Stresses and general arise from environment, life- are the most regularly occurring problems. into a new community, to the strains schools, adapting to a possibly new and strange and adjusting style of overloaded medical public services etc.)2. and a temporary (mobile homes, services, Thus, although Campbell County's mental health problems the underlying are substantially the same as in other areas of identified. alcohol is frequently the region, causes are more readily treatment According an underlying to alcohol staff members, element in such other problem In addition, areas as truancy, family relations, of and child management. Campbell as many as 12 percent as having a "drinking from high-boom-related of the population problem." levels. County may be characterized case load has declined Since 1970, as the alcohol However, growth is now beginning In Converse related to again be felt, caseload County, approximately is again increasing. 30 mental health and 40 alcohol The local office manager approximately six man-days assisted by cases are handled alcohol at a given time. counselor provides the Casper-based of mental health per week services. stable ranching area, the caseload in Converse County through- As a relatively reflects the general composition and incidence region. of mental health problems out the Powder River Basin ranching lEstimates of local staff members. 2This relatively qualitative assessment experience of local staff members. comes from the professional judgement and 1-435 Social services Although social services adoption, usually conceptualized as public assistance services. or welfare, These include: refers to a broader range of helping homemaker and chore services, services, family planning, foster care, day care, In the Powder home management, protective and family counseling. River Basin region, provides education, the Division of Public Assistance services and Social Services training, these as well as referral and housing. With a 28-member in the areas of health, staff, of which 6 are local directors and 22 are social workers, offices the Division of Public Assistance and Social Services maintains Among in each of the eight counties within offices, the caseload varies the Powder River Basin area. the individual worker from fewer than twenty per social of 50 per worker in the rapidly in the more stable rural areas to upwards areas. Campbell County is perhaps developing the most overloaded of all the local social workers who are social offices. assisted worker current The Gillette office is manned by two full-time director (2 days per week) by the district and another part-time report a for (lYzdays per week). caseload Even so, the full time social workers 95. Based upon Wyoming office of approximately caseloads, standards recommended maximum the Gillette is now handling considering approximately hiring an 15 cases above the maximum. additional The division is presently full time social worker The Gillette to reduce this overload. limited to child protection are offered, office is almost exclusively and assistance cases. Although family counseling is directed to unwed mothers the bulk of services the placement toward the investigation of foster homes and of children in such homes. I-436 Since the mid-60's, ties have migrated living conditions, to the community families in which large numbers area. of persons without strong community by cramped to the Gillette This influx, compounded outlets, and frequent incidence lack of recreational lack of commitment have produced a disproportionate of dysfunctional child abuse and family discord are far more likely to occur. area reflect this situation. and two full time social the present level is approxmore Social services in the Gillette The Douglas office consists workers. Although caseloads of a director have been increasing, maximum. imately one-half the recommended County, While caseloads are generally varied than in Campbell the Division of Public Assistance and Social Service reports an increasing Social services nature of each county. and a relatively proportion of child protection six counties cases. the urban/rural staffs in the remaining reflect While Natrona and Sheridan have fairly substantial Niobrara, Weston, heavy caseload, Johnson, and Crook each have only one or two social workers and a relatively light caseload. Law enforcement This section discusses of sheriff and police departments crime and number of arrests. law enforcement in two parts: an assessment of in the basic study area and the incidence Sheriff and police departments Every county in the Powder River Basin has a sheriff's and at least one municipal police department jurisdiction police department. The jurisdictional whereas department area of each is within municipal boundaries, the sheriff's covers the entire county, including municipalities. of each county is described and civilians), In Table 63, the sheriff's department in terms of staff size (full and part-time sworn officers 1-437 '"c:l H P-I 00 1=1 H a 0) 0) 'r-! P-I S -I-l 'r-! ctl '"c:l E-i ...-I 0) I ;:j:>...-I P...-1 0) 0...-1 o U ;:j'r-! J:;!:;4-I 4-1 "...... (JJ 0) ...-I 'r-! ...-I 0 I' I' I' If) ;:;:: (j\ 0 I' (Vi 0 N 00 0 I' 00 ...-I ...-I -I-l (JJ 0 ...-I (Vi (Vi \0 (Vi 0 N ...-I N <;;» ~ ~ m -I-l ctl 1=1 HO ctl 0) 00 m 0) ...-I (j\ o -cr (Vi -er (Vi ~ ...-I N ...-I ctl 'r-! ...-I ...-I ...-I 1' 4-1 'r-! (j\ 4-1 p::<...-I 'r-! H H 0) a El 4-1 4-1 ctl -I-l ...-I .r-! S 'r-! H U 1=1 00 1=1 ctl 'r-! ...-I 0) 'r-! :> 'r-! E-i U I ...-I ...-I ;:j J:;!:; .~ E-i I -I-l H ctl P-I ...-I '-" ctl 0) ~ ~ 'J 1=1 0) 1=1 1=1 0) p-, 0) ..c: (Vi \0 0) ...-I ~ ..c ctl E-i .~ (Vi 1=1 u a N I' 0) ..c: ...-I ...-I 00 P-I ] a 0) S 'r-! (JJ E-i ...-I I ctl -I-l .r-! H () ctl .r-! P-I 4-1 4-1 0 0) 1=1 S H 'r-! a E-i I 00 ...-I r-l ;:j J:;!:; N r-l 0) 0)"...... -I-l-.::t -I-ll' -r-i (j\ ~...-I a i» u H ctl bO;:j 'r-! N 1=1 1=1 ctl ctl r-l P-I 1=1'J 1=1'-" eo (JJ 'r-! S H 1=1 a If) ~ -.::t a 0) ctl bO-I-l 'r-! S 0"...... i»N 1=1 &' a 1=100 oj( 1=1 'r-! r-l -I-l ctl ctl -I-l r-l ;:j E-i a I' If) 00 (Vi If) (Vi I' oM E-< I til 0'1 S -cr 0 If") ("') 0 .o -o 0'1 0 r-, 00 ("') .c -o 0 0'1 -cr r-, 00 00 .-j 0 ~ .-j 0 00 ~ 4-< p-, ~ "@ ::J Z ~ I:: 0 oM .l-J ::J UJ l-< ill U OM .l-J 4-< 4-< til l-< 0 0 0 4-< l-< ill ill .-j 0 til N N .-j ("') o N N ("') ....., -cr 0 0'> I:: 0 -r-l (JJ -::t OM E-< I S 1::("') ill P oM r--. -::t (JJO'> ~ rl ~ Q) ::J .-j I:: oM I:: I:: til co P-. UJ P-. :> S rl l-< 0 I:: l-< ill ~P-. 0 I:: ill l-< S 0 OM :;: E-< I rl rl 5 4-< 4-< :> <:.) N P-. 0 r--. 0'> .-j (/) .-j .o I ~ 'X I:: I:: 0 :;: OM 0 ...., E-< rl ____ til -::t If") ::J ~ 0 0 I:Q til ...., 0'> rl j--, r--. r--. -o rl If") ~ If") til If") .-j 0'> ("') If") If") ("') 00 0 rl -::t ("') :>, ...., ::J N ~ ...., (JJ oM UP-. 0 I:: 0 OM :>, (/) ill ...., rl rl ill (JJ ill (JJ ill U OM l-< I:: 0 til I:: 0 l-< til I:: 0 l-< til l-< til l-< ...., ::J I:: 0 .o U l-< P. ill @ U U I:: 0 :> :> ill ~ I:: 0 -c (JJ I:: til 0 0 l-< I:: til rl I:: ...., .o OM l-< 0 ...., (JJ (JJ ::J P. ::J ,..., -cr r-, 0'> .c U U ...., 0 ,..., ...., til til 0 OM .c Z Z Z (/) ill ~ I:: OM I:: (JJ Q) ill ...., til ...., (/) P-. 4-< 0 .-j eo 0 rl til I:: OM :>, l-< ---...., oM E-< 5 ill ...., ...., ill (JJ ~ til rl rl .-j ill ill S 0 U 0 l-< I:: U I:: til 0 rl til l-< I:: til "d OM l-< rl ill (JJ -c ill ...., ...., (JJ (JJ ::J (JJ OM l-< S ~ eo ::J OM :>, -e ill 4-< 4-< OM I:: U § ,..., § P. I:: (JJ ill ~ U ill rl .-j ~ (JJ til U 0 rl r-, U <:.) 0 U l-< P <:.) ::J ::J (/) til I:Q oM U ;:;:; ::J ,...:i .c (/) ill :;: 0'> ill ::J Z rl -X 0 (/) 1-440 Douglas six full-time facilities. juveniles, Police Department. In fiscal year 1973, the department civilians located in adequate had policemen and four full-time The city jail has a capacity and new facilities for eight men and six women or capacity are planned with financing served with with increased Act funds. from Law Enforcement one full-time Assistance The city is adequately policeman per 446 persons (or 2.24 police per 1,000 population). The city has five full-time policemen. 3.3 full- Glenrock Police Department. officer There is one full-time time policemen for every 303 citizens which or approximately coverage. per 1,000 population, County Sheriff's is very adequate Johnson department a civilian in Buffalo Department. sworn officers In fiscal year 1973, the and one part-time workers. officer with had only two full-time staff of one permanent and three part-time operations The main office is too small for efficient with only 124 square feet of and is office space. inadequate transported The jail serves both the county and the City of Buffalo is for only eight men and females must be There is one full-time since its capacity to Sheridan jail facilities. officer for every 2,793 persons Buffalo policemen and 2,087 square miles. The department providing consists of six full-time Police Department. civilian, and one part-time the city with one full-time At present, officer per 566 population the department sharing building or 1.8 policemen in l28-square per 1,000 persons. is overcrowded feet of office space and is currently department. A city and county county jail facilities complex is proposed with the sheriff's for construction within the next few years and Patrol, and a City will include facilities Attorney, central for the City Police, County Sheriff, Highway communications and records office, holding facilities jail for 35 persons. 1-441 Sheridan County Sheriff's four full-time officers Department. The department had a staff of in fiscal year 1973, providing the county with one fullregion). The time officer per 4,463 population department (highest in the 8-county in Sheridan plans to move from the Courthouse to large office spaces four females, and six at the county jail, which has all facilities juveniles. Sheridan Police Department. policemen, one part-time officer, for 12 males, The police staff includes civilians. 17 full-time The city has one and six full-time full-time policeman per 638 population or 1.56 officers The department per 1,000 population has over 8,000 square facility for 12 persons. its present which is below the state (1.64) average. feet of office space in the city hall with a detention The department facilities has applied for a federal matching its staff size. grant to remodel and may increase Crook, Natrona, Niobrara, and Weston Counties. concerning Refer to Tables 63 and in 64 for manpower these remaining population and coverage information law enforcement policemen agencies four counties. The number of full-time and national per 1,000 averages was below state (1.64 officers) of Sundance (2.0 officers) in the municipalities (0.9), Casper (1.42), and Mills (1.16). Incidence of crime and arrests Table 65 shows the incidence of major crimes occurring The incidence comparisons in the Powder River Basin counties 1,000 population and with regional during calendar year 1972. of crime per between counties has been calculated and state averages. to facilitate Table 66 provides the same information for other categories of crime and arrests. in Table 65, the incidence of criminal Natrona Of the major crimes indicated homicide, forcible rape, and robbery is very low. The region, excluding 1-442 ;:l H p ....-l ....-l \0 If") qJ H H p::: Q) '0 ....-l ,.0 Q) Polr--qJ H P....-l 'r-! Q) () ;3: ON 0'1 'r-! 4-l 0 Q) () o P Q) P qJ e--i ~ Q) H 0 H Po< '0 'r-! N tr\ 0 0 0 0 \0 P H 0 0 0 0 """" Q) '0 'r-! Q) () S 0 -r-l 'r-! 0 0 ....-l 0 ...:t r-, 0'1 -r-i H U ....-l S 13 H H 0 'l""") ::q ....-l qJ4-l 0 Q) OU e-, o P H Q) Q) .r-! p '0 'r-! 0 0 0 () H qJ ;:IN ....-l C") . pr--0 0 ....-l If") ~ qJO'I I-)....-l 0 N qJ -r-l H U S '-' ~ P ZH 0Il.IG p 0 'r-! 0 ~ I p ....-l qJ .IJ 0 H If") 0 'r-! .IJ qJ ....-l ;:l r--C") co 0'1 If") If") C") If") r--co If") ...:t \0 ...:t N N N If") r--...:t ....-l If") ...:t \0 0' ~ ~ If") 0'1 N ....-l N co r--- 0 C") \0 C") ...:t ....-l \0 ....-l r-, 0 ....-l N C") C") 0 :>,qJ ;3.IJ qJ 4-l A 0 Q) ..-l \.D o N 'U PoHO HU..-l ..-l bl H'HQ) ::J 0 U l=Q o .,.., H So o ..-l o o o \.D '"""' --S r-, (j) ~ H Q) Q)'U ..0 '.1 11') CO ..-l e-, ..-l ~ o N o H 0'\ o coN ::J •....... ..-l ~O'\ to..-l I-) ZH !3 g ........ I N l1') 00 ..-l ..-l Q) Q) ..0 Ul H Q) ~ ~ U CO o H to ~ ~ U o H U o o ~ ..r:: I-) Ul ..0 H ~ .IJ Q) o o '.1 o Z U H Ul Q) ~ CJ) o ::J 1-444 County. realized only two criminal is the region's Johnson homicides. leading four forcible rapes. and eight incidence robberies. Larceny crime with the highest it ranks second. in all but two counties. and Crook. where In other crimes and arrests stem from alcohol-related intoxicated. highest and violation (Table 66). a high percentage drunkenness. Campbell of arrests problems--public of liquor laws. driving while County had the state's Johnson County ranked County had incidence of drunk driving per 1.000 population. second in liquor law violations the state's Incidence offense second highest per 1.000 population. of public and Sheridan occurrence drunkenness per 1.000 population. gambling. vagrancy. of other arrests--arson. forgery. embezzlement. against family and children. and prostitution--is very low in Powder River Basin counties. Campbell occurring averages larceny, County. The ten leading County are provided categories in Table 67. of crime or arrest The county exceeds state in Campbell for crime incidence burglary, per 1.000 population However, in all but three categories-is the county's incidence leading and auto theft. larceny crime problem. driving The county also has the state's highest of drunk of vandalism. types of per 1,000 population Remaining and an extraordinarily Table 69 presents Natrona, high occurrence six counties. the most frequent crime or arrest Counties. a higher highest in Johnson, Sheridan, Niobrara, Crook, and Weston county, realized with the state's In 1972 Natrona, incidence incidence the state's second most populated counties, of crimes than most other Wyoming of burglaries and auto theft and ranking drug law violations, fourth in the state for larceny, public drunkenness, and other assaults. 1-445 Lr) o H +.J (j)r-i o o o o o o o (IJ .r:: ;:J o OU Ul -ri 'd P H 0 H (j) A il ;:J z o o 'd p., pI'-'.-1 0, r-i N ~ N o ;:J 0 +.J (IJ (j) (IJ p.,r-ip., H Q) Lr) HO 0 (jJ o o o o o r-i r-i CO CO o o o N Ul H r-i P cd (j) o o CJ P (j) r-... -::t I'-0'\ 'd ·ri CJ P H (j) o ;:J (Y) . o r-i r-i 'ri H U t=J p.,r-ip., HO (jJ 0 0 o o o o . o. o p..., CO Lr) , rl ~ a 'n .w 'n ~ 'n IOl ro •. (JJ oJ( aJ ..c H H aJ 0 00 -0 rl 0'\ (V) a S 'n H CIl p.,lI-l CT' .w 0 rl rl r@ rl (V) -.::t rl If) 0'\ rl rl rl r-.::t If) ca ,,.--. H 0 0 0 0 0 rl 0 0 0 p.,aJ lI-l •• lI-l bOO H U U N ::J CIl 0.0 CIl ~ 'n ~ 'n S 'n 'n .w ~ ::J a aJ fj f8 r 0 0 (T') 0 -0 rl , Cd •. ~ a ro ~ 'n ~ ~ (JJ CIl rl f.l.< a U '-" ~ H aJ 'U f.l.< -0 -0 a ~ ~ r'n 0' rl N -cr N ro CIl H i'LI 0 HO aJO f.l., H CIl N N (\) Q) ro ~ 'n U 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (V) 0 0 S rl CIl ro 'n (JJ r@ ~ 'n Q) rl Q) lI-l ,.0 lI-l N aJ eo (JJ ::IN !=l H !=l CIlO'\ 'Jrl rl rl rl 0 (V) ~r- Q) ~ CIl 0 0 N r@ r-0 H aJ -0 00 ::J Z a fil fj bJJ a ~ •. -.::t '-" Q) ro H (JJ CIl ell (JJ (JJ 0.0,.:4 •. (\) 'n I S u H .w rl CIl Cd rl If) ~ a 'n r(V) co 0'\ If) If) (V) r00 If) If) -.::t 1.0 N -.::t N 0'\ N If) r0 00 (V) •. •. -0 (V) ~ -0 rl ~ a 'n a Sl'Q (\) ro E-l f.l.< .w a N 0' rl ,CIl ;3: .w CIl lI-l A a a N a rl rl (\) (\) (JJ ,.0 p.. H Q) ,.:4 a ~ @ u CIl 8 u a a a H U ~ ..c a 'J (JJ a H .w ~ ,.0 CIl H CIl H ell CIl ro ~ a Z ..c Hrl,.:4 Q) C\l 'n 'r! a aJ .w .w CIl (JJ .w U) S aJ U) U 'n 'n Z ..c U) H Q) a .w ~ (JJ (\) ~ a 'n ;3: ~ 'n 0.0 aJ p::; 0.0 .w u..c a H u (\) (\) (\) S ;3: a :>. rl rl