Coal Diver Everything you wanted to know about coal, but were afraid to ask.

This is a text-only version of the document "A Glossary of Mining Terms". To see the original version of the document click here.
Abutment In coal mining, (1) the weight of the rocks above a narrow roadway is transferred to the solid coal along the sides, which act as abutments of the arch of strata spanning the roadway; and (2) the weight of the rocks over a longwall face is transferred to the front abutment, that is, the solid coal ahead of the face and the back abutment, that is, the settled packs behind the face. Acid mine drainage Acidic run-off water from mine waste dumps and mill tailings ponds containing sulphide minerals. Also refers to ground water pumped to surface from mines. Such drainage often requires treatment to buffer acidity before it can be released into the natural environment. Acid mine water Mine water that contains free sulfuric acid, mainly due to the weathering of iron pyrites. Acidic precipitation Snow and rain that have a low pH, caused by sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide gases from industrial activity released into the atmosphere. Acidic rocks Usually refers to an igneous rock carrying a high (greater than 65%) proportion of silica. Active workings Any place in a mine where miners are normally required to work or travel and which are ventilated and inspected regularly. Adit An adit is a more or less horizontal drive (walk-in mine) into a hill that is usually driven for the purpose of intersecting or mining an ore body. An adit may also be driven into a hill to intersect or connect a shaft for the purpose of dewatering. Adits were commonly driven on a slight incline to enable loaded mine trucks to have the advantage of a downhill run out, while the empty (lighter) truck was pushed uphill back into the hill. The incline also allows water to drain out of the adit. An adit only becomes a tunnel if it comes out again on the hill somewhere, like a train tunnel. Advance Mining in the same direction, or order of sequence; first mining as distinguished from retreat. Or a noun describing the distance a tunnel has advanced during a period of time. For example, the advance in the tunnel last month was 100 metres. Aerial magnetometer An instrument used to measure magnetic field strength from an airplane. Agglomerate A breccia composed largely or entirely of fragments of volcanic rocks. Agglomeration A method of concentrating valuable minerals based on their adhesion properties.

Agitation In metallurgy, the act or state of being stirred or shaken mechanically, some times accomplished by the introduction of compressed air. Air Shaft This term is one of the over used ones. There is a lot of effort in digging a mine. You don't do it if you don't have to. The airshaft is usually an abandoned shaft which has been intersected during the normal course of following the common denominator (usually a quartz vein) or driven a small distance to or along a vein to a known abandoned or disused shaft. An intersection provides ventilation. Two entrances to the surface provide a natural airflow, hence the term airshaft. Air split The division of a current of air into two or more parts. Airborne survey A survey made from an air craft to obtain photographs, or measure magnetic properties, radioactivity, etc. Airway Any passage through which air is carried. Also known as an air course. Alloy A compound of two or more metals.

Alluvial, alluvium Relatively recent deposits of sedimentary material laid down in river beds, flood plains, lakes, or at the base of mountain slopes. Alpha meter An instrument used to measure positively charged particles emitted by radio active materials. Alpha ray A positively charged particle emitted by certain radioactive materials. Alteration Any physical or chemical change in a rock or mineral subsequent to its formation. Milder and more localized than metamorphism. Amalgam An alloy or union of mercury with another metal; gold or other metal that has been coated with mercury by adhesion Amalgamation The process of removing precious metals from ores by use of mercury. Amorphous A term applied to rocks or minerals that possess no definite crystal structure or form, such as amorphous carbon. Amortization The gradual and systematic writing off of a balance in an account over an appropriate period. Analysis substance. Anemometer The determination of the contents in any

Instrument for measuring air velocity.

ANFO Acronym for ammonium nitrate and fuel oil, a mixture used as a blasting agent in many mines. Angle of draw In coal mine subsidence, this angle is assumed to bisect the angle between the vertical and the angle of repose of the material and is 20° for flat seams. For dipping seams, the angle of break increases, being 35.8° from the vertical for a 40° dip. The main break occurs over the seam at an angle from the vertical equal to half the dip. Angle of repose The maximum angle from horizontal at which a given material will rest on a given surface without sliding or rolling. Anhydrous Refers to compounds having no water in their composition. Anneal Heating and cooling metals to make them harder and stronger Annual report The formal financial statements and report on operations issued by a corporation to its shareholders after its fiscal year-end. Anode A rectangular plate of metal cast in a shape suitable for refining by the electrolytic process. Anomaly Any departure from the norm which may indicate the presence of mineralization in the underlying bedrock. In geophysics and geochemistry, an area where the property being measured is significantly higher or lower than the larger, surrounding area. Anthracite A hard, black coal containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. Anticline An arch or fold in the layers of rock shaped like the crest of a wave, as opposed to a syncline, which is similar to the trough of a wave. Apex The top or terminal edge of a vein on surface or its nearest point to the surface. Appalachian Region The eastern geological region of Canada consisting of the Appalachian Mountains Aqua Regia Acid mixture of 3 parts hydrochloric and 1 part nitric acid. Aqueous Containing water or related to material deposited by water. Aquifer A water-bearing bed of porous rock, often sandstone.


Minerals that branch in treelike forms.

Archean Refers to rock group of the Archean geological era. Arching Fracture processes around a mine opening, leading to stabilization by an arching effect. Argentiferous Argentite Argillaceous nature Pertains to silver-clearing rocks.

A silver sulphide mineral. Consisting of clays or having a clayey

Arrastra Crude stone amalgamating gold ores. Arsenical





Pertaining to or containing arsenic

Artesian an aquifer or water bearing zone where the piezometric surface (pressure level) is above ground surface. Artificial intelligence A field of computer science research aimed at enabling computers to mimic (at best) the reasoning processes of human experts. Ash coal. The inorganic residue remaining after ignition of

Assay A chemical test performed on a sample of ores or minerals to determine the amount of valuable metals contained. Assay - ton grams. Assaying equivalent ton, equal to 29.166

Assay foot (metre, inch, centimetre) The assay value multiplied by the number of feet, metres, inches, centimetres across which the sample is taken. Assay laboratory A laboratory in which the proportions of metal in ores or concentrates are determined using analytical techniques Assay map Plan view of an area indicating assay values and locations of all samples taken on the property. Assay Value The value of an ore as determined by assay results; the amount and worth of metals or minerals in a sample.

Assessment work The amount of work, specified by provincial law, that must be performed each year in order to retain legal control of mining claims. Atomic Weight The relative weight of an atom of an element as compared to the most stable isotope of carbon (At. Wt. 12.01115). Attrition abrasion. Loss of material through friction and

radioactive minerals nearby, but to cosmic rays and minor residual radioactivity in the vicinity. Backwardation A situation when the cash or spot price of a metal stands at a premium over the price of the metal for delivery at a forward date. Backwash Water movement against the primary direction of flow. Bacterial leaching / bio-oxidation bacteria to oxidise sulphide minerals The use of

Auger A rotary drill that uses a screw device to penetrate, break, and then transport the drilled material (coal). Auriferous Auriferous Refers to gold-bearing rocks and gravels. Containing gold. see Capital stock.

Baffle A partition or grating in a furnace, container or channel. Bailer Device for removing sludge and water from a drill hole or mine. Balance sheet A formal statement of the financial position of a company on a particular day, normally presented to shareholders once a year. Everything owned by the company (i.e. its assets) must be equal to the sum of the company's debts (liabilities) and the value of its shares and retained earnings (net worth). Ball Clay A fine-grained, plastic, white firing clay used principally for bonding in ceramic ware. Ball mill A cylindrically shaped steel container filled with steel balls into which crushed ore is fed. The ball mill is rotated, causing the balls to cascade, which in turn grinds the ore. Banded iron formation Rock composed of bands or layers of minerals (rocks) differing in color and texture. Banjo An alluvial gold washing trough, a shovel, musical instrument, a carrying case for Chinese gold scales. Barren Said of rock or vein material containing no minerals of value, and of strata without coal, or containing coal in seams too thin to be workable. Barricading Enclosing part of a mine to prevent inflow of noxious gasses from a mine fire or an explosion. Barrier Something that bars or keeps out. Barrier pillars are solid blocks of coal left between two mines or sections of a mine to prevent accidents due to inrushes of water, gas, or from explosions or a mine fire. Basal till Unsorted glacial debris at the base of the soil column where it comes into contact with the bedrock below. Basalt An extrusive volcanic rock composed primarily of plagioclase, pyroxene and minor olivine. Base Any compound that will combine with an acid

Authorized capital

Autogenous grinding The process of grinding ore in a rotating cylinder, using as a grinding medium large pieces or pebbles of the ore being ground, instead of conventional steel balls or rods. Automation The process of controlling industrial production processes by computers or programmable "logic-controllers" with a minimum of human involvement. Auxiliary operations All activities supportive of but not contributing directly to mining. Auxiliary ventilation Portion of main ventilating current directed to face of dead end entry by means of an auxiliary fan and tubing. Avoirdupois Common system of weights used in the U.S. and Britain. Azimuth A surveying term that references the angle measured clockwise from any meridian (the established line of reference). The bearing is used to designate direction. The bearing of a line is the acute horizontal angle between the meridian and the line.

Back The ceiling or roof of an underground opening. Back sample Rock chips collected from the roof or back of an underground opening for the purpose of determining grade. Backfill Waste material used to fill the void created by mining an orebody. Background Minor amounts of radioactivity, shown on a counter, that are due not to abnormal amounts of

and neutralize it, forming a salt; also bottom or support for any structure. Base camp Centre of operations from which exploration activity is conducted. Base metal Any non-precious metal (e.g.. copper, lead, zinc, nickel, etc.). Basement rocks The underlying or older rock mass. Often refers to rocks of Precambrian age which may be covered by younger rocks. Basic Underlying fundamental; rocks with little silica; also the opposite of acidic. Basic research Fundamental scientific research concerned solely with scientific principles as opposed to applied scientific research which is concerned with the commercial application of those principles. Basic rocks An igneous rock, relatively low in silica and composed mostly of dark-colored minerals. Batholith A large mass of igneous rock extending to great depth with its upper portion dome-like in shape. It has crystallized below surface, but may be exposed as a result of erosion of the overlying rock. Smaller masses of igneous rocks are known as bosses or plugs. Bauxite A rock made up of hydrous aluminum oxides; the most common aluminum ore. layers. Beach placer A placer deposit of valuable heavy minerals on a contemporary or ancient beach or along a coastline. Beam A bar or straight girder used to support a span of roof between two support props or walls. Beam building The creation of a strong, inflexible beam by bolting or otherwise fastening together several weaker layers. In coal mining this is the intended basis for roof bolting. Bear market Term used to describe market conditions when share prices are declining. Bearing A surveying term used to designate direction. The bearing of a line is the acute horizontal angle between the meridian and the line. The meridian is an established line of reference. Azimuths are angles measured clockwise from any meridian. Bearing plate A plate used to distribute a given load. In roof bolting, the plate used between the bolt head and the roof. Bed A stratum of coal or other sedimentary deposit.

Bedded Lead A term used to describe planar quartz veins confined by the bedding planes of metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. Commonly used to describe goldbearing quartz veins in Nova Scotia. Bedding layers. The arrangement of sedimentary rocks in

Bedrock Solid rock forming the Earth's crust, frequently covered by soil or water. Belt conveyor A looped belt on which Coal or other materials can be carried and which is generally constructed of flame-resistant material or of reinforced rubber or rubber-like substance. Belt idler A roller, usually of cylindrical shape, which is supported on a frame and which, in turn, supports or guides a conveyor belt. Idlers are not powered but turn by contact with the moving belt. Belt take-up A belt pulley, generally under a conveyor belt and inby the drive pulley, kept under strong tension parallel to the belt line. Its purpose is to automatically compensate for any slack in the belting created by start-up, etc. Bench One of to or more divisions of a coal seam separated by slate or formed by the process of cutting the coal. Or one "step" or working level of an open pit mine. Beneficiate To concentrate or enrich; often applied to the preparation of iron ore for smelting, through such processes as sintering, magnetic concentration, washing, etc. Beneficiation The treatment of mined material, making it more concentrated or richer. Bentonite A clay which has great ability to absorb water and which swells accordingly. Berm A pile or mound of material capable of restraining a vehicle. Bessemer An iron ore which has a very low phosphorus content. Beta particles An elementary particle emitted from the nucleus of an element during radioactive decay. Binder A streak of impurity in a coal seam. Or the cement or pozzolanic material added to mine backfill to consolidate it. Bio-leaching A process for recovering metals from low-grade ores by dissolving them in solution, the dissolution being aided by bacterial action. Biosphere living things. That part of the Earth which contains

Bedded Refers to rock formations deposited in successive layers.

Biotite A platy magnesium-iron mica, common in igneous rocks. Bit The hardened and strengthened device at the end of a drill rod that transmits the energy of breakage to the rock. The size of the bit determines the size of the hole. A bit may be either detachable from or integral with its supporting drill rod. Frequently made of an ultra-hard material such as industrial diamonds or tungsten carbide. Bituminous coal A middle rank coal (between subbituminous and anthracite) formed by additional pressure and heat on lignite. Usually has a high Btu value and may be referred to as "soft coal." Black damp A term generally applied to carbon dioxide. Strictly speaking, it is a mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. It is also applied to an atmosphere depleted of oxygen, rather than having an excess of carbon dioxide. Black gold Placer gold that is coated with black manganese oxides. Black Jack blend. A miner's term for sphalerite or zinc

Blasting Machine blast by electricity.

A portable device used to initiate a

Bleeder or bleeder entries Special air courses developed and maintained as part of the mine ventilation system and designed to continuously move air-methane mixtures emitted by the gob or at the active face away from the active workings and into mine-return air courses. Alt: Exhaust ventilation lateral. Blister copper The product of the Bessemer converter furnace used in copper smelting. It is a crude form of copper, assaying about 99% copper, and requires further refining before being used for industrial purposes. Block caving An inexpensive method of mining in which large blocks of ore are undercut, causing the ore to break or cave under its own weight. Board lot One hundred shares.

Boiling Point The point at which a substance boils; for water, 212 degrees F. or 100 degrees C. Bolt torque The turning force in foot-pounds applied to a roof bolt to achieve an installed tension. Bonanza Very rich ore.

Black smoker Tall volcanic vent found along active spreading centres on the ocean floor through which sulphide-laden fluids escape. Blast furnace A reaction vessel in which mixed charges of oxide ores, fluxes and fuels are blown with a continuous blast of hot air and oxygen-enriched air for the chemical reduction of metals to their metallic state. Iron ore is most commonly treated in this way, and so are some ores of copper, lead, etc. Blast hole A hole drilled for emplacement of explosives. Blaster A mine employee responsible for loading, priming and detonating blastholes. Blasthole A hole drilled for purposes of blasting rather than for exploration or geological information. Blasting Detonating explosives to loosen rock for excavation. Blasting agent Any material consisting of a mixture of a fuel and an oxidizer. It normally refers to relatively insensitive mixture such as ANFO, emulsion, or watergel explosive. Blasting cap A detonator containing a charge of detonating compound, which is ignited by electric current or the spark of a fuse. Used for detonating explosives. Blasting circuit Electric circuits used to fire electric detonators or to ignite an igniter cord by means of an electric starter.

Bond An agreement to pay a certain amount of interest over a given period of time. Boom A telescoping, hydraulically powered steel arm on which drifters, manbaskets and hydraulic hammers are mounted. Bootleg The remnants of a blasthole that did not properly break when the blast was initiated. Borehole Common term for a drill hole.

Borer Common term for rock-cutting drill. Boring Drilling holes into hard rock or driving a tunnel with a tunnel boring machine Bort An impure diamond used for hardening drill bits; an abrasive. Bortryoidal forms. Refers to mineral occurring in globular

Boss Any member of the managerial ranks who is directly in charge of miners (e.g., "shift-boss," "faceboss," "fire-boss," etc.). Bottom Floor or underlying surface of an underground excavation. Boulder clay An unstratified deposit of clay in which are embedded rock particles up to the size of boulders;

usually of glacial origin. Box hole A short raise or opening driven above a drift for the purpose of drawing ore from a stope, or to permit access. Box-type magazine A small, portable magazine used to store limited quantities of explosives or detonators for short periods of time at locations in the mine which are convenient to the blasting sites at which they will be used. Brace Mine timber; also platform over mouth of vertical shaft. Brattice or brattice cloth Fire-resistant fabric or plastic partition used in a mine passage to confine the air and force it into the working place. Also termed "line brattice," "line canvas," or "line curtain." Break A loose term used to describe a large scale regional shear zone or structural fault. Break line The line that roughly follows the rear edges of coal pillars that are being mined. The line along which the roof of a coal mine is expected to break. Breaker Slang term for a rock crusher

Brow A low place in the roof of a mine, giving insufficient headroom. Brunton compass A pocket compass equipped with sights and a reflector, useful for sighting lines, measuring dip and carrying out preliminary surveys. Brushing Digging up the bottom or taking down the top to give more headroom in roadways. Btu British thermal unit. A measure of the energy required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. Bucket line dredge A large dredge that utilizes a chain of buckets to excavate and lift gravels for processing. Bug dust The fine particles of coal or other material resulting form the boring or cutting of the coal face by drill or machine. Bulk mining Any large-scale, mechanized method of mining involving many thousands of tonnes of ore being brought to surface per day by a relatively few number of miners Bulk sample A large sample of mineralization, frequently involving hundreds of tonnes, selected in such a manner as to be representative of the potential orebody being sampled. Used to determine metallurgical characteristics. Bulkhead of mines. Partition erected to seal off certain portions

Breakthrough A passage for ventilation that is cut through the pillars between rooms. Breast The face of an overhand cut and fill stope where the drill holes are driven horizontally Breccia A type of rock whose components are angular in shape, as distinguished from a conglomerate, whose components are water- worn into a rounded shape. Bridge carrier A rubber-tire-mounted mobile conveyor, about 10 meters long, used as an intermediate unit to create a system of articulated conveyors between a mining machine and a room or entry conveyor. Bridge conveyor A short conveyor hung from the boom of mining or lading machine or haulage system with the other end attached to a receiving bin that dollies along a frame supported by the room or entry conveyor, tailpiece. Thus, as the machine boom moves, the bridge conveyor keeps it in constant connection with the tailpiece. Brittle Easily fractured or broken.

Bull market Term used to describe financial market conditions when share prices are going up. Bull quartz A prospector's term describing white, coarse-grained, barren quartz. Bulldozing equipment. Bullion Moving material with mechanized

Metal in bars, ingots or other uncoined form.

Bullwheel A belt driven drive wheel, located on the side of a machine such as on a stamper battery. Bump (or burst) A violent dislocation of the mine workings which is attributed to severe stresses in the rock surrounding the workings. Butt cleat . A short, poorly defined vertical cleavage plane in a coal seam, usually at right angles to the long face cleat Butt entry A coal mining term that has different meanings in different locations. It can be synonymous with panel entry, submain entry, or in its older sense it refers to an entry that is "butt" onto the coal cleavage

Broken reserves The amount of ore in a mine which has been broken by blasting but which has not yet been transported to surface. Brokerage A commission fee, set by the stock exchange, charged by a broker on each share purchase or sale. Rates are scaled according to share price

(that is, at right angles to the face). Butte An isolated hill or mountain with steep sides.

top of the prop and the roof to provide bearing support. Cap rock of rock. A layer of rock lying on top of another type

Button Refers to precious metal globule produced by fire assaying. Byproduct A secondary metal or mineral product recovered in the milling process.

Capillarity The property of liquids allowing them to rise through solids. Capital stock The total ownership of a limited liability company divided among a specified number of shares.

Cable bolt A steel cable, capable of withstanding tens of tonnes, cemented into a drillhole to lend support in blocky ground. Cache A place where supplies are stored or hidden.

Capitalization A financial term used to describe the value financial markets put on a company. Determined by multiplying the number of outstanding shares of a company by the current stock price. Captive stope A stope that is accessible only through a manw Car A railway wagon, especially any of the wagons adapted to carrying coal, ore, and waste underground. Carat Unit of weight used for precious stones, equal to 3.2 grains. Carbide bit More correctly, cemented tungsten carbide. A cutting or drilling bit for rock or coal, made by fusing an insert of molded tungsten carbide to the cutting edge of a steel bit shank. Carbon steel A steel hardened by the addition of carbon; drill rod. Carbonaceous Carboniferous Refers to rocks containing carbon. A geological time period.

Cage The conveyance used to transport men and equipment in a shaft. Cage In a mine shaft, the device, similar to an elevator car, that is used for hoisting personnel and materials. Caisson A metal casing or cylinder used to sink shafts in unstable or wet placer ground. Calcareous Like limestone or calcium carbonate, or composed of same. Calcine Name given to concentrate that is ready for smelting (i.e. the sulphur has been driven off by oxidation). Calich A cemented conglomerate, usually occurring in desert climates. Call An option to buy shares at a specified price. The opposite of a "put". Calorie Heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Centigrade. Calorific value The quantity of heat that can be liberated from one pound of coal or oil measured in BTU's. Cam Projection on a shaft that impart irregular motion or reciprocating action to another part; also the shaft itself. Cannel coal A massive, non-caking block coal with a fine, even grain and a conchoidal fracture which has a high percentage of hydrogen, burns with a long, yellow flame, and is extremely easy to ignite. Canopy machine. A protective covering of a cab on a mining

Carbon-in-pulp A method of recovering gold and silver from pregnant cyanide solutions by adsorbing the precious metals to granules of activated carbon, which are typically ground up coconut shells. Carborundum Car-dump car. Silicon carbide used as an abrasive. The mechanism for unloading a loaded

Cash Cost Includes all direct and indirect operating cash costs incurred at each operating mine, divided by the total weight of the primary metal produced. Byproduct revenues earned from other metals are used to reduce the cash cost per ounce of producing the primary metal. Cash flow A measure of the fiscal strength of a business. The net of the inflow and outflow of cash during an accounting period. Does not account for depreciation or bookkeeping write-offs which do not involve an actual cash outlay. Casing head Hardened fitting on top of casing, used for driving casing. Cast A directed throw; in strip-mining, the overburden is cast from the coal to the previously mined

Cap A miner's safety helmet. Also, a highly sensitive, encapsulated explosive that is used to detonate larger but less sensitive explosives. Cap block A flat piece of wood inserted between the

area. Cast Blasting The practice of using blasting to throw the waste rock or overburden some distance in a controlled direction, to reduce the cost of handling it with mechanical equipment. Usually this term is applied to coal mining where cast blasting is used to remove the overburden from the coal seam. Cathode A rectangular plate of metal, produced by electrolytic refining, which is melted into commercial shapes such as wirebars, billets, ingots, etc. Caustic Cave In Caving caved. Corrosive chemical substance. Collapse of mine workings. A mining method where or is purposely

an airway to control the passage of the air current. Check valve gases. Device for controlling flow of liquids or

Chemical Refers to substances involved in reaction between the elements. Chemical Analysis chemistry. Determination of content by

Chip sample A method of sampling a rock exposure whereby a regular series of small chips of rock is broken off along a line across the face. Chock Large hydraulic jacks used to support roof in longwall and shortwall mining systems. Chromite The chief ore mineral of chromium.

Cement copper Copper that has been salvaged from its solution in groundwater or mine drainage water by precipitating on scrap iron, a process commonly used in the U.S. Centigrade A system for measuring temperature. Ceramic Refers to clays hardened by roasting.

Chromium A gray metallic element found in the mineral chromite. Chute An opening, usually constructed of timber and equipped with a gate, through which ore is drawn from a stope into mine cars. Cinnabar A vermilion-colored mercury sulfide mineral. It is the principal ore mineral for mercury. Chemical symbol: HgS. Hardness: 2-2.5 Cleavage: Perfect in 3 directions at 60 and 120 degrees. Specific Gravity 8.0 to 8.2. Best Field Identification Features: Bright red colour, softness, and unusual heaviness. More Information: Circulating load Over-sized chunks of ore returned to the head of a closed grinding circuit before going on to the next stage of treatment. Claim A portion of land held either by a prospector or a mining company under federal or provincial law. The common size is 1,320 ft. (about 400 m) square, containing 40 acres (about 16 ha). Clarification Process of clearing dirty water by removing suspended material. Classifier A mineral-processing machine which separates minerals according to size and density. Clastic rock A sedimentary rock composed principally of fragments derived from pre-existing rocks and transported mechanically to their place of deposition. Clay A fine-grained material composed of hydrous aluminum silicates. Clay vein A body of clay-like material that fills a void in a coal bed. Cleaning Up After the stamper battery has stopped cleaning up refers to getting the gold and or separating the gold and mercury from the copper plates.

Cesium magnetometer An instrument used in geophysics which measures magnetic field strength in terms of vertical gradient and total field. Chain Survey measure equal to 66 feet.

Chain conveyor A conveyor on which the material is moved along solid pans (troughs) by the action of scraper crossbars attached to powered chains. Chain pillar The pillar of coal left to protect the gangway or entry and the parallel airways. Chalcocite A sulphide mineral of copper common in the zone of secondary enrichment. Chalcopyrite A sulphide mineral of copper and iron. A common ore mineral of copper. Change house A special building, constructed at a mine site, where the miner changes into work clothes; also known as the "dry". Channel The main section of a watercourse.

Channel sample A sample composed of pieces of vein or mineral deposit that have been cut out of a small trench or channel, usually about 10 cm wide and 2 cm or so deep. Charter A document issued by a governing authority creating a company or other corporation. Chartered bank A financial institution that accepts deposits and makes loans. Check curtain Sheet of brattice cloth hung across

coal, ore, or rock. Cleat The vertical cleavage of coal seams. The main set of joints along which coal breaks when mined. Cleavage A property of many minerals which may be easily split along crystallographic planes. Closed circuit A loop in the milling process wherein a selected portion of the product of a machine is returned to the head of the machine for finishing to required specification; commonly used examples in milling plants include grinding mills in closed circuit with classifiers. Coal A solid, brittle, more or less distinctly stratified combustible carbonaceous rock, formed by partial to complete decomposition of vegetation; varies in color from dark brown to black; not fusible without decomposition and very insoluble. Coal dust sieve. Particles of coal that can pass a No. 20 The conversion of coal into a Common stock Shares in a company which have full voting rights which the holders use to control the company in common with each other. There is no fixed or assured dividend as with preferred shares, which have first claim on the distribution of a company's earnings or assets. Common-core training Underground hardrock mining skills taught to all underground miners. Competent rock Rock which, because of its physical and geological characteristics, is capable of sustaining openings without any structural support except pillars and walls left during mining (stalls, light props, and roof bolts are not considered structural support). Complex ore An ore containing a number of minerals of economic value. Usually implies there are metallurgical difficulties in liberating and separating the valuable metals. Compressor A machine for compressing air to a pressure sufficient to actuate mine machinery Computer-aided design A method of creating plans, sections and oblique views of orebodies using computer graphics. Concentrate A product containing the valuable minerals of an ore from which most of the waste material has been removed by undergoing a specific treatment.

Coal Gasification gaseous fuel.

Coal reserves Measured tonnages of coal that have been calculated to occur in a coal seam within a particular property. Coal washing The process of separating undesirable materials from coal based on differences in densities. Pyritic sulfur, or sulfur combined with iron, is heavier and sinks in water; coal is lighter and floats. Coalification forming coal. Coarse gold nuggets. The metamorphic processes of

Concentrator A milling plant that produces a concentrate of the valuable minerals or metals. Further treatment is required to larger the pure General term applied to rough or angular gold particles as well asto recoverpieces or metal. Cone crusher A machine which crushes ore between a gyrating cone or crushing head and an inverted truncated cone known as a bowl. Confined aquifer An aquifer (or water bearing zone) where the pressure (or generically the water) level is above the top of the aquifer. Confirmation A form delivered by a broker to the client, setting forth the details of stock sales or purchases for the client. Conglomerate A sedimentary rock consisting of rounded, water-worn pebbles or boulders cemented into a solid mass. Contact The place or surface where two different kinds of rocks meet. Applies to sedimentary rocks, as the contact between a limestone and a sandstone, for example, and to metamorphic rocks; and it is especially applicable between igneous intrusions and their walls. Contact metamorphism Metamorphism of country rocks adjacent to an intrusion, caused by heat from the intrusion

Coke A hard, dry carbon substance produced by heating coal to a very high temperature in the absence of air. Collar The term applied to the timbering or concrete around the mouth or top of a shaft. The beginning point of a shaft or drill hole at the surface. Colliery British name for coal mine.

Colloidal gold Extremely fine gold particles that can remain suspended in solution. Column flotation A milling process, carried out in a tall cylindrical column, whereby valuable minerals are separated from gangue minerals based on their wetability properties. Column flotation A precombustion coal cleaning technology in which coal particles attach to air bubbles rising in a vertical column. The coal is then removed at the top of the column. Comminution The breaking, crushing, or grinding of

Contango A situation in which the price of a metal for forward or future delivery stands at a premium over the cash or spot price of the metal. Continental crust The thick, solid part of the Earth's crust underlying the continents. Continental drilling Deep drilling projects up to 5 km deep, conducted by scientific research institutions worldwide to learn more about the deep structure of the continental crust. Continuous miner A machine that constantly extracts coal while it loads it. This is to be distinguished from a conventional, or cyclic, unit which must stop the extraction process in order for loading to commence. Contour An imaginary line that connects all points on a surface having the same elevation. Controlled blasting Blasting patterns and sequences designed to achieve a particular objective. Cast blasting, where the muck pile is cast in a particular direction, and deck blasting, where holes are loaded once but blasted in successive blasts days apart, are examples. Converter In copper smelting, a Bessemer furnace is used to separate copper metal from matte; also used in steelmaking. Conveyor An apparatus for moving material from one point to another in a continuous fashion. This is accomplished with an endless (that is, looped) procession of hooks, buckets, wide rubber belt, etc. Cordillera The continuous chain of mountain ranges on the western margin of North and South America.. Cordilleran Region The continuous chain or range of mountains on the western margin of North America. Core The long cylindrical piece of rock, about 2 cm or more in diameter, recovered by diamond drilling. Core barrel That part of a string of tools in a diamond drill hole in which the core specimen is collected. Core sample A cylinder sample generally 1-5" in diameter drilled out of an area to determine the geologic and chemical analysis of the overburden and coal. Country rock A loose term to describe the general mass of rock adjacent to an orebody, as distinguished from the vein or ore deposit itself. Also known as the host rock. Cover The overburden of any deposit.

Creep The forcing of pillars into soft bottom by the weight of a strong roof. In surface mining, a very slow movement of slopes downhill. Crevicing The cleaning of cracks and crevices in the bedrock beneath a watercourse for the gold particles lodged therein. Also called "sniping". Crib A roof support of prop timbers or ties, laid in alternate cross-layers, log-cabin style. It may or may not be filled with debris. Also may be called a chock or cog. Cribbing The construction of cribs or timbers laid at right angles to each other, sometimes filled with earth, as a roof support or as a support for machinery. Crop coal Coal at the outcrop of the seam. It is usually considered of inferior quality due to partial oxidation, although this is not always the case. Cross entry main entry. An entry running at an angle with the

Crossbar The horizontal member of a roof timber set supported by props located either on roadways or at the face. Crosscut A passageway driven between the entry and its parallel air course or air courses for ventilation purposes. Also, a tunnel driven from one seam to another through or across the intervening measures; sometimes called "crosscut tunnel", or "breakthrough". In vein mining, an entry perpendicular to the vein. Crosscut A horizontal opening driven from a shaft and at right angles to the strike of a vein or rock formation. Crucible in. A heat resistant container used to melt gold

Crusher A machine for crushing rock or other materials. Among the various types of crushers are the ball mill, gyratory crusher, Handsel mill, hammer mill, jaw crusher, rod mill, rolls, stamp mill, and tube mill. Crust The solid part of the Earth's crust com posed of continental and oceanic crust. Cum-dividend payment. Buyer entitled to pending dividend

Current assets Assets of company which can and are likely to be converted into cash within a year. Includes cash, marketable securities, accounts receivable and supplies. Current liabilities A company's debts that are payable within a year's time. Custom smelter A smelter which processes concentrates from independent mines. Concentrates may be purchased or the smelter may be contracted to do the processing for the independent company.

Cradle Alluvial gold washing box with slides and riffles to catch gold. See Rocker

Cut value Applies to assays that have been reduced to some arbitrary maximum - thus high erratic values are reduced in order not to have an undue influence on the overall average. Cut-and-fill A method of stoping in which ore is removed in slices, or lifts, following which the excavation is filled with rock or other waste material known as backfill, before the subsequent slice is mined; the backfill sup- ports the walls of the stope. Cutter; Cutting machine A machine, usually used in coal, that will cut a 10- to 15-cm slot. The slot allows room for expansion of the broken coal. Also applies to the man who operates the machine and to workers engaged in the cutting of coal by prick or drill. Cyanidation A method of extracting exposed gold or silver grains from crushed or ground ore by dissolving it in a weak solution of sodium- or calcium-cyanide. Also known as leaching. May be carried out in tanks inside a mill or in heaps of ore out of doors. Cyanide A highly toxic chemical compound used to dissolve gold and silver from ore. Cycle mining A system of mining in more than one working place at a time, that is, a miner takes a lift from the face and moves to another face while permanent roof support is established in the previous working face.

Depletion An accounting device, used primarily in tax computations. It recognizes the consumption of an ore deposit, a mine's principal asset. Deposit Mineral deposit or ore deposit is used to designate a natural occurrence of a useful mineral, or an ore, in sufficient extent and degree of concentration to invite exploitation. Depreciation In accounting, the practice of deducting annually a specified amount or percentage from the value of equipment and machinery representative of the deterioration suffered by the equipment or machinery during the year. The deduction reduces the amount of profit reported but is not an actual out-of-pocket expense. Detectors Specialized chemical or electronic instruments used to detect mine gases. Detonator A device containing a small detonating charge that is used for detonating an explosive, including, but not limited to, blasting caps, exploders, electric detonators, and delay electric blasting caps. Detonator House detonators. A magazine used to store

Day order An order to buy or sell shares, good only on the day the order was entered. Debenture see Bonds.

Detritus A general term covering all unconsolidated sediments. Development Underground work carried out for the purpose of opening up a mineral deposit. Includes shaft sinking, crosscutting, drifting and raising. Development drilling Drilling to establish accurate estimates of mineral reserves. Development mining Work undertaken to open up coal reserves as distinguished from the work of actual coal extraction. Diabase A common basic igneous rock usually occurring in dykes or sills. Diamond The hardest known mineral, composed of pure carbon; low-quality diamonds are used to make bits for diamond drilling in rock. Diamond drill A rotary type of rock drill in which the cutting is done by abrasion rather than percussion. The cutting bit is set with diamonds and is attached to the end of long hollow rods through which water is pumped to the cutting face. The drill cuts a core of rock that is recovered in long cylindrical sections, two centimetres or more in diameter. Diamond driller drill. A person who operates a diamond

Debt financing Method of raising capital whereby companies borrow money from a lending institution. Deck The area around the shaft collar where men and materials enter the cage to be lowered underground Decline A sloping underground opening, usually driven at a grade of about 15% to 20%, for machine access from level to level or from surface; also called a ramp. An underground tunnel developed on a sloping grade for traveling around an underground mine in a selfpropelled vehicle or mining machine. These tunnels are often driven in a spiral, much the same as a staircase, to access different elevations in the mine. Deep Leed A run of alluvial gravel's or a gold bearing alluvial seam that uses underground methods to extract it. Deferred charges Expenses incurred but not charged against the current year's operation. Demonstrated reserves A collective term for the sum of coal in both measured and indicated resources and reserves.

Diffuser fan A fan mounted on a continuous miner to assist and direct air delivery from the machine to the face. Diffusion Blending of a gas and air, resulting in a homogeneous mixture. Blending of two or more gases. Dilute To lower the concentration of a mixture; in this case the concentration of any hazardous gas in mine air by addition of fresh intake air. Dilution Waste or low-grade rock that is unavoidably removed along with the ore in the mining process, subsequently lowering the grade of the ore. Dilution (mining) Rock that is, by necessity, removed along with the ore in the mining process, subsequently lowering the grade of the ore. Dilution (shares) A decrease in the value of a company's shares caused by the issue of treasury shares. Diorite An intrusive igneous rock composed chiefly of sodic plagioclase, hornblende, biotite or pyroxene Dip The angle at which a vein, structure or rock bed is inclined from the horizontal as measured at right angles to the strike. Dip needle A compass with the needle mounted so as to swing in a vertical plane, used for prospecting to determine the magnetic attraction of rocks. Directional drilling A method of drilling involving the use of stabilizers and wedges to direct the orientation of the hole. Discount The minimum price below the par value at which treasury shares may legally be sold. Dishing Gold Panning.

Dome shape.

An uplifted structure with an inverted bowl

Dore Unrefined gold and silver bullion bars consisting of approximately 90% precious metals which will be further refined to almost pure metal. The final saleable product of a gold mine. Drag fold The result of the plastic deformation of a rock unit where it has been folded or bent back on itself. Dragline Equipment with a long boom and large digging bucket that is cast outward and dragged back toward the machine. Dragline A large excavation machine used in surface mining to remove overburden (layers of rock and soil) covering a coal seam. The dragline casts a wire ropehung bucket a considerable distance, collects the dug material by pulling the bucket toward itself on the ground with a second wire rope (or chain), elevates the bucket, and dumps the material on a spoil bank, in a hopper, or on a pile. Drainage The process of removing surplus ground or surface water either by artificial means or by gravity flow. Draw slate A soft slate, shale, or rock from approximately 1 cm to 10 cm thick and located immediately above certain coal seams, which falls quite easily when the coal support is withdrawn. Drawpoint An underground opening at the bottom of a stope through which broken ore is extracted from the stope. Dredging Using a machine to dig up and sought through alluvial gravel's in a watercourse. Drift A horizontal or near horizontal underground opening that follows along the length of a vein or rock formation as opposed to a crosscut which crosses the rock formation. Drift mine An underground coal mine in which the entry or access is above water level and generally on the slope of a hill, driven horizontally into a coal seam. Drifter A hydraulic rock drill used to drill smalldiameter holes for blasting or for installing rock bolts. Drill A machine utilizing rotation, percussion (hammering), or a combination of both to make holes. If the hole is much over 0.4m in diameter, the machine is called a borer. Drill core The sand and gravel forced upward into the drill casing as it is driven into placer deposit

Disseminated ore Ore carrying small particles of valuable minerals, spread more or less uniformly through the gangue matter; distinct from massive ore wherein the valuable minerals occur in almost solid form with very little waste material included. Dividend Cash or stock awarded to preferred and common shareholders at the discretion of the company's board of directors. Dividend claim Made when a dividend has been paid to previous holder because stock has not yet been transferred to the name of the new owner. Dolly Pot Small hand operated (motor and pestle) rock crusher used to sample for ore and to sample ore for gold. Most were made from mercury bottles.

Drill log A record of drilling results compiled as the work progresses Drill-indicated reserves The size and quality of a potential orebody as suggested by widely spaced drillholes; more work is required before reserves can be classified as probable or proven. Drilling The use of such a machine to create holes for exploration or for loading with explosives. Drive An underground excavation within the mine. Another term for casing.

Drift mine An underground coal mine in which the entry or access is above water level and generally on the slope of a hill, driven horizontally into a coal seam. Drifter A hydraulic rock drill used to drill smalldiameter holes for blasting or for installing rock bolts. Drill A machine utilizing rotation, percussion (hammering), or a combination of both to make holes. If the hole is much over 0.4m in diameter, the machine is called a borer. Drill core The sand and gravel forced upward into the drill casing as it is driven into placer deposit Drill log A record of drilling results compiled as the work progresses Drill-indicated reserves The size and quality of a potential orebody as suggested by widely spaced drillholes; more work is required before reserves can be classified as probable or proven.

Drive pipe

Dry A building where the miner changes into working clothes. Dry washing Extracting gold from dry gravels, usually by equipment which uses air bellows for separating lighter from heavier material. Ductile Capable of being bent, drawn into wire, or pounded into sheets. Drag fold

Drilling The use of such a machine to create holes for where it has been folded with explosives. The result of the plastic deformation of a rock unit exploration or for loading or bent back on itself Drive An underground excavation within the mine. Another term for casing.

Dragline Equipment with a long boom and large digging bucket that is cast outward and dragged back toward the machine. Dragline A large excavation machine used in surface mining to remove overburden (layers of rock and soil) covering a coal seam. The dragline casts a wire ropehung bucket a considerable distance, collects the dug material by pulling the bucket toward itself on the ground with a second wire rope (or chain), elevates the bucket, and dumps the material on a spoil bank, in a hopper, or on a pile. Drainage The process of removing surplus ground or surface water either by artificial means or by gravity flow. Draw slate A soft slate, shale, or rock from approximately 1 cm to 10 cm thick and located immediately above certain coal seams, which falls quite easily when the coal support is withdrawn. Drawpoint An underground opening at the bottom of a stope through which broken ore is extracted from the stope. Dredging Using a machine to dig up and sought through alluvial gravel's in a watercourse. Drift A horizontal or near horizontal underground opening that follows along the length of a vein or rock formation as opposed to a crosscut which crosses the rock formation.

Drive pipe

Dry A building where the miner changes into working clothes. Dry washing Extracting gold from dry gravels, usually by equipment which uses air bellows for separating lighter from heavier material. Ductile Capable of being bent, drawn into wire, or pounded into sheets.

Due diligence In a professional evaluation, the degree of care and caution required before making a decision. Dull Refers to a mineral's luster; not colorful or shiny.

Dummy A bag filled with sand, clay, etc., used for stemming a charged hole. Dump A pile or heap of broken rock or ore on surface.

Dump To unload; specifically, a load of coal or waste; the mechanism for unloading, e.g. a car dump (sometimes called tipple); or, the pile created by such unloading, e.g. a waste dump (also called heap, pile, tip, spoil pike, etc.).

Dyke A long and relatively thin body of igneous rock that, while in the molten state, intruded a fissure in older rocks.

effects proposed mining activities will have on the natural surroundings of an exploration property. Epigenetic Orebodies formed by hydrothermal fluids and gases that were introduced into the host rocks from elsewhere, filling cavities in the host rock. Epithermal deposit A mineral deposit consisting of veins and replacement bodies, usually in volcanic or sedimentary rocks, containing precious metals, or, more rarely, base metals. Equity financing shares. The provision of funds by buying

Effervesce Forming and breaking gas bubbles by chemical reaction. Electrical grounding To connect with the ground to make the earth part of the circuit. Electrolysis An electric current is passed through a solution containing dissolved metals, causing the metals to be deposited on to a cathode. Electrolytic refining The process of purifying metal ingots that are suspended as anodes in an electrolytic bath, alternated with refined sheets of the same metal which act as starters or cathodes. Electrostatic separator Machine employing static electrical charges to separate heavy mineral concentrates. Electrum Native gold containing a large amount of alloyed silver. Element Substance composed of atoms that cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means; metals, nonmetals and certain gasses. Eluvium Material produced by decomposing rock formations where water movement and abrasion are not present. EM survey A geophysical survey method which measures the electromagnetic properties of rocks. Emulsion A mixture of water and oily substances.

Era A large division of geologic time - the Precambrian era, for example. Erosion The breaking down and subsequent removal of either rock or surface material by wind, rain, wave action, freezing and thawing and other processes. Erratic Refers to either a piece of visible gold (or gold nugget in a core sample) or a large glacial boulder Escrowed shares Shares deposited in trust pending fulfillment of certain conditions, and not ordinarily available to trading until released. Evaluation The work involved in gaining a knowledge of the size, shape, position and value of coal. Evaporate Drying out; also refers to the dry product.

Ex-dividend On stocks selling "ex-dividend," the seller retains the right to a pending dividend payment. Expert systems Computer software which attempts to mimic the reasoning processes of a human expert. Exploration Prospecting, sampling, mapping, diamond drilling and other work involved in searching for ore. Explosive Any rapidly combustive or expanding substance. The energy released during this rapid combustion or expansion can be used to break rock. Exposure An outcrop of ore or a rock luvial; Sand and gravel laid down by water movement. Extraction The process of mining and removal of coal or ore from a mine. Extraction The proportion of a coal seam or orebody which is removed from the mine. The remainder may represent coal or ore in pillars or a part of the orebody which is too thin or inferior to mine or lost in mining. Shallow coal mines working under townships, reservoirs,

En echelon A geological term used to describe the geometric structure of minerals found in a roughly parallel but staggered fashion. End line Line across the width of a lode chain.

Entry Refers to mining location; also opening to underground workings. Entry An underground horizontal or near-horizontal passage used for haulage, ventilation, or as a mainway; a coal heading; a working place where the coal is extracted from the seam in the initial mining; same as "gate" and "roadway," both British terms. Environmental impact study A written report, compiled prior to a production decision, that examines the

etc., may extract 50%, or less, of the entire seam, the remainder being left as pillars to protect the surface. Under favorable conditions, longwall mining may extract from 80 to 95% of the entire seam. With pillar methods of working, the extraction ranges from 50 to 90% depending on local conditions. Extralateral right of mining claims. Right to minerals beyond side lines

Fault zone A fault, instead of being a single clean fracture, may be a zone hundreds or thousands of feet wide. The fault zone consists of numerous interlacing small faults or a confused zone of gouge, breccia, or mylonite. Feeder A machine that feeds coal onto a conveyor belt evenly. Feldspar A crystalline mineral consisting of aluminum silicates and other elements that is an essential ingredient for the ceramics industry, and also is used in the glass and paint industries. A group of rock-forming minerals. Includes: microcline, orthoclase, plagioclase and anorthoclase. Felsic Term used to describe light-colored rocks containing feldspar, fledspathoids and silica. Ferrous Containing iron.

Extrusive Igneous rocks that cooled at or above the earth's surface. Exude To ooze out, or emit an odor.

Face The end of a drift, crosscut or stope in which work is progressing. Or The exposed area of a coal bed from which coal is being extracted. Face cleat The principal cleavage plane or joint at right angles to the stratification of the coal seam. Face conveyor Any conveyor used parallel to a working face which delivers coal into another conveyor or into a car. Factor of safety The ratio of the ultimate breaking strength of the material to the force exerted against it. If a rope will break under a load of 6000 lbs., and it is carrying a load of 2000 lbs., its factor of safety is 6000 divided by 2000 which equals 3. Fahrenheit A system of temperature measurement.

Fill Any material that is put back in place of the extracted ore to provide ground support. Fine gold Fineness is the proportion of pure gold or silver in jewelry or bullion expressed in parts per thousand. Thus, 925 fine gold indicates 925 parts out of 1,000, or 92.5%, is pure gold. A fine ounce is a troy ounce of 99.5% gold and 0.5% silver. Fineness thousand Gold content expressed in parts per

Fall A mass of roof rock or coal which has fallen in any part of a mine. Fall of Earth False set Cave in. Temporary timbering in a mine.

Fire assay The assaying of metallic minerals by use of a miniature smelting procedure with various fluxing agents Fire damp The combustible gas, methane, CH4. Also, the explosive methane-air mixtures with between 5% and 15% methane. A combustible gas formed in mines by decomposition of coal or other carbonaceous matter, and that consists chiefly of methane. Firing The term fire in the hole denotes a firing in progress. Refers to the setting off of explosives. Fissile Capable of being split or removed in sheets, as slate and mica. Fissure rocks. Fissure rocks. An extensive crack, break, or fracture in the

Fan signal Automation device designed to give alarm if the main fan slows down or stops. Fan, auxiliary A small, portable fan used to supplement the ventilation of an individual working place. Fan, booster A large fan installed in the main air current, and thus in tandem with the main fan. Fault A break in the Earth's crust caused by tectonic forces which have moved the rock on one side with respect to the other; faults may extend for many kilometres, or be only a few centimetres in length; similarly, the movement or displacement along the fault may vary widely.

An extensive crack, break or fracture in

Fixed Assets Possessions such as buildings, machinery and land which, as opposed to current assets, are unlikely to be converted into cash during the normal business cycle.

Fixed carbon The part of the carbon that remains behind when coal is heated in a closed vessel until all of the volatile matter is driven off. Flask Unit and container for measuring mercury, equal to 76 pounds Flat-lying Said of deposits and coal seams with a dip up to 5 degrees. Flight The metal strap or crossbar attached to the drag chain-and-flight conveyor. Float Pieces of rock that have been broken off and moved from their original location by natural forces such as frost or glacial action. Float dust Fine coal-dust particles carried in suspension by air currents and eventually deposited in return entries. Dust consisting of particles of coal that can pass through a No. 200 sieve. Floater Rocks or ground that appears to be solid that is not attached to the bedrock or country rock. Floor mines. The bottom of a mining level in underground

disposal. Fluidized Bed Combustion A process with a high degree of ability to remove sulfur from coal during combustion. Crushed coal and limestone are suspended in the bottom of a boiler by an upward stream of hot air. The coal is burned in this bubbling, liquid-like (or "fluidized") mixture. Rather than released as emissions, sulfur from combustion gases combines with the limestone to form a solid compound recovered with the ash. Flume A trough used to convey water. fluvial: Sand and gravel laid down by water movement. Flux A chemical substance used in metallurgy to react with gangue minerals to form slags, which are liquid at furnace temperature and low enough in density to float on the molten bath of metal or matte; examples range in scale from large tonnages of limestone, silica, etc., in large furnaces, to small quantities of borax, soda, etc., used in laboratory assay ovens. Fluxgate magnetometer An instrument used in geophysics to measure total magnetic field. Fly ash The finely divided particles of ash suspended in gases resulting from the combustion of fuel. Electrostatic precipitators are used to remove fly ash from the gases prior to the release from a power plant's smokestack. Fold Foliated Any bending or wrinkling of rock strata. Leaf-like formations of minerals.

Floor That part of any underground working upon which a person walks or upon which haulage equipment travels; simply the bottom or underlying surface of an underground excavation. Flotation A milling process by which some mineral particles are induced to become attached to bubbles and float, and others to sink. In this way the valuable minerals are concentrated and separated from the worth less gangue. Flour ore. Extremely fine gold particles; also finely-ground

Footwall The wall or rock on the underside of a vein or ore structure. Formation Denotes a particular rock structure; also the processes by which a mineral deposit is formed. Formation Any assemblage of rocks which have some character in common, whether of origin, age, or composition. Often, the word is loosely used to indicate anything that has been formed or brought into its present shape. Forward contract The sale or purchase of a commodity for delivery at a specified future date. Fossicker Alluvial surface gold digger. Hence the term fossicking license. Fossil fuel Any naturally occurring fuel of an organic nature, such as coal, crude oil and natural gas. Fowl Air A possible problem underground. No taste, smell, colours, unfortunately no OXYGEN! Affected by fowl air underground your heart rate increases, you

Flowsheet An illustration showing the sequence of operations, step by step, by which ore is treated in a milling, concentration, or smelting process. Flow-through shares A form of equity financing whereby shares of a junior exploration company are purchased by an investor through the Canadian Exploration Incentive Program. As funds are drawn down by the junior exploration company, shares are issued to the investor. The method allows the investor to deduct 133% of the cost of the shares from their income. Flue Gas Desulfurization Any of several forms of chemical/physical processes that remove sulfur compounds formed during coal combustion. The devices, commonly called "scrubbers," combine the sulfur in gaseous emissions with another chemical medium to form inert "sludge" which must then be removed for

become short of breath and faint before you expire if you do not beat a hasty retreat. Fracture A break in the rock, the opening of which affords the opportunity for entry of mineral-bearing solutions. A "cross fracture" is a minor break extending at more-or-less right angles to the direction of the principal fractures. Free milling Ores of gold or silver from which the precious metals can be recovered by concentrating methods without resort to pressure leaching or other chemical treatment. Friable Easy to break, or crumbling naturally. Descriptive of certain rocks and minerals. Friction hoist A mine hoist in which conveyances are suspended from both sides of a simple friction pulley which imparts the desired motion; it is distinct from a drum hoist, in which the ropes are wound on to their individual drums. Fumarole A site where fumes are expelled in a volcanic area. Furnace Equipment for roasting or smelting ores.

entries where a number of room conveyors deliver coal onto the belt. Geiger counter An instrument used to measure radioactivity (e.g., that which emanates from certain minerals) by means of a Geiger- Mueller tube. It detects the gamma rays and indicates the frequency or intensity either visually (by dial or flashing light), audibly (by earphones) or both. Geochemistry - The use of a broad spectrum of chemical elements and ratios and their patterns, which are naturally dispersed around ore deposits, to detect concealed orebodies. Geochemistry of rocks. The study of the chemical properties

Geologist One who studies the constitution, structure, and history of the earth's crust, conducting research into the formation and dissolution of rock layers, analyzing fossil and mineral content of layers, and endeavoring to fix historical sequence of development by relating characteristics to known geological influences (historical geology). Geology The science concerned with the study of the rocks which compose the Earth. Geophysical survey A scientific method of prospecting that measures the physical properties of rock formations. Common properties investigated include magnetism, specific gravity, electrical conductivity and radioactivity. Geophysicist A scientist who practices geophysics

Fuse A cord-like substance used in the ignition of explosives. Black powder is entrained in the cord and, when lit, burns along the cord at a set rate. A fuse can be safely used to ignite a cap, which is the primer for an explosive. Fusion The melting of a substance.

Gabbro Gadd moil. A coarse-grained, dark, igneous rock. A small rock wedge or chisel also known as a

Geophysics - The use of the physical, magnetic or electrical properties of rock formations, minerals and orebodies to remotely detect new ore deposits, either by ground or airborne surveys. Geophysics The study of the physical properties of rocks and minerals. Geothermal interior. Pertains to the heat of the Earth's

Galena A sulphide mineral of lead, being a common lead ore mineral. Gallery A horizontal or a nearly horizontal underground passage, either natural or artificial. Gamma Gangue A unit of measurement of magnetic intensity. The worthless minerals in an ore deposit.

Gin Pole Long portable stick with a pulley on top for use as a crane usually to lift shed poles into position. Glacial drift Sedimentary material, consisting of clay and boulders, that has been transported by glaciers. Glacial striations Lines or scratches on a smooth rock surface caused by glacial abrasion. Glory hole An open pit from which ore is extracted, especially where broken ore is passed to underground workings before being hoisted.

Gasification Any of various processes by which coal is turned into low, medium, or high Btu gases. Gathering conveyor; gathering belt Any conveyor which is used to gather coal from other conveyors and deliver it either into mine cars or onto another conveyor. The term is frequently used with belt conveyors placed in

Gneiss A layered or banded crystalline metamorphic rock the grains of which are aligned or elongated into a roughly parallel arrangement. Goaf see Gob

Gram Metric unit of weight. There are 31.103 grams in a troy ounce. Granite An coarse-grained (intrusive) igneous rock consisting of quartz, feldspar and mica. Granular Graphitic Composed of compacted mineral grains. Containing carbon or graphite.

Gob The term applied to that part of the mine from which the coal has been removed and the space more or less filled up with waste. Also, the loose waste in a mine. Also called goaf. Gold A heavy, soft, yellow, ductile, malleable, metallic element. The unique properties of this precious metal make it an essential component in a diverse number of products. Gold is a critical element in computer and communications technologies, some medicines and the space program. Gold loans A form of debt financing whereby a potential gold producer borrows an amount of gold from a lending institution, sells the gold on the open market, uses the cash for company purposes (building a mine), then pays back the gold from actual mine production. Gold table ore. Volume or weight of placer gravel or an

Gravity meter, gravimeter An instrument for measuring the gravitational attraction of the Earth; gravitational attraction varies with the density of the rocks in the vicinity. Greenstone belt A convenient field term used to describe any fine-grained greenish volcanic rock, most often applied to andesite. Grizzly Course screening or scalping device that prevents oversized bulk material form entering a material transfer system; constructed of rails, bars, beams, etc. Grizzly (or mantle) A grating (usually constructed of steel rails) placed over the top of a chute or ore pass for the purpose of stopping large pieces of rock or ore that may hang up in the pass. Gross Profit Sales revenue minus direct production costs, including depreciation, depletion and amortization of assets at the operations. It does not include corporate overhead, Exploration, or other non-allocable operating expenses. Gross value The theoretical value of ore deter mined simply by applying the assay of metal or metals and the current market price; it represents the total value of the contained metals before deduction for dilution, mill recovery losses, mining and smelting costs, etc.; it must be used only with caution and severe qualification. Gross value royalty A share of gross revenue from the sale of minerals from a mine. Ground control The regulation and final arresting of the closure of the walls of a mined area. The term generally refers to measures taken to prevent roof falls or coal bursts. Ground pressure The pressure to which a rock formation is subjected by the weight of the superimposed rock and rock material or by diastrophic forces created by movements in the rocks forming the earth's crust. Such pressures may be great enough to cause rocks having a low compressional strength to deform and be squeezed into and close a borehole or other underground opening not adequately strengthened by an artificial support, such as casing or timber. Grouting The process of sealing off a water flow in

Golley or Gook Gophering

A rock.

Prospecting by means of hand-dug holes.

Gossan The rust-colored oxidized capping or staining of a mineral deposit, generally formed by the oxidation or alteration of iron sulphides. Gouge Fine, putty-like material composed of groundup rock found along a fault. Grab sample A sample taken at random; it is assayed to determine if valuable elements are contained in the rock. A grab sample is not intended to be representative of the deposit, and usually the best-looking material is selected. Graben A downfaulted block of rock.

Grade - The metal content of rock. With precious metals, grade can be expressed as troy ounces or grams per ton of rock. The quantity of minerals present in an ore, e.g. 100 ozs to the ton is high-grade ore. Graduated cylinder Flask marked with lines to indicate measured volumes. Grain Unit of weight. There are 480 grains in a troy ounce. Or In petrology, that factor of the texture of a rock composed of distinct particles or crystals which depends upon their absolute size.

rocks by forcing thin cement slurry, or other chemicals, into the crevices; usually done through a diamond drill hole. Grubstake Finances or supplies of food, etc., furnished to a prospector in return for an interest in any discoveries made. Guides The timber rails installed along the walls of a shaft for steadying, or guiding, the cage or conveyance. Gulch Gully Gumbo A narrow or deep ravine or canyon. A small ravine. Very sticky or clayey mud.

removal of the coal; a sharp rise in the floor is called a "hogsback". Hedging Taking a buy or sell position in a futures market opposite to a position held in the cash market to minimize the risk of financial loss from an adverse price change. Highwall The unexcavated face of exposed overburden and coal in a surface mine or in a face or bank on the uphill side of a contour mine excavation. Highwall miner A highwall mining system consists of a remotely controlled continuous miner which extracts coal and conveys it via augers, belt or chain conveyors to the outside. The cut is typically a rectangular, horizontal cut from a highwall bench, reaching depths of several hundred feet or deeper. Hogsback A sharp rise in the floor of a seam.

Gunite A cement applied by spraying to the roof and sides of a mine passage. Gutter The lowest depression in the bottom of a stream channel. Gypsum A sedimentary rock consisting of hydrated calcium sulphate. Gyratory crusher A machine that crushes ore between an eccentrically mounted crushing cone and a fixed crushing throat. Typically has a higher capacity than a jaw crusher.

Hoist A drum on which hoisting rope is wound in the engine house, as the cage or skip is raised in the hoisting shaft. Hoisting The vertical transport coal or material.

Horizon In geology, any given definite position or interval in the stratigraphic column or the scheme of stratigraphic classification; generally used in a relative sense. Horseback A mass of material with a slippery surface in the roof; shaped like a horse's back. Hydraulic Of or pertaining to fluids in motion. Hydraulic cement has a composition which permits it to set quickly under water. Hydraulic jacks lift through the force transmitted to the movable part of the jack by a liquid. Hydraulic control refers to the mechanical control of various parts of machines, such as coal cutters, loaders, etc., through the operation or action of hydraulic cylinders. Hydrocarbon A family of chemical compounds containing carbon and hydrogen atoms in various combinations, found especially in fossil fuels.

Hammer and Tap The process of drilling holes in hard rock by manually hitting and turning (rotating) a drill steel. Haulage The horizontal transport of ore, coal, supplies, and waste. The vertical transport of the same is called hoisting. Haulageway Any underground entry or passageway that is designed for transport of mined material, personnel, or equipment, usually by the installation of track or belt conveyor. Head section A term used in both belt and chain conveyor work to designate that portion of the conveyor used for discharging material. Headframe The structure surmounting the shaft which supports the hoist rope pulley, and often the hoist itself. Heading A vein above a drift. An interior level or airway driven in a mine. In longwall workings, a narrow passage driven upward from a gangway in starting a working in order to give a loose end. Heaving Applied to the rising of the bottom after

Igneous rocks Rocks formed by the solidification of molten material that originated within the Earth. Ilmenite An ore mineral of titanium, being an irontitanium oxide. Immediate roof The roof strata immediately above the coalbed, requiring support during the excavation of coal.

Impregnated Rocks or minerals saturated with some other substance. In situ In the natural or original position. Applied to a rock, soil, or fossil when occurring in the situation in which it was originally formed or deposited. Inby Incline In the direction of the working face. A rising slope.

1 ½ to 6 miles apart. Initial public offering The first sale of shares to the public, usually by subscription from a group of investment dealers. Institutional investors Pension funds and mutual funds, managing money for a large number of individual investors. Intake The passage through which fresh air is drawn or forced into a mine or to a section of a mine. Interbedded or strata. Occurring between distinct rock layers

Incline Any entry to a mine that is not vertical (shaft) or horizontal (adit). Often incline is reserved for those entries that are too steep for a belt conveyor (+17 degrees -18 degrees), in which case a hoist and guide rails are employed. A belt conveyor incline is termed a slope. Alt: Secondary inclined opening, driven upward to connect levels, sometimes on the dip of a deposit; also called "inclined shaft". Incompetent Applied to strata, a formation, a rock, or a rock structure not combining sufficient firmness and flexibility to transmit a thrust and to lift a load by bending. Incrustation A coating or crust on a rock.

Intermediate rock 66% quartz.

An igneous rock containing 52% to

Intermediate section A term used in belt and chain conveyor network to designate a section of the conveyor frame occupying a position between the head and foot sections. Intrusion A mass of rock that has been forced into or between other rocks. Intrusive A body of igneous rock formed by the consolidation of magma intruded into other rocks, in contrast to lavas, which are extruded upon the surface. Ion exchange An exchange of ions in a crystal with ions in a solution. Used as a method for recovering valuable metals, such as uranium, from solution. Iridescence Display of colors by diffraction of light.

Indicated coal resources Coal for which estimates of the rank, quality, and quantity have been computed partly from sample analyses and measurements and partly from reasonable geologic projections. The points of observation are ½ to 1 ½ miles apart. Indicated coal is projected to extend as an ½ mile wide belt that lies more than ¼ mile from the outcrop or points of observation or measurement. Indicated value The prehinluary value determined for a placer sample, before it is adjusted or corrected for known variables. Induced polarization A method of ground geophysical surveying employing an electrical current to determine indications of mineralization. Industrial minerals Non-metallic, non-fuel minerals used in their natural state in the chemical and manufacturing industries; they require some beneficiation. Examples: asbestos, gypsum, salt, graphite, mica, gravel, building stone and talc. Inferred coal resources Coal in unexplored extensions of the demonstrated resources for which estimates of the quality and size are based on geologic evidence and projection. Quantitative estimates are based largely on broad knowledge of the geologic character of the deposit and for which there are few, if any, samples or measurements. The estimates are based on an assumed continuity or repletion of which there is geologic evidence; this evidence may include comparison with deposits of similar type. Bodies that are completely concealed may be included if there is specific geologic evidence of their presence. The points of observation are

Isopach A line, on a map, drawn through points of equal thickness of a designated unit. Synonym for isopachous line; isopachyte.

Jackhammer Term for rock-breaking pneumatic hammer or rock drill. Jackleg A percussion drill used for drifting or stopping that is mounted on a telescopic leg which has an extension of about 2.5 m. The leg and machine are hinged so that the drill need not be in the same direction as the leg. Jaw crusher A machine in which rock is broken by the action of steel plates. Jet itself. Device for spraying water, also the water spray

Jig A piece of milling equipment used to concentrate ore on a screen submerged in water, either by the reciprocating motion of the screen or by the pulsation of water through it. Joint A divisional plane or surface that divides a rock and along which there has been no visible movement parallel to the plane or surface.

Launder A chute or trough for conveying pulp, water or powdered ore in a mill. Lava A general name for the molten rock ejected by volcanoes. Lay The general direction or slope of a device or ground surface. Layout The design or pattern of the main roadways and workings. The proper layout of mine workings is the responsibility of the manager aided by the planning department. Leachable Extractable by chemical solvents.

Kaolin Also known as china clay, kaolin is a white alumina-silicate clay used in porcelain, paper, plastics, rubber, paints and many other products. Keeve A large vat

Keewatin A series of rocks consisting mostly of lavas, but including some sediments; the oldest recognized Precambrian rock unit Kerf The undercut of a coal face.

Leaching A chemical process for the extraction of valuable minerals from ore; also, a natural process by which ground waters dissolve minerals, thus leaving the rock with a smaller proportion of some of the minerals than it contained originally. Lead The bottom portion of gold-bearing channel gravels, particularly in buried placers. Ledge A horizontal layer of rock.

Kettle bottom A smooth, rounded piece of rock, cylindrical in shape, which may drop out of the roof of a mine without warning. The origin of this feature is thought to be the remains of the stump of a tree that has been replaced by sediments so that the original form has been rather well preserved. Kimberlite A variety of peridotite; the most common host rock of diamonds. Knob An isolated, projecting hill or butte.

Leg Wires The wires attached to an electric blasting cap used for initiating its detonation. Lens Generally used to describe a body of ore that is thick in the middle and tapers towards the ends. Lenticular A lens-shaped deposit having roughly the form of a double convex lens. Lessee property. Level mine. The person leasing or optioning a mining

Koepe Hoist A hoisting system in which the winding drum is replaced by large wheels or sheaves over which passes an endless rope

Lacustrine deposit bottom of lakes. Sediments deposited on the

A horizontal tunnel or drift in an underground

Lagging Planks or small timbers placed between steel ribs along the roof of a stope or drift to prevent rocks from falling, rather than to support the main weight of the overlying rocks. Secondary timber placed behind main timber in a shaft, drive, tunnel or adit to support loose rock. Lamp The electric cap lamp worn for visibility. Also, the flame safety lamp used in coal mines to detect methane gas concentrations and oxygen deficiency. Lamprophyre An igneous rock, composed of dark minerals, that occurs in the form of dykes. Laterite A residual soil developed in tropical countries, out of which the silica has been leached. May form orebodies of iron, nickel, bauxite and manganese.

Levet The horizontal openings on a working horizon in a mine; it is customary to work mines from a shaft, establishing levels at regular intervals, generally about 50 m or more apart. Lift The amount of coal obtained from a continuous miner in one mining cycle.


A soft, low-rank, brownish-black coal.

Limestone A bedded, sedimentary deposit consisting chiefly of calcium carbonate. Limit order An order made by a client to a broker to

buy or sell shares at a specified price or better. Limonite A brown, hydrous iron oxide. Loose coal dust. Coal fragments larger in size than coal

Line cutting Straight clearings through the bush to permit sightings for geophysical and other surveys. Linear Along the length of an object or area.

Low voltage standards. Luster

Up to and including 660 volts by federal

The character of light reflected by minerals.

Liquefaction The process of converting coal into a synthetic fuel, similar in nature to crude oil and/or refined products, such as gasoline. Lithology The character of a rock described in terms of its structure, color, mineral composition, grain size, and arrangement of its component parts; all those visible features that in the aggregate impart individuality of the rock. Lithology is the basis of correlation in coal mines and commonly is reliable over a distance of a few miles. Load To place explosives in a drill hole. Also, to transfer broken material into a haulage device. Loading machine Any device for transferring excavated coal into the haulage equipment. Loading pocket Transfer point at a shaft where bulk material is loaded by bin, hopper, and chute into a skip. Lode A mineral deposit in solid rock.

Macroscopic Visible to the unaided eye. Mafic Igneous rocks composed mostly of dark, ironand magnesium-rich minerals. Magazine A building, storehouse, or structure where explosive materials are kept or stored. Magma The molten material deep in the Earth, from which rocks are formed. Magmatic Ore Deposit mineral in magma. Formed by differentiation of

Magmatic segregation An ore-forming process whereby valuable minerals are concentrated by settling out of a cooling magma. Magnetic gradient survey A geophysical survey using a pair of magnetometers a fixed distance apart, to measure the difference in the magnetic field with height above the ground. Magnetic separation A process in which a magnetically susceptible mineral is separated from gangue minerals by applying a strong magnetic field; ores of iron are commonly treated in this way. Magnetic survey A geophysical survey that measures the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field. Magnetic susceptibility A measure of the degree to which a rock is attracted to a magnet. Magnetite Magnetic iron ore, being a black iron oxide containing 72.4% iron when pure. Magnetometer An instrument used to measure the magnetic attraction of underlying rocks. Main entry A main haulage road. Where the coal has cleats, main entries are driven at right angles to the face cleats. Main fan A mechanical ventilator installed at the surface; operates by either exhausting or blowing to

Logging The process of recording geological observations of drill core either on paper or on computer disk. London fix The twice-daily bidding session held by five dealing companies to set the gold price. There are also daily London fixes to set the price of other precious metals London Metals Exchange A major bidding market for base metals, which operates daily in London. Long position on margin. Securities owned outright or carried

Long ton 2,240 lb avoirdupois (compared to a short ton, which is 2,000 lb.) Longwall mining A method of mining coal in narrow vertical slices cut by mechanical means along long straight faces or walls. Longwall Mining One of three major underground coal mining methods currently in use. Employs a steal plow, or rotation drum, which is pulled mechanically back and forth across a face of coal that is usually several hundred feet long. The loosened coal falls onto a conveyor for removal from the mine.

induce airflow through the mine roadways and workings. Malleable Easily hammered and flattened when cold; refers to metals. Mallet Wooden hammer for driving stakes.

Man Killer A hand held tool like an axe or pick that is really too big for the job. Man trip A carrier of mine personnel, by rail or rubber tire, to and from the work area. Manhole A safety hole constructed in the side of a gangway, tunnel, or slope in which miner can be safe from passing locomotives and car. Also called a refuge hole. Manway An entry used exclusively for personnel to travel form the shaft bottom or drift mouth to the working section; it is always on the intake air side in gassy mines. Also, a small passage at one side or both sides of a breast, used as a traveling way for the miner, and sometimes, as an airway, or chute, or both. Map-staking A form of claim-staking practiced in Nova Scotia whereby claims are staked by drawing lines around the claim on claim maps at the provincial mines branch and an appropriate fee is paid. Marble A metamorphic rock derived from the recrystallization of limestone by the application of heat and pressure. Margin Cash deposited with a broker as partial payment of the purchase price for any type of listed stock. The stock is held by the broker as security for the loan. Securities may be used as collateral in lieu of cash. Marginal deposit An orebody of minimal profitability

as outcrops, trenches, mine workings, and drill holes. The points of observation and measurement are so closely spaced and the thickness and extent of coals are so well defined that the tonnage is judged to be accurate within 20 percent of true tonnage. Although the spacing of the points of observation necessary to demonstrate continuity of the coal differs from region to region according to the character of the coal beds, the points of observation are no greater than ½ mile apart. Measured coal is projected to extend as a ¼-mile wide belt from the outcrop or points of observation or measurement. Mercury A silvery metal that is a liquid at room temperature. The principal ore mineral of mercury cinnabar. Mercury was used extensively in the past to amalgamate gold in recovered in placer mining. It is still used for this purpose in many developing countries. More Information: Meridian A surveying term that establishes a line of reference. The bearing is used to designate direction. The bearing of a line is the acute horizontal angle between the meridian and the line. Azimuths are angles measured clockwise from any meridian. Mesh Related to the openings in a sieve or screen. Coal used to make steel

Metallurgical coal Metallurgy their ores. Metallurgy

The process of extracting metals from

Science of ore processing and metals.

Metamorphic rocks Rocks which have undergone a change in texture or composition as the result of heat and pressure. Metamorphism The process by which the form or structure of rocks is changed by heat and pressure. Meteoric water and fissures. Surface water that sinks into cracks

Market Capitalization Current market price of stock multiplied by the number of shares outstanding. Market order An order to buy or sell at the best price available. In absence of any specified price or limit, an order is considered to be "at the market." Matrix The rock or gangue material containing ore minerals. Matte A product of a smelter, containing metal and some sulphur which must be refined further to obtain pure metal. Measured coal resources Coal for which estimates of the rank, quality, and quantity have been computed from sample analyses and measurements from closely spaced and geologically well-known sample sites, such

Methane A potentially explosive gas formed naturally from the decay of vegetative matter, similar to that which formed coal. Methane, which is the principal component of natural gas, is frequently encountered in underground coal mining operations and is kept within safe limits through the use of extensive mine ventilation systems. Methane monitor An electronic instrument often mounted on a piece of mining equipment, that detects and measures the methane content of mine air. Metric tonne (U.S.). Equal to 1.102 standard short ton

Migmatite Rock consisting of thin, alternating layers of granite and schist.

Mill 1) A plant in which ore is treated for the recovery of valuable metals, or the concentration of valuable minerals into a smaller volume for shipment to a smelter or refinery. 2) A piece of milling equipment consisting of a revolving drum, for the fine-grinding of ores as a preparation for treatment. Millhead grade mill. The average grade of ore fed into a

Molecule Smallest atomic combination that comprises a certain compound. Monitor Device for measuring equipment or processing operations. Monolith A single, large block of stone.

Monument An object placed or erected to mark boundaries of a mining claim. Mother lode A gold-bearing district in California over 100 miles long. Also refers to very rich placer in ore deposits. MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration; the federal agency which regulates coal mine health and safety. Muck Ore or rock that has been broken by blasting.

Milling ore Ore that contains sufficient valuable mineral to be treated by milling process. Millivolts A measure of the voltage of an electric current, specifically, one-thousandth of a volt. Mine development The term employed to designate the operations involved in preparing a mine for ore extraction. These operations include tunneling, sinking, cross-cutting, drifting, and raising. Mine mouth electric plant A coal burning electricgenerating plant built near a coal mine. Mineable reserves Ore reserves that are known to be extractable using a given mining plan. Miner One who is engaged in the business or occupation of extracting ore, coal, precious substances, or other natural materials from the earth's crust. Mineral A naturally occurring homogeneous substance having definite physical properties and chemical composition and, if formed under favorable conditions, a definite crystal form Mineral An inorganic compound occurring naturally in the earth's crust, with a distinctive set of physical properties, and a definite chemical composition. Miner's inch per minute. Water measure equal to 12.5 gallons

Muck sample A representative piece of ore that is taken from a muck pile and then assayed to determine the grade of the pile. Mud cap A charge of high explosive fired in contact with the surface of a rock after being covered with a quantity of wet mud, wet earth, or sand, without any borehole being used. Also termed adobe, dobie, and sandblast (illegal in coal mining). Mullock Waste rock thrown outside a shaft or other underground working around the entrance forming a heap. Mullock heap. Muskeg Decayed vegetable matter and black soil forming swampy areas.

Nanotesla The international unit for measuring magnetic flux density. Native gold Metallic gold in its free or uncombined state. Placer gold. Native metal A metal occurring in nature in pure form, uncombined with other elements. Natural ventilation Ventilation of a mine without the aid of fans or furnaces. Net profit interest Profit remaining after all charges, including taxes and bookkeeping charges (such as depreciation) have been deducted. Net smelter return An interest in a mining property held by the vendor on the net revenues generated from the sale of metal produced by the mine.

Mining claim A portion of the public lands claimed for the valuable minerals occurring in those lands; obtaining mineral rights under mining law. Mining Engineer A person qualified by education, training, and experience in mining engineering. A trained engineer with knowledge of the science, economics, and arts of mineral location, extraction, concentration and sale, and the administrative and financial problems of practical importance in connection with the profitable conduct of mining. Misfire The complete or partial failure of a blasting charge to explode as planned.

Net worth The difference between total assets and total liabilities. Nip Device at the end of the trailing cable of a mining machine used for connecting the trailing cable to the trolley wire and ground. Nodule A rounded lump or mass of mineral.

mineralization which can be extracted profitably; classified according to the level of confidence that can be placed in the data. Ore Zone (Orebody) A continuous, well-defined mass of material of sufficient ore content to make extraction economically feasible. Orebody A natural concentration of valuable material that can be extracted and sold at a profit. Oreshoot The portion, or length, of the vein, or other ore structure, that carries sufficient valuable mineral to be extracted profitably. Organic Of plant or animal origin. The process of turning peat into

Nonel A detonator which does not require an electric current to initiate its explosive charge. Non-electric Cap A detonator which does not require an electric current to initiate its explosive charge. Non-metallic mineral. Containing little or no metal; industrial

Organic maturation coal.

Norite A coarse-grained igneous rock that is host to copper/nickel deposits in the Sudbury area of Ontario. Nugget Larger than normal piece of alluvial gold.

Orogeny The process of mountain-building by folding of the Earth's crust. Outby; outbye Nearer to the shaft, and hence farther from the working face. Toward the mine entrance. The opposite of inby. Outcrop An exposure of rock, coal, or mineral deposit that can be seen on surface, i.e., that is not covered by overburden or water. Overburden Layers of soil and rock covering a coal seam. Overburden is removed prior to surface mining and replaced after the coal is taken from the seam. Overcast (undercast) Enclosed airway which permits one air current to pass over (under) another without interruption. Overturned Sedimentary beds that have been deformed in such a way that the oldest beds are lying on top of younger beds. Oxidation A chemical reaction caused by exposure to oxygen that results in a change in the chemical composition of a mineral. Oxidation A chemical reaction caused by exposure to oxygen that results in a change in the chemical composition of a mineral. Oxide Oxidize Any chemical combination with oxygen. To combine with oxygen.

Occurrence Existence or how a mineral is deposited. Ocean crust The relatively thin, solid portion of the Earth's surface underlying the oceans. Odd lot A block of shares that is less than a board lot.

Open end pillaring A method of mining pillars in which no stump is left; the pockets driven are open on the gob side and the roof is supported by timber. Open order An order to buy or sell stock, which is good until cancelled by the client. Open pit A surface mine, open to daylight, such as a quarry. Also referred to as open-cut or open-cast mine. Option An agreement to purchase a property reached between the property vendor and some other party that wishes to explore the property further. Option (on stock) The right to buy (or sell) a share at a set price, regardless of market value. Ore A mixture of ore minerals and gangue from which at least one of the metals can be extracted at a profit. Ore pass Vertical or inclined passage for the downward transfer of ore connecting a level with the hoisting shaft or a lower level. Ore Reserves The calculated tonnage and grade of

Oxidized zone Portion of ore deposit where oxygen has displaced other non-metallic elements in chemical combination with metals.

Pan To wash (in a metal, bowl-like pan) gravel and sand or rock samples that have been ground to small particles, in order to separate gold or other valuable metals. Panel A coal mining block that generally comprises one operating unit. Panic bar A switch, in the shape of a bar, used to cut off power at the machine in case of an emergency. Panning pan The act of mining for alluvial gold with a gold

Peridotite of olivine.

An intrusive igneous rock consisting mainly

Permissible That which is allowable or permitted. It is most widely applied to mine equipment and explosives of all kinds which are similar in all respects to samples that have passed certain tests of the MSHA and can be used with safety in accordance with specified conditions where hazards from explosive gas or coal dust exist. Permit As it pertains to mining, a document issued by a regulatory agency that gives approval for mining operations to take place. Phaneritic A term used to describe the coarse grained texture of some igneous rocks. Phenocryst A porphyritic crystal inclusion.

Par value The stated face value of a stock. No par value shares have no specified face value, but the total amount of authorized capital is set down in the company's charter.0 Participating interest A company's interest in a mine, which entitles it to a certain percentage of profits in return for putting up an equal percentage of the capital cost of the project. Parting Fire assay procedure for separating gold from other metals. Parting (1) A small joint in coal or rock; (2) a layer of rock in a coal seam; (3) a side track or turnout in a haulage road. Patent The ultimate stage of holding a mineral claim, after which no more assessment work is necessary; determines that all mineral rights, both surface and underground have been earned. Pay streak A layer or channel within a gravel deposit that contains a much higher average gold content that the surrounding gravels. Peat The partially decayed plant matter found in swamps and bogs, one of the earliest stages of coal formation. Pegmatite A coarse-grained, igneous rock, usually irregular in texture and composition, similar to a granite in composition; it usually occurs in dykes or veins and sometimes contains valuable minerals. Pellet A marble-sized ball of iron ore bonded by clay and fused for hardness. Pentlandite An iron and nickel sulphide mineral.

Picket line A reference line, marked by pickets or stakes, established on a property for mapping and survey purposes. Pig Common term for an ingot of cast metal. Crude cast iron from a blast furnace. A bridge conveyor.

Pig iron Piggy-back

Pillar A block of solid ore or rock left in place to structurally support the shaft, walls or roof in a mine. Or An area of coal left to support the overlying strata in a mine; sometimes left permanently to support surface structures. Pillar robbing The systematic removal of the coal pillars between rooms or chambers to regulate the subsidence of the roof. Also termed "bridging back" the pillar, "drawing" the pillar, or "pulling" the pillar. Pinch A compression of the walls of a vein or the roof and floor of a coal seam so as to "squeeze" out the coal. Pinning Roof bolting.

Pitch Refers to the relative angle of slope or dip of an ore deposit. Pitch The inclination of a seam; the rise of a seam.

Pitchblende An important uranium ore mineral, containing a high percentage of uranium oxide. It is black in color, possesses a characteristic pitchlike or greasy lustre and is highly radioactive. Pitting Placer Digging test pits for sampling gravels. An alluvial deposit of sand and gravel

Percussion drill A drill, usually air powered, that delivers its energy through a pounding or hammering action.

containing valuable metals such as gold, tin, etc. Placer mining Mining sand and gravel deposits for their mineral content. Plan A map showing features such as mine workings or geological structures on a horizontal plane. Plant A building or group of buildings, and their contained equipment, in which a process or function is carried out; on a mine it will include warehouses, hoisting equipment, compressors, maintenance shops, offices, mill or concentrator. Plate tectonics A geological theory which postulates that the Earth's crust is made up of a number of rigid plates which collide, rub up against and spread out from one another. Plugs A common name for a small offshoot from a larger batholith. Plunge The vertical angle an orebody makes between the horizontal plane and the direction along which it extends, longitudinally to depth. Plutonic Refers to rocks of igneous origin that have come from great depth. Portal bus Track-mounted, self-propelled personnel carrier that holds 8 to 12 people. Portfolio A list of financial assets.

Possible reserves Valuable mineralization not sampled enough to accurately estimate its tonnage and grade, or even verify its existence. Also called "inferred reserves". Post The vertical member of a timber set.

Potash Potassium compounds mined for fertilizer and for use in the chemical industry. Precambrian Shield An area covering much of northern Canada consisting of the oldest, most stable part of the North American continental plate. Precipitate The material that settles from a liquid solution when a particular substance is added to the solute. Preferred shares Shares of a limited liability company that rank ahead of common shares, but after bonds, in distribution of earnings or in claim to the company's assets in the event of liquidation. They pay a fixed dividend but normally do not have voting rights as with common shares. Preparation plant A place where coal is cleaned, sized, and prepared for market. Price-to-earnings ratio The current market price of a stock divided by the company's net earnings per share for the year. Primary The original or unaltered form.

Pneumoconiosis A chronic disease of the lung arising from breathing coal dust. Point Unit of value of a stock as quoted by a stock exchange. May represent one dollar, one cent or oneeighth of a dollar, depending on the stock exchange. Polishing pond The last in a series of settling ponds through which mill effluent flows before being discharged into the natural environment. Polymetallic - Complex ores containing profitable amounts of more than one valuable mineral. Pooling shares Porosity substance. See escrowed shares.

Primary deposits Ore minerals deposited during the original period or periods of metallization as opposed to those deposited as a result of alteration or weathering. Primary roof The main roof above the immediate top. Its thickness may vary from a few to several thousand feet. Primer (booster) A package or cartridge of explosive which is designed specifically to transmit detonation to other explosives and which does not contain a detonator. Private placement Sale of shares to individuals or corporations outside the normal market, at a negotiated price. Often used to raise capital for a junior exploration company. Pro rata In proportion (to ownership, income or contribution).

The relative quantity of holes or opening in a

Porphyry Any igneous rock in which relatively large, conspicuous crystals (called phenocrysts) are set in a fine-grained groundmass. Porphyry copper A deposit of disseminated copper minerals in a large body of porphyry. Portal The surface entrance to a tunnel or adit. Or The structure surrounding the immediate entrance to a mine; the mouth of an adit or tunnel.

Probable ore Probable ore

See Ore Reserves See Ore Reserves.

Put An option to sell a stock at an agreed upon price within a specified time. The owner can present his put to the contracting broker at any time within the option period and compel him to buy the stock. Pyramiding The use of increased buying power to increase ownership arising from price appreciation. Pyrite A common sulphide mineral, shiny and yellow in color and composed of sulphur and iron, sometimes known as "fool's gold". Pyrite A hard, heavy, shiny, yellow mineral, FeS2 or iron disulfide, generally in cubic crystals. Also called iron pyrites, fool's gold, sulfur balls. Iron pyrite is the most common sulfide found in coal mines. Pyrrhotite An iron sulphide, less common than pyrite, bronze in color and magnetic; some times is associated with nickel, in which case it may be mined as a nickel ore.

Probable reserves Valuable mineralization not sampled enough to accurately estimate the terms of tonnage and grade. Also called "indicated reserves". Profit and loss statement The income statement of a company detailing revenues minus total costs to give total profit. Prop Coal mining term for any single post used as roof support. Props may be timber or steel; if steel-screwed, yieldable, or hydraulic. Prospect A mining property, the value of which has not been proven by exploration. Prospecting deposits The search for valuable mineral

Qualitative analysis present in a sample. Quantitative analysis metal is present. Determining which metals are

Prospectus A document filed with the appropriate securities commission detailing the activities and financial condition of a company seeking funds from the public by issuing shares in the company. Proton precession magnetometer A geophysical instrument which measures magnetic field intensity in terms of vertical gradient and total field. Proven reserves Reserves that have been sampled extensively by closely spaced diamond drill holes and developed by underground workings in sufficient detail to render an accurate estimation of grade and tonnage. Also called "measured reserves". Proximate analysis A physical, or non-chemical, test of the constitution of coal. Not precise, but very useful for determining the commercial value. Using the same sample (1 gram) under controlled heating at fixed temperatures and time periods, moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash content are successfully determined. Sulfur and Btu content are also generally reported with a proximate analysis. Proxy A power of attorney given by the shareholder so that his stock may be voted by his nominee(s) at meetings of shareholders. Puddle Soaking alluvial wash to make it easier to recover the gold. Gold panning was sometimes referred to as puddling a dish. A puddling machine that was whim operated used a horse to walk around a circular trough to rake over water soaked paydirt. Pulp Pulverized or ground ore in solution.

Determining how much of a

Quartz Common rock-forming mineral consisting of silicon and oxygen. Quartz porphyry Common gold mine lithology.

Quartzite A metamorphic rock formed by the transformation of a sandstone rock by heat and pressure.

Radioactivity The property of spontaneously emitting alpha, beta or gamma rays by the decay of the nuclei of atoms. Radon survey A geochemical survey technique which detects traces of radon gas, a product of radioactivity. Raise A vertical or inclined underground working that has been excavated from the bottom upward. Or A secondary or tertiary inclined opening, vertical or nearvertical opening driven upward form a level to connect with the level above, or to explore the ground for a limited distance above one level. Rake Similar to plunge (see), being the trend of an orebody along the direction of its strike. Ramp A secondary or tertiary inclined opening, driven to connect levels, usually driven in a downward direction, and used for haulage.

Rank The classification of coal by degree of hardness, moisture and heat content. "Anthracite" is hard coal, almost pure carbon, used mainly for heating homes. "Bituminous" is soft coal. It is the most common coal found in the United States and is used to generate electricity and to make coke for the steel industry. "Subbituminous" is a coal with a heating value between bituminous and lignite. It has low fixed carbon and high percentages of volatile matter and moisture. "Lignite" is the softest coal and has the highest moisture content. It is used for generating electricity and for conversion into synthetic gas. In terms of Btu or "heating" content, anthracite has the highest value, followed by bituminous, subbituminous and lignite. Rare earth elements Relatively scarce minerals such as scandium and ytrium. Reaming Enlarging the diameter of a hole.

may require pressure leaching or other means to effect the full recovery of the valuable minerals. Regulator Device (wall, door) used to control the volume of air in an air split. Remediation Relates to those actions taken to investigate, prevent, minimize or otherwise resolve the effects or potential effects on human health or the environment of a release or threatened release of a hazardous substance. Replacement ore Ore formed by a process during which certain minerals have passed into solution and have been carried away, while valuable minerals from the solution have been deposited in the place of those removed. Reserve That portion of the identified coal resource that can be economically mined at the time of determination. The reserve is derived by applying a recovery factor to that component of the identified coal resource designated as the reserve base. Reserves Residual see Ore Reserves. Left over; eroded in place.

Reaming shell A component of a string of rods used in diamond drilling, it is set with diamonds and placed between the bit and the core barrel to maintain the gauge (or diameter) of the hole. Reclamation - The process of returning the land to another productive use after mining has been completed. Or The restoration of land and environmental values to a surface mine site after the coal is extracted. Reclamation operations are usually underway as soon as the coal has been removed from a mine site. The process includes restoring the land to its approximate original appearance by restoring topsoil and planting native grasses and ground covers. Reconnaissance A preliminary survey of ground.

Resin bolting A method of permanent roof support in which steel rods are grouted with resin. Resistivity survey A geophysical technique used to measure the resistance of a rock formation to an electric current. Resource The calculated amount of material in a mineral deposit, based on limited drill information. Resource a concentration of mineral material in such form and amount that economic extraction of a commodity from the concentration is currently or potentially feasible. Location, Grade, quality or quantity are estimated from specific geologic evidence. Or Concentrations of coal in such forms that economic extraction is currently or may become feasible. Coal resources broken down by identified and undiscovered resources. Identified coal resources are classified as demonstrated and inferred. Demonstrated resources are further broken down as measured and indicated. Undiscovered resources are broken down as hypothetical and speculative. Respirable dust size. Dust particles 5 microns or less in

Record date The date by which a shareholder must be registered on the books of a company in order to receive a declared dividend, or to vote on company affairs. Recovery The percentage of valuable metal in the ore that is recovered by metallurgical treatment. Or The proportion or percentage of coal or ore mined from the original seam or deposit. Red dog A nonvolatile combustion product of the oxidation of coal or coal refuse. Most commonly applied to material resulting from in situ, uncontrolled burning of coal or coal refuse piles. It is similar to coal ash. Reef The reef is the seam of rock the gold comes from and reef gold depicts it as being located or recovered from the reef. Refining minerals. Extracting and purifying metals and

Refractory ore Ore that resists the action of chemical reagents in the normal treatment processes and which

Respirable dust sample A sample collected with an approved coal mine dust sampler unit attached to a miner, or so positioned as to measure the concentration of respirable dust to which the miner is exposed, and operated continuously over an entire work shift of such miner.

Resuing A method of stoping in narrow-vein deposits whereby the wall rock on one side of the vein is blasted first and then the ore. Retort gold. Used to separate or vaporize off mercury from

Rock Any natural combination of minerals; part of the Earth's crust. Rock factor The number of cubic metres of a particular rock type required to make up one tonne of the material. One tonne of a highly siliceous ore may occupy 0.40 cu m while a tonne of dense sulphide ore may occupy only 0.25 cu m. Rock mechanics The study of the mechanical properties of rocks, which includes stress conditions around mine openings and the ability of rocks and underground structures to withstand these stresses. Rockbolting The act of supporting openings in rock with steel bolts anchored in holes drilled especially for this purpose. Rockburst A violent release of energy resulting in the sudden failure of walls or pillars in a mine, caused by the weight or pressure of the surrounding rocks. Rod mill A rotating steel cylinder that uses steel rods as a means of grinding ore. Roll (1) A high place in the bottom or a low place in the top of a mine passage, (2) a local thickening of roof or floor strata, causing thinning of a coal seam. Roll protection A framework, safety canopy, or similar protection for the operator when equipment overturns. Roof The stratum of rock or other material above a coal seam; the overhead surface of a coal working place. Same as "back" or "top." Roof bolt A long steel bolt driven into the roof of underground excavations to support the roof, preventing and limiting the extent of roof falls. The unit consists of the bolt (up to 4 feet long), steel plate, expansion shell, and pal nut. The use of roof bolts eliminates the need for timbering by fastening together, or "laminating," several weaker layers of roof strata to build a "beam." Roof fall A coal mine cave-in especially in permanent areas such as entries. Roof jack A screw- or pump-type hydraulic extension post made of steel and used as temporary roof support. Roof sag The sinking, bending, or curving of the roof, especially in the middle, from weight or pressure. Roof stress Unbalanced internal forces in the roof or sides, created when coal is extracted. Roof support Posts, jacks, roof bolts and beams

Retreat mining A system of robbing pillars in which the robbing line, or line through the faces of the pillars being extracted, retreats from the boundary toward the shaft or mine mouth. Return The air or ventilation that has passed through all the working faces of a split. Return idler The idler or roller underneath the cover or cover plates on which the conveyor belt rides after the load which it was carrying has been dumped at the head section and starts the return trip toward the foot section. Reverberatory furnace A long, flat furnace used to slag gangue minerals and produce a matte. Rhyolite A fine-grained (extrusive) igneous rock which has the same chemical composition as granite. Rib The side of a pillar or the wall of an entry. The solid coal on the side of any underground passage. Same as rib pillar. Rib samples Ore taken from rib pillars in a mine to determine metal content. Rider A thin seam of coal overlying a thicker one.

Riffle A groove or ridge in the bottom of a stream channel; a slat or block of wood or metal placed across a sluice box or other placer unit. Rights In finance, a certified right to purchase treasury shares in stated quantities, prices and time limits; usually negotiable at a price which is related to the prices of the issue represented; also referred to as warrants. Rights and war- rants can be bought and sold prior to their expiry date because not all shareholders wish to exercise their rights. Ripper A coal extraction machine that works by tearing the coal from the face. Roast To heat an ore to drive off volatile substances or oxidize the ore. Rob To extract pillars of coal previously left for support. Robbed out area Describes that part of a mine from which the pillars have been removed.

used to support the rock overlying a coal seam in an underground mine. A good roof support plan is part of mine safety and coal extraction. Roof trusses A combination of steel rods anchored into the roof to create zones of compression and tension forces and provide better support for weak roof and roof over wide areas. Room and pillar mining A method of underground mining in which approximately half of the coal is left in place to support the roof of the active mining area. Large "pillars" are left while "rooms" of coal are extracted. Room neck room. The short passage from the entry into a

Room-and-pillar mining A method of mining flatlying ore deposits in which the mined- out area, or rooms, are separated by pillars of approximately the same size. Rotary drill A machine that drills holes by rotating a rigid, tubular string of drill rods to which is attached a bit. Commonly used for drilling large-diameter blastholes in open pit mines. A method of making hole that relies on continuous circular motion of the bit to break rock at the bottom of the hole. Rotary drilling is a nearly continuous process, because cuttings are removed as drilling fluids circulate through the bit and up the wellbore to the surface. Rotary Drilling Round Planned pattern of drill holes fired in sequence in tunneling, shaft sinking, or stopping. First the cut holes are fired, followed by relief, lifter, and rib holes. Royalty An amount of money paid at regular intervals by the lessee or operator of an exploration or mining property to the owner of the ground. Generally based on a certain amount per ton or a percentage of the total production or profits. Also, the fee paid for the right to use a patented process. Royalty The payment of a certain stipulated sum on the mineral produced. Rubbing surface sides) of an airway. The total area (top, bottom, and

Run-of-mine A loose term to describe raw material as it exists in the mine; average grade, size, or quality. to be continued…)